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Per Christiansson, Kjeld Svidt, Kristian Birch Sĝrensen

FUTURE INTEGRATED DESIGN ENVIRONMENTS

Abstract: We are facing a probable great change in the way we carry through design in future ICT supported environments. The main driving forces are the digitalization of information handling leading to a paramount paradigm shift when information storage and access media are separated, building process and product systems are formalized in digital models, user environments are provided with rich multimedia access to virtual models, virtual collaboration rooms established, and new efficient and effective ICT tools defined and implemented.There are though some barriers putting strains on the development. Among the most important are missing ontologies both on business and Web/Internet service levels as well as their interrelations, poor user involvement in needs and requirements formulations on new ICT tools and continuous user involvement in design and evaluation of new user environments, and lack of interoperability within building process/product models. The general competence level and preparedness for organizational and work change due to global paradigm needs to be increased.The paper presents a system development approach to future development of Integrated Building Design Systems (IBDS) with efforts to specify needs and wishes on future system and resources to support system development. Examples are picked from ongoing global efforts as well as finished and ongoing research at Building Informatics, Aalborg University.

Keywords: Integrated building design, future, ontologies, models, user driven, innovation

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Full text: content.pdf (497,865 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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Rashidi A,Brilakis I,Vela P

Built infrastructure point cloud data cleaning: an overview of gap filling algorithms

Abstract: Video captured from infrastructure scenes can be used to generate point cloud data (PCD) as a potential solution for acquiring spatial information of built infrastructure - however, video based PCD is incomplete and includes gaps, outliers and poor/non-reconstructed areas. This phenomenon has a negative impact on both visualization and measurement practices and is mainly caused by a number of reasons including insufficient coverage of all views while videotaping the scene, lack of sufficient features on uniform surfaces and possible errors in calibration, matching and optimization algorithms. To tackle this issue, researchers suggested various post processing algorithms for reconstructing missing surfaces and filling gaps/holes. This paper provides an overview on these algorithms summarize their properties in terms of efficiency, ability to work in complex geometry settings and running time. As the comparison study, three most common hole filling algorithms: MSL, GG and RFR were implemented and tested on a number of real built infrastructure scenes as the case studies. Number of generated 3D points for filling the gaps, proper distribution of points on covered surfaces and running time are three major comparison metrics has been taken into account. Results indicate that in general PML outperforms other algorithms on both flat and curved surfaces.

Keywords: Built infrastructure,triangulation,gap,Point Cloud Data,surface reconstruction

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Full text: content.pdf (1,158,728 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Sander van Nederveen, Reza Beheshti, Edwin Dado, Hennes de Ridder

Towards a consistent role for information technology in civil engineering education

Abstract: For decades computers have influenced civil engineering education. Their role is significantly changed in due course of time in accordance with developments in both construction and information technologies. At Delft University of Technology the role of information and communication technology (ICT) has not been identified as a separate subject for many years. This has resulted in a very fragmented usage of ICT in the current curriculum. Students learn to use applications such as AutoCAD, Matlab, Maple, Powersim, etc. in all kind of engineering courses. They are also introduced in information modelling with the modelling language UML and the modelling tool Together. And they learn programming in the Java language using the JBuilder programming environment. But these ICT topics are spread over the curriculum and a comprehensive view on ICT education for Civil Engineering is missing. Recent discussions in the faculty regarding (1) laptops for all students and (2) the role of programming with Java in our study prompted a more fundamental discussion of these issues in a working group to discuss the role of ICT in civil engineering education. This paper reports the findings of this discussion. First an overview is given of the ICT methods and tools currently used in the curriculum. These methods and tools are taught in a fragmented way. In addition, clear opportunities for integration of ICT methods and tools in relevant courses are hardly considered. An important factor in this context is the curriculum structure of the faculty that gives room to different courses to be developed and offered independent of other courses. The paper also discusses the required objectives for civil engineering education. These objectives play a significant role in the formulation of proposals for improvements of the curriculum. The paper presents such a proposal devised for the improvement of ICT in the civil engineering education in Delft. Finally, findings and ideas are positioned in a broader context in an attempt to formulate some fundamental issues that are related to the education of ICT at any civil engi-neering faculty.

