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Brien M J O', Al-Biqami N

XML, flexibility and systems integration

Abstract: "O'Brien (1997) outlined the two primary ways in which data can be integrated. One invloves the establishment of a centralised data store that meets all the needs of a construction project; the other recognises the geographical and functional fragmentation of the industry and views data integration as a conceptual process. From a purely technical point of view the first is perhaps the easiest, but it fails to meet the organisational and economic demands of the construction industry. Thus the second approach is more likely to be adopted by the participants of that industry. The problem then becomes one of mapping the meta-data structures of one participant onto those of another. Various efforts at the development of standards have attempted to address this issue. However, standards can be both complex and inadequate. The complexity is a demand of the industry while the inadequacy stems from the impossibility of coping with every eventuality - a severe problem given the essential uniqueness of each building product. This is not to say that standards are not required, merely that their limitations are fully realised from the outset and that expectations are not raised to the point where disappointment sets in and they fall into disrepute. EDI is a perfectly good standard but has failed to make a great impact on the construction industry. The volume of application-to-application communications remains small. This paper argues that while standards such as EDI can form the backbone of data communications - and therefore provide a vehicle for data integration in the construction industry - they are insufficient to cope with the desired flexibility demanded by the industry. The paper then develops this idea by suggesting that something more is required, something flexible. Extensible markup language (XML) is a tool which can help provide the necessary flexibility. XML is a language which provides a common syntax for expressing the structure of data. While it can be seen as an extension of the commonly used Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) this fails to recognise that XML has uses beyond the creation of Web pages. In its broadest sense XML allows systems developers to define the structure of a document. Currently its main uses are for data interchange between humans and machines, but the ability to facility machine-machine interactions is the most exciting concept for construction industry systems. Now EDI is a perfectly good tool for such interactions but in the event of any new requirements the standards need to be extended. This is such a long process that by the time it is completed it is of no use to the original users. XML however provides a dynamic mechanism which can be adapted as required to meet the needs of the users. This is its great strength for the construction industry - an industry that is ""document-rich"". In effect by using XML to specify meta-data structures one overcomes the differences between the data structures of different trading partners. No longer will we require all parties to conform to the tramlines of a strictly enforced standard, but rather those parties will be able to exchange data merely by changing the XML description of their documents. Thus in conclusion this paper shows that the use of XML within the construction industry will facilitate data, and hence systems, integration. O'Brien, M.J. 1997. Integration at the limit:construction systems, International Journal of Construction Information Technology, Vol 5, No 1,pp 89-98."

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Full text: content.pdf (154,537 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.051918) class.standards (0.032166) class.software-software (0.030798)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Cheng J,Deng Y,Du Q

Mapping between BIM models and 3d GIS city models of different levels of detail

Abstract: Modeling the built environment of a city digitally in three dimensions can support navigation, urban planning, disaster management, and energy consumption analysis. City Geography Markup Language (CityGML) was developed in recent years as a Geographic Information System (GIS) data standard to represent the geometry and geographical information of buildings in digital 3D city models. CityGML supports modeling on various Levels of Detail (LoDs) from simple box models to models with interior partitions. This paper presents the theoretical framework that we have developed for mapping between Building Information Modeling (BIM) models in the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) format and CityGML models of different LoDs. The framework consists of two major parts – (1) transformation between BIM models and high level CityGML LoD4 models, and (2) harmonization among the four LoDs of CityGML. For the first part, a reference ontology was developed to transfer semantic information between BIM models in the IFC format and CityGML models. To reduce the file size of the generated CityGML models, a new geometric transformation algorithm was developed for the mapping from Swept Solid or Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) representations, which are commonly used in BIM models, to Boundary Representation (BRep) which is used in CityGML models. For the second part, schema mediation techniques are used to convert CityGML models from one LoD to another LoD. Based on the reference ontology, an application domain extension (ADE) called “Semantic City Model (SCM)” was developed for CityGML. The SCM ADE enriches CityGML models by providing more semantic information such as the linkage relationship between walls and building stories. This paper presents the developed mapping framework with an illustrative example of a residential building.

