Development of a 3D Highway Modeler using a Driving Game Interface
Abstract: This paper outlines a 3D highway geometric modeling method based on a parametric model involving curvature and gradient functions. Using this method, conditions concerning design standards are input to a computer as numerical functions, with the design velocity, curvature and gradient as variables. We also developed a 3D highway modeler using a driving game interface. To evaluate the interface of the modeler, we conducted experiments and compared the results with those using the mouse-based system in the previous study. As a result, we showed that the system using the driving game interface outperformed the mouse-based system in most categories.
Keywords: highway geometry, product model, driving game interface, CAD, 3D modeling
Full text: content.pdf (144,677 bytes) (available to registered users only)
Manfred Breit, Manfred Vogel, Fritz Ha_ubi, Fabian Ma_rki, Marco Soldati, La_szlo_ Istva_n Etesi, Nicky Hochmuth, Andreas Walther
ENHANCEMENT OF VIRTUAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION METHODS
Abstract: In this paper we report about a three-tier applied R&D approach for the Enhancement of Virtual Design and Construction methods at the Institute of 4D Technologies UAS, North¬¬western Switzerland (i4Ds). In collaboration with the CAD vendor and developer cadwork informatik AG our research focuses on technology, its intro¬duction into the market the effects and difficulties of the tool use and the induced process changes. We will describe the methodlogy, the expected outcomes of the enhancements, the research approach, initial findings and the further proceedings.In the first tier cadworks introduces an intuitive integrated 4D modeler called (LexoCad or Baubit CAD) for contractors which is commercially available since one year. Analogue to playing with building blocks users create 3D building models and 4D phasing models for the construction of the building directly from 2D pdf drawings. The expected outcome are that the virtual building blocks serve as a test-bed for constructability analyzes, enhanced planning reliability, better coordination and communication, optimized procurement and wide-spread use in practice. The next two tiers of VDC enhancements are currently developed at i4Ds. For the second tier we introduce a semantic, flexible, database-backed, object-oriented data structure for hierarchically structured Product, Organization and Process models (POP models) with an enhanced intuitive 3D/4D graphical user interface for the rapid generation of design alternatives. Users can easily propagate information to related property sets of construction elements and assemblies. Behavior methods (scripts) can be assigned for a variety of tasks e.g. BOM creation, construction method modeling, creation of cost performance predictions etc. This approach technology-wise moves the model management from the modeler or viewer components to the data base domain. The flexible hierarchies not only allow users to manually restructure and rearrange the model to their needs but enable automatic AI optimizers to even alter the construction method e.g. timber element, precast concrete or masonry walls etc. The expected outcomes are a pro-active 4D planning, rapid generation, comparison and evaluation of POP- design- alternatives, derivation von case from existing designs, easy and effective integration of client information into POP models, creating performance predictions (quality, time, cost, risk, etc.) from this models, easy creation of 4D sub-models for knowledge transfer for inter-disciplinary cooperation.In the third tier we introduce a novel process design concept which we named Process Design Patterns (PDPs). They are based on Christopher Alexander's (1977) concept of design pattern as a formal way of documenting successful solutions to problems and as templates describing how to solve problems of a particular domain. In a study, we called Process Archeology, we chose a recently finished four storey residential concrete building and reconstructed and re-modeled the over-all building processes with an inter-disciplinary team. Therefore we created the necessary 3D-, 4D- and process- and organization- models with commercial available modeling tools. We were able to derive one generic and seven specific PDPs for the whole erection of the building. We describe a strategy to apply PDPs directly on 3D building information models (BIM) to automate and optimize the planning process.
Keywords: Virtual Design and Construction, 4D Modeling, Product, Process and Organization Modeling and Simulation, Process Design Patterns
Full text: content.pdf (386,476 bytes) (available to registered users only)
Ozsariyildiz S S, Tolman F P
First experiences with an inception support modeller for the building and construction industry
Abstract: Inception and very early design of complex building and construction
projects requires a large number of decisions to be made, considered,
rejected, changed, or confirmed. Many views on the project co-exist at the
same time, requiring complex communications and access to complicated
knowledge covering the complete project and product life cycles.Balancing
the results of this non-monotonic decision taking process is (1) not a trivial
task and (2) very important for the project outcome, as most of the product
and construction process characteristics (like performance and cost) will
largely be fixed. Further optimizations in later design stages will only be
marginally possible.In order to support the inception and very early design
of complex construction project we are developing an Inception Support
Modeler (ISM) that guides the user through the decision taking process.
Decision taking is supported by a combined PDT (Product Data
Technology) and KT (Knowledge Technology) approach. The focus of the
current modeler is on the inception of technical buildings, like Power or
Process Plant Buildings, Factory Buildings, Hospitals and such. The product
model and the knowledge base are developed in co-operation with the Brite-
Euram CONCUR project.The paper reports about the first test case of the
ISM. As part of a demonstration in CONCUR, the ISM has been filled with
Business Objects and Business Logic concerning the inception of a simple
Full text: content.pdf (435,817 bytes) (available to registered users only)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.commerce (0.017970)
Sound: read aloud.
Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.
P Podbreznik & D Rebolj
Automatic comparison of site images and the 4D model of the building
Abstract: A method for automatic comparison of on site building images and the 4D model is proposed. The process and the main system modules on the path from real images to a reconstructed geometry model are explained. Finally, the decision about the geometry modeler is argumented and the semantic links between the reconstructed geometry model and the 4D model are explained.
Full text: content.pdf (571,685 bytes) (available to registered users only)
Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.
Rivard H, Fenves S J, Gomez N
A classification and indexing scheme for conceptual building design
Abstract: SEED is a multidisciplinary project whose goal is to provide support for the early phases of building design. SEED-Config is the module of SEED that focuses on the generation of 3-dimensional configurations of spatial and physical building components. A building design environment consisting of four software modules has been implemented in a prototype. The four modules are: a design information repository, which records design data and manages design cases; a design knowledge manager, which handles the collection of technologies selected for the current project (technologies encapsulate the design knowledge applied to building entities); a classification reference manager, which is used to define, manage, infer about, and query classifications; and a geometric modeler, which is used to define, reason about, and render both topology and geometry.
A classification and indexing scheme has been developed to complement a generic information model so that design solutions can be easily classified, retrieved, and accessed. The generic information model, called the Building Entity and Technology (BENT) model, stores design data as they are generated during conceptual design, supports case-based reasoning, and shares data among all design participants. The model represents each building entity as a generic container that encompasses its geometry, taxonomy, design knowledge, composition, relationships, and properties.
The classification and indexing scheme uses a faceted classification to define the controlled vocabulary from which indexes are obtained. In this approach, classification is independent from the information model. The classification is extensible and designers have the freedom to complement the vocabulary with their own idiosyncrasies. Indexing is performed automatically as building entities are designed through the selection and application of technologies. Hence, a design is already indexed when it is added to the case library. A case library was implemented in an object-oriented database management system for accumulating cases and for providing efficient query facilities.
Full text: content.pdf (109,553 bytes) (available to registered users only)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.retrieve (0.078140)
class.software development (0.017891)
Sound: read aloud.
Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.