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Bakis N, Sun M

Intelligent broker for collaborative search and retrieval of construction information on the WWW

Abstract: "CONTEXT In recent years, the construction industry began to use the World Wide Web (WWW) as an information dissemination vehicle. The amount of construction information available on the WWW is increasing exponentially, ranging from product data to technical publications, from building regulations to best practice guides. However, the task of finding the right information becomes more and more difficult. At present, users rely on two types of solutions to the information discovery and retrieval problem on the Internet, “yellow pages like information gateways” and “robot-based Internet search engines”. While acknowledging the success for both solutions so far, the authors will discuss their growing evident limitations in supporting construction specific information retrieval on the WWW. OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY The aim of this study is to develop an intelligent information broker for the construction information on the Internet, which will facilitate collaboration between users for the benefit of improved information search and retrieval on the WWW network. The objectives are: ·to examine the information needs of different types of users in the construction industry; ·to capture these information needs conceptually as user profiles and information context models; ·to incorporate construction domain knowledge into the information network; ·to improve speed and accuracy of users search for construction information by developing a information network that facilitates the sharing of search results and knowledge; ·to develop a hierarchical distributed client/server architecture to enable the most efficient service both Intranet and Internet users. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS The intelligent information broker described in paper has a client/server architecture based on software agents technology. It has two distinct features: (1) supporting user collaboration; (2) applying construction domain and user profile knowledge to improve the information search. Collaborative Information Searching Collaborative searching or social filtering is often the most effective method of ranking Internet documents. The developed information broker enables users with the same interest to share the results of their search and their rating of each document’s quality and relevance. Construction knowledge and User Profile The information broker server is in essence a construction oriented WWW searching engine. What distinguishes it from other searching engines is its evolving knowledge base of construction specific keyword sets and construction user profiles. Using the knowledge base, the information broker server is able to answer intelligent queries other than simple keyword matching."

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Full text: content.pdf (197,260 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.054837) class.retrieve (0.047943) class.social (0.030880)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Beran, V. and Hajek, V.

An Interactive Method for Project Evaluation, Risk and Development Trend Assessment

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Full text: content.pdf (899,059 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1986 (browse)
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Berg Von Linde, Richard

Making Process Models Usable

Abstract: Process models have several fields of application. THe research community of construction IT has used process modelling methodologies for several years to analyse and share information. The construction industry has applied process modelling, among other things to better understand current business, to improve or innovate business and to create information systems that support business. Developing a business by using process models needs usable process models. This licentiate thesis describes how process mdels presented in a computer environment can be made usable to practitioners of the construction industry. A structure of concepts is developed that describes interactive environments for process models. The concepts are of two different types: objects and actions. Objects are components that carry the information, and they are not examined in this research. Twelve different actions are identified in the thesis: overview, zoom, filter, details-on-demand, decompose, relate, history, extract, browse, search, compare and find. Based on the concepts developed a prototype is developed. An authentic model built according to the IDEF0 process modelling method is displayed in the prototype. Finally, a usability study is performed to gain knowledge about the concepts and their implementation in the prototype.

Keywords: Process model, User interface, IDEF0

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Full text: content.pdf (3,567,611 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: other (browse)
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Bergsten S, Knutsson M

4D CAD- an efficient tool to improve production method for integration of apartments in existing buildings

