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_. Jarský

Modelling of buildings and projects with utility assessment

Abstract: The paper describes the methodology of computer modelling of the building process of facilities and projects with utility assessment and the main principles of the integrated cost estimation, project management and quality assurance microcomputer based system developed recently. This expert system is based on quick modeling of the building process by use of typical construction technology network diagrams, which can be prepared in advance. The typical network diagrams can be modified according to the spatial conditions of a certain building and to the amount of construction works and materials. For utility assessment a vector of 10 main aspects (criteria) was created with a common measure unit and certain level of importance each. A database of construction processes was created including the aspects for utility assessment. Thanks to these features the model of the building process can be made about 50 times quicker than current project management systems and it can be used for bidding, project planning and management and utility assessment.

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Full text: content.pdf (586,023 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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A Almohsen, Janaka Ruwanpura

Logistics Management in Construction Industry

Abstract: The construction industry is often slower to adopt new technologies than other industries. Yet the construction industry shall embrace these technologies sufficiently in order to keep up with advances in other trades. One of the most crucial elements in construction management is productivity. And the adopting of new technologies such as mobile-based application can increase construction project productivity in such areas as materials management, tool use time, and labour motivations. Most of these aspects have been thoroughly investigated in academia; however, logistics management and its contribution to construction productivity have been insufficiently investigated, especially with respect to the use of advanced technologies. In this paper, we propose to develop a new platform to utilize modern technologies in the construction industry. Hence, the main objective of this paper is to introduce mobile-based application technologies into construction industry that will improve construction productivity by enhancing logistics management practices. The use of this model will not only help increase productivity in the construction industry but also it will make this industry more competitive with other industries. In order to achieve the main the goal of the paper, different building construction sites have been selected from which to collect data using direct observation, interviews and questionnaires. In order to ensure a high quality result, all participants were selected based on their relationship to the subject being examined. By using the outcomes of the data analysis to identify a potential solution, a computerized logistical management model was developed to examine how to enhance construction productivity and to improve logistics management practices. Many positive opinions have been granted form different constriction experts. Facilitating the communications between such project participants as contactors, subcontractors and suppliers is another expected result. Also, the model would help in organizing the schedule for the use of such heavy equipment as cranes.

Keywords: logistics management, advanced mobile-based application technologies, construction materials and equipment.

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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A Cemesova, Y Rezgui, C J. Hopfe

Possibilities and challenges created by a smart material in building performance simulation

Abstract: Smart materials are predicted to ‘revolutionise’ the A/E/C industry. They are supposed to enable a building to change colour, shape, size and opacity. However, past research shows that smart materials are still not used very often in engineering applications to their full potential. In this publication we advocate that materials should not be only chosen for simple properties such as visual, physical and insulating characteristics, but for capabilities such as being able to save/generate energy, store information, and to react to stimuli from their local environment. Therefore, this paper will research into the addition of SolaVeil to a window, its physical configuration and the possibility to model and analyse it through Building Performance simulation (BPS). This material is primarily designed to eliminate glare and redirect light. As a result it can reduce energy use caused by air conditioning and artificial lighting systems. This paper researches into the behaviour of SolaVeil in a computer simulation using two different case studies. The first will compare how changing the width but maintaining the reflective area affects illuminance distribution, and the second will determine which physical properties of SolaVeil are most effective. Finally, conclusions are drawn based on the case studies and it is shown that smaller width light shelves are the most suitable for an anti glare product. It is also determined that for SolaVeil to minimise glare in a room without compromising illuminance levels, it should have a light shelf angle of 40 degrees, cover between 40-60% of a window and its strips should be spaced 5mm.

Keywords: SolaVeil, smart materials, building system design, illumination.

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Full text: content.pdf (199,958 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Akbas R, Fischer M, Kunz J, Schwegler B

Use of domain knowledge, product models and geometric algorithms for generation of construction zones

