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Cornick, T. and Noble, B.

Designing for Building Production - An Environmental Modification Model for Computer Integrated Construction

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Series: w78:1990 (browse)
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Faisal Manzoor Arain

IT-based approach for effective management of project changes: a change management system (CMS)

Abstract: In a perfect world, changes will be confined to the planning stages. However, late changes often occur during construction, and frequently cause serious disruption to the project. The need to make changes in a construction project is a matter of practical reality. Even the most thoughtfully planned project may necessitate changes due to vari-ous factors. The fundamental idea of any variation management system in a building project is to anticipate, recognize, evaluate, resolve, control, document, and learn from past variations in ways that support the overall viability of the project. Learning from past variations is imperative because the professionals can then improve and apply their experi-ence in the future. Primarily, the study proposes six principles of change management. Based on these principles, a theoretical model for change management system (CMS) is developed. The theoretical model consists of six fundamen-tal stages linked to two main components, i.e., a knowledge-base and a controls selection shell for making more in-formed decisions for effective management of variations. This paper argues that the information technology can be ef-fectively used for providing an excellent opportunity for the professionals to learn from similar past projects and to better control project variations. Finally, the study briefly presents a knowledge-based decision support system (KBDSS) for the management of variations in educational building projects in Singapore. The KBDSS consists of two main components, i.e., a knowledge-base and a controls selection shell for selecting appropriate controls. The KBDSS is able to assist project managers by providing accurate and timely information for decision making, and a user-friendly system for analyzing and selecting the controls for variation orders for educational buildings. The CMS will enable the project team to take advantage of beneficial variations when the opportunity arises without an inordinate fear of the negative impacts. By having a systematic way to manage variations, the efficiency of project work and the likelihood of project success should increase. The study would assist building professionals in developing an effective variation management system. The system would be helpful for them to take proactive measures for reducing variation orders. Furthermore, with further generic enhancement and modification, the KBDSS will also be useful for the man-agement of variations in other types of building projects, thus helping to raise the overall level of productivity in the construction industry. Hence, the system developed and the findings from this study would also be valuable for all building professionals in general.

Keywords: CMS, information technology, KBDSS, changes, management

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Kamardeen I

Design-for-safety analysis support system for building designers

Abstract: Accident prevention and control in construction is a continuing challenge. The construction industry has one of the worst workplace health and safety records globally. There is considerable evidence that decisions made by designers early in the development process have significant implications for the safety of workers on construction sites. Recognizing the important contributions which good design can make in improving safety performance, many governments around the world have mandated Design-for-Safety (DfS) in their workplace health and safety legislations. Designers in many countries are now required by law to include DfS in their design practices, which is a major modification to their traditional roles and responsibilities. Nonetheless, research shows that most designers lack the expertise required for effective implementation of DfS. This paper discusses the development of a mobile computing enabled knowledge management system that can assist designers to reduce accidents in the construction industry through safe designs. The system can provide modular and just-in-time knowledge support to designers during the design process. The utilization of the system could foster enhanced DfS implementation in industry and thereby accident reduction in construction projects.

Keywords: Workplace health and safety,Design for Safety,Knowledge Management System,Mobile Computing

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Maher M L, Liew P-S, Gero J S

An agent approach to data sharing in virtual worlds and CAD

Abstract: This paper describes an agent approach to sharing and synchronising building model data among CAD and virtual world systems. Virtual worlds facilitate a level of communication and collaboration not readily available in conventional CAD systems. The integration of virtual worlds and CAD systems using a common data model can make a significant impact on synchronous collaboration and real time multi-user multi-disciplinary modification of building data. By using agents, the integration of virtual worlds and conventional CAD systems can go beyond that of passive data transfer. Data within a central database is monitored and the relevant applications using the data are notified automatically of any changes through sensors and effectors embedded within agents that define their interface to the database. We use an object-oriented EDM database as the central repository of data and Active Worlds as the virtual environment that is coordinated with the shared data within the database. An interface agent is being developed to connect the virtual world to the database to allow active data access and modification. This agent approach can be extended to the integration of other applications and data models.

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Full text: content.pdf (250,992 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2003 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


Pantouvakis J P

Software tools for the implementation of relational databases describing the building product

Abstract: The implementation of relational databases describing the building product has to face difficulties imposed by the very nature of buildings, such as large amounts of data with complex interrelationships which are time and place dependent and dynamically changing integrity constraints. This paper suggests that a successful implementation should be based on relatively few concepts and a set of powerful techniques by which these concepts can be transformed into a database. Subsequently, these techniques can be used as the basis for the development of software tools. When software tools are available, the creation and/or modification of the database describing the building product can be easily achieved. Two such tools have been identified, designed and implemented at Nottingham University and are described in this paper. A database design tool, based on state-of-the-art relational database theory and a generalized integrity preservation tool. These tools can be linked together to form an integrated building product modeling environment. The major advantage of this approach is that the dynamic in nature Building Product Model produced is independent from software and hardware systems and is capable of adapting to different working practices.