Abstract: This paper describes an ongoing research project on application of a 4D CAD tool for design and production planning of vertical extensions of existing buildings (over-roofing) in Stockholm city, for creation of a more densely populated city as the demand for apartments in the city centre increases. 4D CAD is a concept, which combines an object oriented 3D CAD model with time. 4D CAD is a kind of information visualisation that is easier to understand than traditional methods, such as 2D drawings and time schedules, which are used to manage construction projects. 4D CAD is a logical way of imaging a construction management tool. It is a tool that is conceptually much closer to an intuitive picture of a construction process than 2D drawings and time schedules. The 4D concept is developed at Stanford University and to support the concept researchers at Stanford have developed a prototype that is being used in some complex construction projects in California. The focus of the research project “Integration of apartments in existing buildings by use of Light Gauge Steel Framing”, which this paper is a part of it, is to improve production methods in order to reduce design, planning and construction time for conversions of, and extensions to existing buildings in the city centres. A way to improve the production methods is by utilising a 4D planning process in combination with industrialised production of building components. Extensions to existing buildings are due to the demand for new apartments in attractive locations in the city centres and shortage of land for housing in city centres. The Light Gauge Steel constructions have many benefits for conversions of, and extensions to existing buildings. According to research results the Light Gauge Steel Framing system is suitable for industrial production. This building system results in a very light weight building compared with traditional materials e.g. concrete which makes it suitable for over-roofing extensions. The materials used in the Light Gauge Steel Systems is thin steel members, plaster boards and mineral wool. Many of the problems, which occur during vertical extensions of existing buildings today, are solved when they are discovered, that is sometimes on the site. Some examples of these problems are poor compatibility between the existing building (structural components and material) and the Light Gauge Steel Framing, detail solutions of the building components, shafts and piping for ventilation, water, sewage and drainage etc. It is less expensive to discover and to correct errors at an early stage compared to solving them on the site. Further a lot of construction time will be saved, which will decrease the disturbance on existing surroundings. Several problems have to be considered in the planning process in order to minimise the disturbance on existing activities and surroundings. This could be done by the use of a 4D CAD planning tool. An over-roofing project located in the city means that the land to use during the production period is limited and expensive. Thereby is the logistic to and from the site more complicated. Consequently the site management and logistic of building components to the building site and their storage on the site is most important. In fact the 4D concept is an efficient planning tool to organise the logistic of the site during the planning phase instead of as today during the production. The site layout can be simulated and visualised with a 4D CAD tool for the actors in the project which in particular will help the site engineer to organise the activities, material flow and site logistic. The value of using the 4D CAD concept is studied by comparing the traditional planning process of a number of over-roofing projects in Sweden with the planning process of the 4D CAD concept. This paper discusses how a 4D CAD tool together with an industrialised production method can be used for improving the production process for an over-roofing project in order to reduce the construction time and with secured quality. The reader will understand and appreciate the added value in form of a more efficient way of managing construction projects.

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Full text: content.pdf (708,786 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.022264) class.impact (0.010607) class.software development (0.010605)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Bester A, Huhnt W

Tendering process model for application of reliability analysis

Abstract: Construction data is a useful source of information for construction project management. The sources of data for various aspects of construction management is, in addition to the current project information and the engineer’s professional experience, also historical data from previous projects. An example of the use of historical cost data is in the application of the Limit State Cost Function (LSCF) model to perform construction project risk modelling. The LSCF-method was developed for assisting the consulting civil engineer to make a quantifiable judgement in the selection of a project tender. It is based on the reliability of estimating the outcome of the cost for a specific tender in terms of the risks involved in a project, by using construction cost data. The way in which this data have been captured has shown deficiencies which limits the utility of it if the scope of the data captured and the processes of both capturing and applying the results are not carefully planned. The application of the data can therefore not be seen without the process in which it is generated. The process is characterised by the generation and processing of data by the co-operation of several groups of persons at the different stages of the project. These groups of persons execute different tasks, for which appropriate subsets of information at different levels of detail are needed. The paper is focused on the specific requirements that have to be supported to model such processes. Tools are presented to support the specification of the process model. These tools enable the investigation of the model with respect to completeness and correctness. In addition, the tools support the implementation of an information system that is used in the execution of tasks during the tender process.

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Full text: content.pdf (234,503 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.processing (0.052641) class.economic (0.016156) class.impact (0.011672)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Bhagu R. Chahar

Simplified Design Method For Transmission Canals

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Full text: content.pdf (558,237 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2006 (browse)
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Bingfei Zhang and Zhenhua Zhu

Vision-Based Detection of Falls at Flat Level Surfaces

Abstract: Workers might experience fall accidents even when they are working at flat level surfaces. These accidents plus other types of fall accidents have been reported as one of the major causes for worker-related fatalities and injuries. Currently, it becomes common to set up video cameras to monitor working environments. The video cameras provide an alternative to detect fall accidents. The objective of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of detecting fall accidents of workers with video. The preliminary focus is put on the fall detection under one single monocular camera. A novel fall detection method is proposed. Under the method, workers in the videos captured by the video cameras are first detected and tracked. Their pose and shape related features are then extracted. Given a set of features, an artificial neural network (ANN) classifier is further trained to automatically determine whether a fall happens. The method has been tested and the detection precision and recall were used to evaluate the method. The test results with high detection precision and recall indicated the method effectiveness. Also, the lessons and findings from this research are expected to build a solid foundation to create a vision-based fall detection solution for safety engineers.