Abstract: We present a layered approach for automated generation of construction zones from 3D CAD models for construction planning and scheduling. The existence of 3D models and product models provides an opportunity for planners and schedulers to consider zoning alternatives and represent and visualize production information in detail. Construction zones are spaces, or groups of spaces, which serve as units of work in the construction planning process. Failure to define construction zones properly may increase overall project duration and impact workflow adversely. Today, zone definitions are generally ad-hoc. Formal definitions and mechanisms to generate construction zone information are not available in commercially available software.We have defined a three-layer computational framework in a prototype construction management software tool to generate detailed information about construction zones. The framework separates the construction-based information from the product model representation and geometric information. Each layer is extensible and testable without the other layers. The highest layer (Layer3) contains domain knowledge about zones, i.e., types of zones and factors or constraints affecting construction zone definition. For example, a shape factor takes into account the changes in production rates due to local variations of geometry. The shape factor also allows the representation of an idle crew because of a nearby activity, missing support or unavailability of materials. Layer 2 manages the changes in the product and process models that are necessary to generate zones. Additionally, it uses zoning knowledge to maintain consistent schedules at multiple levels of detail. Layer 1 is the geometric level that contains the geometric algorithms to create the subdivisions and aggregations using the geometric shape representation of the building components. Instead of considering a fixed geometric representation for a component, we provide a flexible triangular mesh shape representation, breaking-up or aggregating component geometry as necessary. With the results of this research, professionals will be able to simulate and visualize construction processes more accurately and link design and construction data more tightly to explore design-build scenarios rapidly and communicate them effectively.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,076,021 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.impact (0.028985) class.environment (0.026386) class.represent (0.022098)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Aketo Suzuki, Masayuki Kase, Takahiro Iwatate, Nobuyuki Suzuki, Hideaki Imura, and Masanori Hamada

A Study Of Effective Utilization Of Information On Foreign Construction Materials

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Full text: content.pdf (929,170 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2006 (browse)
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Alexander J, Coble R, Crawford J, Drogemuller R, Leslie H, Newton P, Wilson B, Yum Kwok-Keung

Information and communication in construction : closing the loop

Abstract: Both nationally and internationally, the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) sector is highly fragmented : it is dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), the nature of information and knowledge can be dispersed among firms and organisations, and consortia are frequently formed from geographically dispersed firms. In recognition of the potential improvements to be gained through an integrated approach to project information used throughout the design, documentation, construction and operation processes, substantial research is underway in Australia to "close the loop" of information flows between designers and constructors. The paper will explore and discuss both the technology platform in terms of information and communications technology (mobile, high-speed and wide area networking linking the design and engineering offices with the construction site) and the information platform in terms of the content of communications between project stakeholders and the requisite information (traditional spatial as well as non-spatial data) of key concern to the stakeholders at various stages of the project lifecycle. The paradigm shift that has occurred over recent years from stand-alone personal computing (which reinforced fragmentation) to mobile and Wide Area networked computing now provides a platform capable of promoting integration, accessibility and co-operation within the sector with attendant gains in efficiency. A minimum requirement to achieve these gains is access to the right information (not just simple data) at the desired level of scale and detail for a particular stakeholder’s view - information which once collected can be stored and refined and then held for use elsewhere on the project without loss and without the need for subsequent re-entry. The information needs to be available quickly and easily, that is at the right time and in the right location for maximum benefit and project efficiency. Demonstration collaborative systems to support interactive Computer Aided Design and information exchange between project stakeholders such as architects, various engineers (electrical, hydaulic, mechanical, structural) and project managers, in an innovative collaborative manner have become available to bring dispersed project members together electronically. Such systems allow project members attached to a network to undertake a range of information access and exchange from simple e-mail; through on-site access to central project data sources via handheld computers; right through to the use of optional live (or pre-recorded) video to enhance collaboration. Using communications infrastructure, this functionality can be shared in various ways - in a corporate-wide environment between regional and/or interstate offices within a company, or in a consortium situation (between offices of a consortium working together on a specific construction project). The questions then arise as to how such systems fit into industry practice, and how the industry might adapt to embrace new opportunities provided by such technological advances. Ease of access to up-to-date, accurate project information for a range of project stakeholders is being extended through research in the US and Australia to close the loop between some of the stakeholders, and this will be discussed in detail in the paper. As well, the progress of industry-based support for a level of interoperability for building and construction information by organisations such as the International Alliance for Interoperability (IAI Australasian chapter) will also be discussed, plus the likely impact of the adoption of Industry Foundation Classes in the Australian building and construction industry in areas such as the design life for buildings based on durability of materials.

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Full text: content.pdf (719,511 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.057235) class.environment (0.023003) class.synthesis (0.022896)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Amor R, Turk Z, Hyvarinen J, Finne C

