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A den Otter, H Jan Pels, I Iliescu

BIM VERSUS PLM: RISKS AND BENEFITS

Abstract: Applying Building Information Modeling (BIM) is a hot issue. The Building industry feels the urge to use it, but at the same time companies see huge risks, since the ownership and control of information becomes unclear when all building information is put together in one model. Also the cost and the benefits do not always land at the same place. To that account three Dutch firms operating in multi- disciplinary building & construction projects asked the authors to execute a research and design project how to solve this problem. As a result a framework for assessing risks was developed for setting up a successful BIM process. It seems the manufacturing industry is much ahead of the Building industry in using these concepts and technology, be it under the name of Product Lifecycle Management. However, comparing the approaches in the Building industry and manufacturing industry shows that, while construction is primarily interested in the risks, manufacturing is primarilyu focussed on the benefits. The paper tries to explain this difference and concludes with some suggestions to reduce risk and enhance the benefits of BIM for construction companies.

Keywords: Data collection, Product Lifecycle management, Building Information Modeling and Data storage.

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Full text: content.pdf (473,694 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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A Grilo,A Zutshi, R Jardim-Goncalves

BUSINESS INTEROPERABILITY IN THE CONTEXT OF BIM-BASED PROJECTS

Abstract: This paper proposes a model that closely captures the factors that are responsible for Business Interoperability in the context of collaborative business processes for the deployment of Building Information Modeling. The Business Interoperability Quotient Measurement Model (BIQMM), uses an interdisciplinary approach to capture the key elements responsible for collaboration performance and BIM platform configuration. Through the quantification of the relevance of each element to the particular collaboration scenario, and with the combination of the BIQMM with a multi-criteria decision making tool, the Analytical Network Process (ANP) approach, this model enables a quantitative analysis of Business Interoperability for BIM-based projects, so that an overall interoperability score can be calculated for enhanced performance measurements. An application scenario is presented and the application of the BIQMM and ANP, provides a comprehensive framework for interoperability measurement. The paper concludes by recognizing that relationships between business interoperability and true AEC performance improvements and subsequent economic benefits derived from BIM-based approaches needs to be further developed.

Keywords: Business Interoperability, BIM; Collaborative Working Environments

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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A Kiviniemi, M Fischer & V Bazjanac

Multi-model Environment: Links between Objects in Different Building Models

Abstract: The current IFC specifications include relations between objects and enable representation of complex structures in a building product model. However, several research projects have addressed the problem of one integrated model by pointing out the different content and structure of different design domains. The existing software products cannot support all features of the IFC specifications, and because of the structure of AEC industry there are no potential customers for applications which would cover all different information needs. We believe that there will be several instantiated models representing a building project, and these models share some parts of the information which must be linked between the models. However, IFC specifications do not enable links between objects in separate instantiated models. This paper will (1) discuss the reasons for the separation of instantiated models, (2) present the necessary extensions of the IFC specifications, (3) include examples of the links between the requirements model and architectural design model, and (4) discuss some possibilities how to implement this link in a model server environment.

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Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


A. Al-Bazi, N. Dawood & Z. Khan

Development of Hybrid Simulation and Genetic Algorithms System for Solving Complex Crew Allocation Problems

Abstract: This paper presents an innovative approach to solving complex crew allocation problems in any labour-intensive industry. This has been achieved by combining simulation with Genetic Algorithm (GA). The integrated system determines the least costly and most productive crews to be allocated on any produc-tion processes. Discrete Event Simulation methodology is used to simulate a manufacturing system. A special PROCESS module is developed to overcome limitation of the used simulation software that appears when us-ing normal PROCESS module. A concept of multi-layer chromosome is proposed to store different data sets in multi-layers structure. GA operators were developed to suit such chromosome structure. As a case study, a sleeper precast manufacturing system is chosen to prove the concept of the proposed allocation system. The results showed that adopting Manipulating a number of multi-skilled workers to be allocated among different production processes had a substantial impact on reducing total allocation cost, process-waiting time, and op-timising resource utilisation. 3D visualisation is presented.