Keywords: Fall Detection, Video Processing, Computer Vision, Safety Management

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0198

Full text: content.pdf (1,275,832 bytes) (available to registered users only)

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Bjork B C, Lownertr K, Kiviniemi A

IS0 13567 - the proposed international standard for structuring layers in computer aided building design

Abstract: Layering is a widely used method for structuring data in CAD-models. Recently IS0 has defined a draft international standard, ISOlDlS 13567, in order to increase interoperability betwen different CAD applications for building design. The principles which have been followed in the design of the draft standard are first presented, after which the paper describes the semantical organisation of the standard proposal and its default syntax. Pilot testing of IS0 13567 is currently being carried out in a number of countries, which have been involved in the definition of the standard. In the paper two implementations, which have been carried out independently in Sweden and Finland, are described.

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Full text: content.pdf ( bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: ecce:1997 (browse)
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Bjork B C, Lownertz K, Kiviniemi A

ISO 13567 - the proposed international standard for structuring layers in computer aided building design

Abstract: Layering is a widely used method for structuring data in CAD-models. During the last few years national standardisation organisations, professional association, user groups for particular CAD-systems, individual companies etc. have issued numerous standards and guidelines for the naming and structuring of layers in building design. Recently ISO has defined a draft international standard, ISO/DIS 13567, in order to increase interoperability betwen different CAD applications for building design.The principles which have been followed in the design of the draft standard are first presented, after which the paper describes the semantical organisation of the standard proposal and its default syntax. Important mandatory information categories deal with the party responsible for the information, the type of building element shown, and whether a layer contains the direct graphical description of a building part or additional information needed in an output drawing etc. Non-mandatory information categories facilitate the structuring of information in rebuilding projects, use of layers for spatial grouping in large multi-storey projects, and storing multiple representations intended for different drawing scales in the same model etc.Pilot testing of ISO 13567 is currently being carried out in a number of countries which have been involved in the definition of the standard. In the paper two implementations, which have been carried out independently in Sweden and Finland, are described. The paper concludes with a discussion of the possible benefits of the standard. Incremental development within the industry, is contrasted with the more idealistic scenario of building product models.

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Full text: content.pdf (442,818 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1996 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.standards (0.048516) class.synthesis (0.043906) class.represent (0.015610)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Ljubljana. The assistance of the editor, Prof. Ziga Turk, is gratefully appreciated.


Björk B-C, Löwnertz K, Kiviniemi A

ISO DIS 13567 - The Proposed International Standard for Structuring Layers in Computer Aided Building Design

Abstract: Layering is a widely used method for structuring data in CAD-models. During the last few years national standardisation organisations, professional associations, user groups for particular CAD-systems, individual companies etc. have issued numerous standards and guidelines for the naming and structuring of layers in building design. In order to increase the integration of CAD data in the industry as a whole ISO recently decided to define an international standard for layer usage. The resulting standard proposal, ISO 13567, is a rather complex framework standard which strives to be more of a union than the least common denominator of the capabilities of existing guidelines. A number of principles have been followed in the design of the proposal. The first one is the separation of the conceptual organisation of information (semantics) from the way this information is coded (syntax). The second one is orthogonality - the fact that many ways of classifying information are independent of each other and can be applied in combinations. The third overriding principle is the reuse of existing national or international standards whenever appropriate. The fourth principle allows users to apply well-defined subsets of the overall superset of possible layernames. This article describes the semantic organisation of the standard proposal as well as its default syntax. Important information categories deal with the party responsible for the information, the type of building element shown, whether a layer contains the direct graphical description of a building part or additional information needed in an output drawing etc. Non-mandatory information categories facilitate the structuring of information in rebuilding projects, use of layers for spatial grouping in large multi-storey projects, and storing multiple representations intended for different drawing scales in the same model. Pilot testing of ISO 13567 is currently being carried out in a number of countries which have been involved in the definition of the standard. In the article two implementations, which have been carried out independently in Sweden and Finland, are described. The article concludes with a discussion of the benefits and possible drawbacks of the standard. Incremental development within the industry, (where ”best practice” can become ”common practice” via a standard such as ISO 13567), is contrasted with the more idealistic scenario of building product models. The relationship between CAD-layering, document management product modelling and building element classification is also discussed.

Keywords: CAD-system, layering, standardisation

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/1997/2 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:1997 (browse)
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