Keywords: ICT, education, civil engineering

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Full text: content.pdf (151,377 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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SG Yeomans, NM Bouchlaghem & A El-Hamalawi

Provisions for proficient Construction Project Extranet Protocols to facilitate Collaborative Extranet Working

Abstract: Construction teams within the industry are recurrently adopting Construction Project Extranet (CPE) systems to facilitate project integration and collaboration. When deciding to adopt a CPE, it is important to support their use with a clearly defined Construction Project Extranet Protocol (CPEP). Prior investigations found that the principal cause of their inefficient use was associated with missing, or poorly developed protocols. Project teams also cited the lack of a generic industry standard as the main reason for not being able to produce practicable CPEPs. This paper reports on the findings of a study, to establish the main requirements for development of a proficient CPEP and investigate the need for a generic toolkit to aid project teams. It identifies the key issues to be considered, along with the findings of a survey on current CPEPs. The paper concludes by proposing a set of recommendations for improving the way in which CPEP are produced.

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Full text: content.pdf (359,067 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Shah R,Dawood N,Castro S

Automatic generation and visualization of location-based scheduling

Abstract: Accurate and visual information of working locations is vital for efficient resource planning and location-based scheduling of earthworks, which is missing in existing linear schedules. Thus, construction managers have to depend on subjective decisions for resources allocation and progress monitoring from location aspects. This has caused uncertainties in planning and scheduling, and consequently delays and cost overruns of projects. A framework of prototype model was developed using the theory of location-based planning to overcome the above issues. This paper focuses on a case study experiments to demonstrate the functions of the model, which includes automatic generation of location-based earthwork schedules and visualization of cut-fill locations on a weekly basis. An arithmetic algorithm was developed by incorporating road design data, sectional quantities, variable productivity rates, unit cost and haulage distance. The model provides weekly information of locations, directions and cut-fill quantities of earthwork under different selections: construction sequences of cut/fill sections, site access points and equipment sets. The paper concludes that the model assists in identifying the correct locations and visualizing the space congestion during earthwork operations. Hence, project resources including heavy equipment and construction materials should be allocated more effectively and correctly from the location viewpoints and ultimately to improve site productivity and reduce production cost in linear projects.

Keywords: Earthworks,Cut-fill quantity,Location-based scheduling,Productivity,Visualization

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Full text: content.pdf (1,723,255 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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U Gökçe, H U Gökçe, R J Scherer

IFC Based Integrated Construction Management Processes

Abstract: In the last few years, the modelling of generalized AEC processes becomes a central issue in supporting network-based coordination among project participants. However, even though various solutions have been proposed, a general approach based on an acknowledged model is still missing. In order to address this gap and to represent the integration of product and process information for the interoperability of the involved actors and tools, based on the complementary views complying with the IFC product model, (1) a process integration methodology and based on that (2) two integrated process models are presented in this paper. The implemented methodology brings different views and aspects together such as application systems, quality management procedures, organizational units and procurement systems. The main objective is defined as, to integrate product and process information in a generic process model, so that interoperability over a broad spectrum of applications is facilitated.

Keywords: Construction Management Processes, Software Interoperability, Concurrent Engineering, Industry Foundation Classes (IFC)

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Full text: content.pdf (108,733 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Wasserfuhr R, Scherer R