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Full text: content.pdf (564,663 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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Aish R

Extensible enterprise computing for construction as a necessary pre-cursor for collaborative engineering

Abstract: "Our focus is to consider the construction industry as essentially an information processing system. In its ideal form, practitioners (each with an individual internal representation of design intent) interact with other practitioners by first interacting with an information processing system that manages various shared external representation of design intent. The underlying assumption (from an information technologist's perspective) is that design data is held in a sufficiently complete representation, and that changes to this representation are transactions that move the representation from one consistent state to another. We might call this 'enterprise computing' for construction. This ideal of 'enterprise computing' for construction can be compared to the realities of current practice. - Due to its fragmentation, the construction industry generally perceives its use of information technology in terms of multiple discrete 'individual' systems (with the resulting proliferation of discrete documents) rather than as an enterprise systems. - The drawing tradition, which represents building in 2D, with different representations of the same design split across multiple independently editable documents inhibits consistent management of design and the use of analytical tools. While these may be familiar arguments, there are new object oriented and data management tools emerging from key software developer, such as Bentley Systems, that are designed to address the specific needs of a 'construction enterprise', namely geometric generality, multiple application semantics, multi-user access, and transaction management. These systems also address the scalability and reliability issues required for deployment in practice. Again, arguments for (and advantages of) systems of this type have been discussed in the research literature for more than two decades. The difference is that these systems are ready for deployment. But with this prospect for a broader application of 'Enterprise Computing' for Construction, there are associated other significant issues which may concern both the 'strategic' and the 'creative' practitioners, namely: - Semantic completeness: building a sufficiently complete multi-disciplinary representation of design intent - Data integrity: where any intelligent components are used, these should not become 'orphaned', for example, by object ""instance"" data being detached from the definitions of the corresponding class - Data longevity: the integrity of design and other data should be maintained for the life-time of the building, across new hardware platforms and operating systems. Upgrades to the application and any intelligent components should not disrupt or invalidate existing data - Parallelisation of design: individual designers or engineers should be able to work in parallel, and then be able to synchronize their changes to design data with co-workers - Expressibility: architectural design and construction engineering are open-ended domains. Additional intelligent components should be capable of being added on a ""per project"" basis. Within this context, this paper will explore the essential 'tension' that exists within the Architecture and Construction sectors. On the one hand, there is a perceived need by construction managers for computing tools based on clearly defined and agreed schema to control the construction process (thereby giving economic advantage, comparability, etc.). On the other hand, creative designers who are under other competitive pressures, are expecting a different set of computing tools to allow the exploration of new building configurations and construction geometry. While in the former case a standardisation of schema (as the foundation of a traditional ""Enterprise Computing"" system) would appear to be in order, in the later case the essential 'open-ended-ness' of the creative process demands ""extensibility"" as a pre-requisite of any computing system. These differing requirements (and indeed, attitudes) within the user community, presents software developers with interesting challenges. What technologies (for example, object and/or relational) and what 'domain abstractions' are appropriate foundations for solutions for these differing requirements. Or indeed, what technologies and 'domain abstractions' can be used as the basis for broader set of applications whose design is intended to unify across this apparent ""management-creative"" divide…hence the theme of this paper: ""'Extensible Enterprise Computing' for Construction"". Fundamentally, this is not exclusively an issue of technology. We need to address both the technical and cultural issues if we are to realise our collective ambition of providing effective tools with which to support collaboration between the diverse range of interests that occur within the Architecture and Construction sectors."

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Full text: content.pdf (827,728 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.034023) class.software development (0.019513) class.represent (0.017320)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Akinsola A, Dawood N, Hobbs B