Keywords: 3D city models,Building Information Modeling (BIM),Geographic Information System (GIS),Industry Foundation Classes (IFC),Schema mapping

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Full text: content.pdf (807,385 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Elvekrok D R, Johansen B W, Syvertsen T G, Totland T

World wide web as a coordination technology for knowledge work

Abstract: This paper will bring some understanding of the World Wide Web as an information and coordination technology, and suggest some principles and metaphors for Web working. The suggestions will be underpinned by recent experiences from a collective Web-working project, and a transformation of a technical standard into hypertext format. Some ideas and visions for future developments based on the new medium are presented. World Wide Web is more than a tool or a technology, it is a new medium based on a set of very simple principles that enable us to cope with a vast Ocean of information and knowledge. The basics of World Wide Web and HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) will be explained. A small-scale experiment in collective writing in Web will be reported. The task was development of the PAKT Yearbook of 1994, where a dozen of contributors worked concurrently on individual pieces around a shared Yearbook structure. This small project may in some sense resemble an engineering project, where many discipline experts are performing individual tasks around a shared goal and work breakdown structure. The experiment was based on use of Microsoft Internet Assistant which provides a simple add-on that makes Microsoft Word a combined Web reader and writer. Using this interface to the Web, working there is as simple as traditional word-processing. This mode of working can easily be expanded with any kind of tool based on the same concepts of process linking. There is, however, no support for the work processes associated with creating the product (in our case a Yearbook), or the organization of the processes. Based on our experiences, we suggest some metaphors and practical approaches to efficient Web working. Another experiment has been in the domain of technical standards. A couple of existing, paper- based standards from the petroleum industry have been converted to HTML, with cross-references transferred to active hyper-links. Using WWW as a one-way information server and as a shared working space will be illustrated. We see at least three future aspects of Web development; active objects replace static information, information structures will be supplemented by knowledge processes (enterprise modelling), and the information economy will evolve based on integrated flow of transactions.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,745,393 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.roadmaps (0.065275) class.collaboration (0.038981) class.economic (0.022244)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Esther Obonyo and Alfred Omenya

Semantic Markup Of Information On Sanitation Initiatives In Informal Settlements

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Full text: content.pdf (379,599 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2006 (browse)
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Finch E

The significance of markup languages in construction

Abstract: The adoption of a standard markup language offers significant benefits for construction firms who today are having to manage considerable amounts of project information. The term markup originates from the early practise of publishers who routinely made notes in margins to identify elements of text. Electronic data interchange (EDI) in construction has tended to focus on the exchange of CAD based information, but little advance has been made in the adoption of textual formats. This paper discusses the shortcomings of conventional methods of text based exchange and points to some of the radical departures afforded by markup based systems. In particular; the opportunities for collaborative preparation of documents during the design process; the opportunities for maintaining and reusing information; and the possibility of increased connectivity between documents and sites.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,068,426 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.bestPractise (0.046207) class.communication (0.041407) class.store (0.011887)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Gorlick A L, Froese T M

A prototype distributed CIC system based on IAI standards

Abstract: A prototype Computer Integrated Construction system is being developed that models building product and process information using International Alliance for Interoperability standards. The goal of this research is to provide a window into the future of how these standards can be applied in the construction industry. The prototype consists of a project database that is structured according to a common project schema or project data model. The schema is based on emerging International Alliance for Interoperability standard models but it is implemented in a way that allows the dynamic development of the schema (and even of its underlying metamodel) without destroying the information in the database in order to support on-going work in the development of information model standards. The system is modular in nature so that it can be supplemented with plug-in tools to accomplish a variety of project management tasks. It is served over the web through a combination of Microsoft's Active-X Data Object technology and a lightweight version of ISO STEP's Standard Data Access Interface. Data sets served to the client are wrapped in the Extensible Markup Language to allow for the self-description of information.

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Full text: content.pdf (77,627 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.068367) class.man-software (0.047366) class.standards (0.016356)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Lippold A