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Full text: content.pdf (2,418,829 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1988 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.store (0.016589) class.environment (0.010394) class.represent (0.009569)
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Permission to reproduce these documents has been graciously provided by the Lund University and the Swedish Building Centre. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Per Christiansson and Prof. Henry Karlsson, is gratefully appreciated.


Rankin J H, Froese T M, Waugh L M

Exploring the application of case-based reasoning to computer-assisted construction planning

Abstract: Computer-Assisted Construction Planning (CACP) is under development in support of Total Project Systems (TOPS). CACP, as a prototype application, employs a Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) tool, to address the requirements of information retrieval and subsequent reuse for preliminary project planning. The unique aspects of CACP include: 1) a design with respect to an integrated construction management system based on emerging industry information standards (i.e., Industry Alliance for Interoperability), 2) the consideration of quality, organizational, and procurement aspects of planning in addition to time, cost and scope, and 3) the application of CBR to facilitate the re-use of captured planning knowledge. CACP's data structure builds on past efforts of developing data standards within the AEC industry (e.g., ISO STEP and IAI IFCs) and contributes to current efforts with a focus in the construction management domain. With a solid data structure, CACP's planning approach can use organized specialization and aggregation constructs to promote efficient storage and retrieval mechanisms. The CBR tool is then used to guide the user to a past plan that best meets the current project requirements and presents this information for modification to meet all project requirements. The paper briefly describes the data structure and planning approach used and primarily focuses on the application of CBR to achieve a scenario where the re-application of past planning knowledge is possible.

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Full text: content.pdf (78,276 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.031747) class.retrieve (0.024452) class.standards (0.019285)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


S Alkass & A Jrade

An integrated system for conceptual cost estimates

Abstract: Construction projects pass through several phases during their life cycle. However, during the initial level where feasibility studies are conducted, conceptual estimates are generated to assist decision makers in approving or rejecting proposed projects. The common practice followed during this level starts by consultations between owners, practitioners and experts with the deficiency of documents, specifications and drawings. Own experience and wide range of assumptions control the preparation of conceptual estimates, where extensive assortment of errors and unsound decisions are anticipated to occur. Therefore, the availability of accurate cost data is necessary to overcome this problem. This is achieved by the relevance of Management Information System, where cost data and 3D-CAD drawings can be stored and manipulated to fit user's needs. Moreover, decision makers are in need for a reliable system to use during the feasibility stage of new proposed projects. This paper presents the design and implementation of a decision support system, which helps in selecting the best project type given the budget. The system integrates 3D-CAD drawings with relational databases so that any modification in the drawing's parameters such as: floor area, floor-to-floor height and building perimeter: will result in the generation of a new conceptual estimate taking into consideration the required adjustments.

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Full text: content.pdf (353,225 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universitšt Dresden.


Shiratuddin M F, Thabet W

A framework for a collaborative design review system utilizing the unreal tournament (UT) game development tool

Abstract: During the pre-construction phase of a project, a design review process is used by the design team as a means to identify errors and inconsistencies in designs and make necessary changes. Due to the various involvements from many parties in a design team, a project's design is susceptible to such errors and inconsistencies. As a result, redesigns are common. Whether 2D drawings, 3D models or physical mockups are used, the pr ocess of redesign is iterative and time consuming. Design changes and modifications based on project team input are compiled, processed and re-input, and a new design is then generated. The benefits of using VR environments as a design review tool are very promising. Current VR applications, however, are mainly focused on interactive walkthrough and flythrough implementations only. In this research, we explore the capability of VR as a tool for modification and manipulation of the graphical and textual information in real-time. This will allow for performing design changes during walkthrough session and reviewing the results instantaneously among the design team. This paper proposes a framework for a real-time collaborative VR design review system. A prototype application is currently being developed using the Unreal Tournament (UT) 3D game engine.

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Full text: content.pdf (344,852 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2003 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


VA Semenov, AA Bazhan, SV Morozov & OA Tarlapan

Efficient verification of product model data: an approach and an analysis

Abstract: In the paper an approach to verification of product model data is developed and discussed. The general approach encompasses all the variety of data and constraints assumed by EXPRESS language and provides for efficient solutions to verify product model data both completely and incrementally under single and multiple updates caused by insertion, deletion, and modification operations. The implementation methods are also of the paper subject. The methods are oriented on static analysis of specifications, compilation of optimized codes for the integrity checking and maintaining procedures and their efficient runtime execution. In the paper a performance analysis is conducted to compare the developed OpenSTEP Checker application with available similar programs and to form some qualitative criteria for efficient verification of product model data in various application contexts. The results are given in conformity to IFC standard that is of principal importance for achieving semantic interoperability in the architecture, engineering, and construction.

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Full text: content.pdf (317,005 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universitšt Dresden.


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