Construction planning process improvement using information technology

Abstract: "Construction is a multi-organisation and interactive process. Successful completion of a project therefore depends on the accuracy, effectiveness and timing of communication and exchange of information and data between the supply chain. Unfortunately, the inefficiency of the existing method of communication has become a barrier to several innovative construction processes developed for the industry over the past four decades. Thus, research efforts and direction have since changed. Several studies now focusing on integration of the construction process with communication and standardisation of data exchange, taking advantage of evolving computer technologies. The capability of these technologies, object-oriented technology and the Internet has made a significant impact on other economic sector such as finance, manufacturing, insurance, etc., with significant improvement in performance and productivity. Thus the technology is available but the challenge is utilising the technology to develop method of improving the construction process. To ensure efficient utilisation of IT as enabling tools, formalisation and understanding of the construction processes are required. This will enable the identification of the problems and opportunities of the strategy, and its implementation and performance in practice. The paper presents a detailed model of pre-construction and construction planning processes, based on an on-going research project, that form the basis of the developed planning system. The detailed process mapping methodology using CASE tools and the associated integration of IT tools, as an enabler to aid and improve the planning process, are described. The system provides an interface for integration of CAD data, using IFC objects, within the system. The application of the system offers a promise of significant improvement in both pre-construction and construction processes."

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Full text: content.pdf (375,439 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.028439) class.environment (0.027790) class.impact (0.027062)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Amirante I

Information technology teaching at the University: an experience at the Faculty of Architecture in Naples

Abstract: The experiences illustrated here refer to didactic activity carried out at the Faculty of Architecture of the University of Naples; in particular these concentrate on the technological aspects of the teaching of architecture. We can consider the evolution of the architect from individual operator to manager of the multi-disciplinary aspects of the building process (building process manager) as a reality in today's Italy. The Support Systems of Information Technology (ITSS), can be of great importance €or this professional figure, and for this reason it is important to include him/her in the teaching process. I personally have involved fourth and fifth year and last-year undergraduate students in the following subjects at the experimental stage: degradation diagnosis supported by m Expert System in courses of the Technology of Building Rehabilitation; co-ordinated System of tests in degradation of existing buildings; the use of three-dimensional programmes to survey and visualize rhe territory; rapid analysis of degradation in the maintenance of urban facades. * In these and other similar works I'TSS has played a significant part for a global synthesis in students' methodological approaches, being an inttoduc tion to new Information Technology potentialities.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,158,179 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.education (0.036539) class.analysis (0.018067) class.synthesis (0.015849)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Amor R W, Hosiung J G

Multi-disciplinary views for intqrated and concurrent design

Abstract: The definition and implementation of user views is likely to be a major factor in the success of the ISO-STEP standard for computer-based representation of building components and their inter-connection. The development of a method for describing user views to a particular model is also likely to increase the usage of existing design tools. Currently, the arcane languages and the detailed knowledge required of the physics and terminology of the specific domains of many of these tools limit their use by designers. This paper addresses these issues by describing a system that can present information from a base computer model of a building to a given user. The language and level of detail of the system are directed at the needs and understanding of the user. This system allows multiple concurrent views to the base model, each view tailored to a particular discipline (eg, architect, structural engineer, services engineer, etc) and further tailored to meet the specific needs of the particular user in terms of understanding of the various disciplines and the level of information required. Used with a system that integrates various design tools through a computer based building model, this system will offer users information from a range of design tools at a level that they can comprehend.

Keywords: multi discipline views; product modelling; user interaction

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Full text: content.pdf (625,133 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Amr Kandil, and Khaled El-Rayes

Multi-Deme Parallel Computing Model For Optimizing Large-Scale Construction Projects

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Full text: content.pdf (724,378 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2006 (browse)
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Andrej Tibaut, Branko Kau?i?, Peter Podbreznik, Marjan Lep, Dušan Zalar

Towards intelligent information system for public interurban road passenger transport management

Abstract: Public road transport forms a complex and dynamical domain that encompasses fields of traffic, business and politics. Management of the system poses a challenge for governmental entities which are responsible for coordi-nation, control and data gathering from private transport companies. A need for IT support is obvious. The paper systematically describes a distributed enterprise information system named AVRIS developed for the Direc-torate of the Republic of Slovenia for Roads. AVRIS adds new value to the management and coordination of the domain for public interurban bus transport. First a theoretical work flow model, consisting of processes, phases and states is defined. Built upon the model a multi-tiered IS architecture is developed which incorporates a number of advanced IT concepts, like application server, shared communication space, MVC, etc. The concepts are implemented using latest open source Java technologies. First real experiences with AVRIS are evaluated and presented in the paper.

Keywords: traffic engineering, public passenger transport management, traffic informatics, decision support, shared space, work flow, open source, Java

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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