Distributed management of co-operative design processes

Abstract: "Main reasons for inefficient project management and project delays are the lack of information about the progress of work in a team, wrong versions or missing data before starting to work, incorrect receivers of produced data and incompatible data formats. The ""islands of automation"" problem, recognized for product data management in the last decades, is now also becoming a barrier to efficient, computer-mediated project management, because different semi-integrated software solutions like document management systems, systems for messaging and email, workflow systems, project management software or PDM systems are partially overlapping in functionality. Improvements require a distributed IT system to know about the dependencies between activities of users, made transparent for users in a simple-to-use manner, with a central repository of information about users, access rights, running projects, involved organisations, avaliable applications and document types and relate any kind of electronic communication in a project (e.g. messaging, file exchange and file sharing). Approach The approach of this project is a coherent framework for an integrated treatment of design document management, project management, project communication and controlling, enabled by distributed multi-user IT environments with a shared, workflow driven activity model. The relevant participants of a design team, their activities, and organizational dependencies are modelled in a detailed object oriented model. The project and task specific maintenance of the possible roles of all participants allows to determine access rights and authorisation for changes on design data. The entire project communication and the access to any type of design documents can be done in a task centred manner. The status of tasks can be determined automatically, because time constraints and dependencies between tasks are represented and maintained. The entire model is formally elaborated in the EXPRESS-C language, an extension of the ISO 10303 modelling language EXPRESS. The work is based on a co-operation between Dresden University of Technology and Obermeyer Planen and Beraten, the largest German company for Integrated Design in A/E/C. Obermeyer is one of the first German companies which successfully applies document management systems in large scale A/E/C projects."

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Full text: content.pdf (353,076 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-man (0.046889) class.store (0.034481) class.communication (0.015351)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Wawan Solihin, Johannes Dimyadi, Yong-Cheol Lee, Charles Eastman and Robert Amor

The Critical Role of Accessible Data for BIM-Based Automated Rule Checking Systems

Abstract: This paper proposes a concept of an accessible BIM database that supports integration with geometry enabling simplified and efficient queries of the IFC-based building model. The simplified schema, BIMRL, is shown to be significantly effective for the purpose of an implementation of an automated BIM-based rule checking system. The schema has been shown to successfully work in both traditional RDBMS and the NoSQL graph database. It complements a missing piece in the current research of automated rule checking, which mostly focuses on the formulation and representation of computable rules involving logic, checking algorithm, and parameterization. Even though these present approaches have largely assumed that data is available and easily accessible from a building model, this assumption is typically infeasible in a real-world implementation. Building rules require not only base data explicitly available in the model but also higher level semantic concepts that typically involve multiple relationships and spatial operations, which cannot be captured explicitly in the model. Without addressing this issue, a rule checking system will severely underperform and will be filled with opaque algorithms that act as black-boxes.

Keywords: BIM, Automated Rule Checking, IFC, BIMRL, Big Data

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0161

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X Liu, B Akinci, J H Garrett, M Bergés

Requirements and Development of A Computerized Approach for Analyzing Functional Information of HVAC Components Using Building Information Models

Abstract: Heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems account for about 40% of the energy consumed in buildings. They directly control the indoor air quality and determine occupant comfort. Therefore, correct operation of HVAC systems is critical for ensuring the normal functions of the buildings. Due to the continued increase in their complexity, manual operation and maintenance of the HVAC systems has become more and more difficult. Computerized approaches, such as Fault detection and diagnosis and automated commissioning approaches, have been proposed to automate this process. These approaches use data from the HVAC systems and building context and provide information about the performance of the systems to the operator. However, the existing information standards, such as Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) and AEX cfiXML, mainly represent the geometric information and categories of the HVAC components. One important type of information that is missing is the functional relationships of the HVAC components. Functional relationships represent how different HVAC components work together to serve the functions of the system. For example, a sensor that monitors the temperature of a space is functionally related to the Variable Air Volume (VAV) box that controls the temperature of the same space. Therefore, functional relationships are needed by the HVAC system operator to reason about and adjust their configuration. The objective of the presented work is to develop a computerized approach that can automatically analyse the functional relationships of HVAC components using the available information from the existing Building Information Models (BIM). This includes the exploration of needed functional relationships of HVAC components, the classifications of functionalities of HVAC equipment and components, the development of a functional taxonomy of HVAC components, and the implementation of a prototype system for analysing the functional relationships. The primary result of the presented work is the development of an extensible computerized approach that can automatically reason about the functional relationships of typical HVAC components using information from BIM.

Keywords: Information Models Analysis, Building Information Modeling, Functional Information, HVAC Systems Modeling.

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Full text: content.pdf (446,527 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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