CONNET: a gateway to Europe's construction information

Abstract: "The EC funded project CONNET (Construction Information Service Network, at http://www.connet.org/) has developed a set of Internet-based information services for Europe. These services are linked through a European gateway for the construction industry which provides a ""virtual technology park"", accessible to the whole industry regardless of national boundaries. The gateway provides mechanisms to link all information services for the construction industry, and to establish national gateways to services which can then inter-operate across Europe. The CONNET consortium is moving to establish the existing services in all European nations, and to encourage further existing or planned information services to be linked. A suite of five Internet based services has initially been developed, comprising: a technical information centre; a waste exchange centre; manufactured product services; a calculation and software centre; and an electronic news service as described below: 1. The Technical Information Centre provides a single point of entry to locate technical information from quality providers, initially in the UK. The centre draws upon information held by the major publishers in the UK, with over 200 identified to link into the service. Once a publication is identified a user is able to place an order to purchase, or browse, the item. An automated notification service for users, based on their areas of interest, is also available as part of this centre. 2. The Waste Exchange Centre extends the current UK based system to better enable the disposal and reuse of site waste across organisations Nationally and in Europe. Availability of, and requests for, waste materials are automatically matched in order to broker greater reuse of materials. 3. The Manufactured Product Service enables Finnish and export-market users to identify manufactured products which match their design specification by incorporating product attributes into the selection system. Users are able to identify certified products and drag-and-drop CAD information into their designs. 4. The Calculation and Software Centre provides the European entry point for information on all software products available for the civil engineering domain (over 3,900 collated to date). Online demonstrations, online purchase, and even pay-per-use software is available. 5. The Electronic News Service enables members of the construction industry to register an interest in specific topics and to be notified of any Internet published news that matches their interest. The news sources are drawn from the main information providers and professional institutes in the industry, both within the UK and Internationally. Currently over 14,300 Internet sites have been identified and indexed for this service. This paper describes the infrastructure which has been developed for the European gateway and the benefits it can offer to linked services within a single nation, or across Europe. The virtual technology park infrastructure developed in CONNET provides for user identification, centralised user profiling and profile management, automated and periodic user profile servicing, classification system management and mapping, discussion groups, secure communication and service validation, etc. The way in which these technology park services are able to be used and adapted in independent, but linked, national services is highlighted in the paper. The five individual services are also described briefly, highlighting the benefits they offer to the European construction industry and the possibilities they offer in terms of ensuring national services are inter-operable across all of Europe."

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Full text: content.pdf (1,226,313 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.collaboration (0.014414) class.communication (0.010000) class.man-software (0.007679)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Arlani A

Application of information technology in the building regulatory environment

Abstract: The Building Code and its associated regulations, standards, interpretations, rulings and explanatory support documents form a body ofmaterial which, like any law and its regulations, are complex and, attimes, esoteric. It is comprised of a series of concepts and their relationships, rules, exceptions to rules and examples. It essentially defines prescriptive states, conditions and actions for the builder/designer or identifies performance requirements for materials or systems.There is seldom rationale for the rules that could easily be understood and thus few answers to the question, "Why?". This makes building regulations difficult to develop, to use and to enforce. In this paper some applications of computers used in the Code Development process, as a user tool and as an instructional tool will be discussed.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,153,113 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1992 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.legal (0.171184) class.synthesis (0.033042) class.analysis (0.021869)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editor, Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Aulis Kappi

Computer methods in concrete materials technology - an overview

Abstract: This paper describes some examples of computer methods available in concrete materials technology for the precast industry. The most simple and widely used tools are programs or more often just spreadsheet tables for calculation of combined grading curves and batch quantities of available aggregates. Packing programs are used to optimize aggregate combination. Mix simulation and mix design programs are more advanced basic tools in finding the targeted concrete mix. Presently the most helpful computer methods are definitely quality control programs. These are now also being presented in Windows versions. Next generation computer programs for precast plants would combine materials technology and process control.

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Series: ecce:1997 (browse)
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Avani Goyal, Ahmet Kilinc, Minkyung Kang and Burcu Akinci

Energy Efficient Improvements to the Envelope of Low-Income Housing: A Case Study of Habitat for Humanity Homes

Abstract: Low-income families pay substantial portions of their total expenditure on household energy bills, making them vulnerable to rising energy costs. Habitat for Humanity houses are built for low-income families and made affordable with volunteer work and construction material donations. Hence, the trade-off between the homesÕ initial construction costs and their life-time energy costs must be evaluated carefully. This paper targets to support better-informed decisions that balance the affordability of certain construction materials with their potential for energy efficiency. In collaboration with Habitat for Humanity of Westchester, we created an energy simulation model of an existing low-income house and calculated the homeÕs annual energy usage with different design alternatives for windows and walls. The resulting estimated annual energy savings are then evaluated alongside their initial investment costs, which were retrieved from RS Means standard construction cost data and quotations from industry. The results show that it is possible to reduce the energy cost of these houses without significantly increasing the construction costs through exploration of different wall and window options. While specific enclosure suggestions apply to this case-study, the utilized approach on exploring different options to identify opportunities to save energy can be used to understand impact on the lives of low-income families.

Keywords: Low-Income Housing, Energy Efficiency, Cost Analysis, Residential Housing, Habitat for Humanity

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0067

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