Immersive conceptual design in a 3d city model

Abstract: Facing the challenges of aging infrastructure, the search for better renewable energies and growing population in cities, Government agencies, municipalities and utilities are looking for more accountability, risk mitigation and collaborative decision making around investments in infrastructure design and construction. Often, what’s requested by stakeholders is a better overall process to understand, experience, and collaborate around infrastructure development while balancing the demands for sustainability with the need for economic growth and livability. For many stakeholders, an accurate 3D city model can help design professionals, agencies, and public stakeholders alike understand the impact of projects more intuitively than can 2D plans. The visually immersive presentation and interaction (interactive 3D navigation, manipulating, annotating, publishing, collaborating and distributing information on-demand) of 3D models can help to meet these challenges. Infrastructure planning processes typically involve several parties, from designers, agencies, and public stakeholders. Collaborative processes require that information is available from different platforms at any time. Collaboration includes the ability to markup and comment so that reviewers can share feedback with designers, as well as the ability to allow teams to improve efficiency by distributing design across communities of editors. Cloud-centric workflows enable users to enhance the process of collaboration throughout the planning process, such as comments and collaboration, in order to achieve a more confident and sustainable decision on infrastructure design and construction. This means being able to pass information, connect to the team or doing editing work on the same dataset using the internet connection to reach the model stored in the cloud. Moreover, 3D models enable all stakeholders to stay on the same page regarding proposed development, because of the more natural, intuitive way for communicating with non-technical stakeholders. Besides the collaborative environment the way those 3D models are visualized are important in terms of acceptance. Based on even simple GIS and CAD data the look and feel should be as realistic and immersive as it can represent the reality as it is or as it can be.

Keywords: infrastructure design,conceptual design,3D sketching,Cloud-centric workflows,Collaboration,3D modeling,immersive visualization

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Full text: content.pdf (1,066,940 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Pakanen J E, Möttönen V J, Hyytinen M J, Ruonansuu H A, Törmäkangas K K

A Web-Based Information System For Diagnosing, Servicing And Operating Heating Systems

Abstract: Diagnosing a heating system may turn out to be necessary even for an ordinary customer, like a residential building owner or a facility manager. The need is usually triggered by a technical problem in the system. The customer wants to know how to solve or handle the problem. This paper presents a Web-based information system, called WebDia, which is designed to assist customers with such heating problems. WebDia is a prototype system, constructed for district heating substations and oil heating systems. WebDia incorporates a Web server integrated with a back-end database, accessible from a browser of a PC, a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) or a Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) mobile phone. The general idea behind the development is that the server computer shares its resources and knowledge with the user. Besides fault diagnosis, instructions for servicing and operating the heating system are also essential topics. The information content is gathered from various publications, material provided by manufacturers and interviews with experts. A great deal of the professional information also comes from the fourteen co-operating companies assisting in the system development. WebDia is a collection of dynamic HyperText Markup Language (HTML) pages, but it also includes pictures, photographs, video and audio recordings, and animations. Most of the pages are created using server-side scripting based on Active Server Pages (ASP) technology, but Java applets are also used. Building a system like WebDia turns out to be a tedious process, which requires knowledge and expertise from several disciplines in addition to modern Web authoring and multimedia tools.

Keywords: Web engineering, multimedia, database systems, WAP, PDA, diagnostic methods, heatin

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/2001/4 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:2001 (browse)
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Class:
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Thomas J R, Worling J

SGML and Office Document Management Systems: Tools for Building Code Writers

Abstract: In conjunction with research being conducted into providing computer based tools to support code users the National Research Council of Canada has also undertaken a research and development program to support the Authors of Code documents. Support for the Code Writers has been based upon the adoption of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) as a mechanism for supporting the management, publication, and information enrichment of the code development and delivery process.All of the current National Building Code documents have been converted to SGML and an Office Document Management System (ODMS) has been implemented to support this process. In addition, a number of prototype authoring tools have been developed to both hide the code authors fromthe SGML encoding of their text and at the same time ensure that the text of the code articles are consistent with the rest of the document.

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Full text: content.pdf (957,324 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1992 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.046660) class.store (0.041598) class.software development (0.011293)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editor, Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Zhu Y, Issa R

Construction information access throuth a "malleable frame"

Abstract: Information management is critical to the success of a construction project. Because of the fragmentation of construction information and the volatility of construction projects, information sharing and collaboration are important measures to achieve successful project information management. However, many current research projects focus only on shared project information. A gap between the shared project information and the nonshared project information still exists. This paper shows models and methodology to bridge the gap and make a document "malleable" according to user's needs by using contemporary computer technologies such as XML (eXtended Markup Language) and WDDX (Web Distributed Data eXchange). Some details about specifications for implementation are also presented.

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Full text: content.pdf (72,776 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.038578) class.software-software (0.032553) class.represent (0.023820)
Similar papers:
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


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