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M. Y. Rafiq, C. Sui, D. J. Easterbrook, G. Bugmann

Generality of using correctors to predict the behaviour of masonry wall panels

Abstract: The highly composite and anisotropic nature of masonry, which is a result of the variation in the proper-ties of the masonry constituents, makes it very difficult to find an accurate material model to predict its behaviour satis-factorily. Current research by the authors has focused more closely on the behaviour of laterally loaded masonry wall panels using model updating techniques supported by artificial intelligence (AI) tools. They developed the concept of corrector factors which models the variation in the properties over the surface of masonry wall panels. This research resulted in methodologies, which enables designers to more confidently predict the behaviour of masonry wall panels subjected to lateral loading. The paper will demonstrate the generality of using these techniques to predict the behav-iour of laterally loaded masonry wall panels tested by various sources.

Keywords: corrector factors, evolutionary computation, cellular automata

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Full text: content.pdf (711,673 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Mahmoud O. Abou-Beih, Tamer E. El-Diraby, Baher A. Abdulhai

Coordinating Urban Incident Management & Reconstruction Using Social Web

Abstract: The enormous widespread and relative maturity of collaborative and social applications in Web 2.0 has encouraged metropolitans worldwide to incorporate them into their emergency management systems. This paper describes SWIMS (Semantic Web Based Incident Management System), a middleware system that integrates Web 2.0 collaborative/social applications with software agent technologies on GIS-based platform in an aim to enhance emergency management practices in urban transportation networks. The paper then compares the IT needs of this domain (incident management domain) with those of construction IT. A set of lessons and similarities are explored to guide the development of a collaborative, process-oriented system for urban incident management. Three of the main goals behind developing SWIMS are: (i) efficient information dissemination to increase public awareness of current emergency conditions in order to influence their commuting decisions, (ii) increase public participation in emergencies reporting and description to enhance the efficiency of emergency response processes, (iii) and provide a GIS-based middleware for optimized response resources allocation and management.When it comes to emergency reporting, finding equilibrium between public participation and information credibility is crucial for the system success. In this context, the authors propose a model to validate the integrity of received information; helping to provide a good balance between public participation and information reliability. In addition the paper illustrates the role of software agents in handling the enormous continuous flow of data resulting from massive anticipated public participation and due to the nature of emergency management process in general. Agents communicate using asynchronous message passing, acting as an interface between various Web 2.0 collaboration systems and SWIMS. This also helps to overcome any syntax and/or schematic heterogeneity between SWIMS and collaborative applications data structures. The roles of software agents in response resources allocation and management as well as coordination of relief efforts and decision updates are also discussed. The experiences in developing and implementing this project are thoroughly discussed and analyzed in this paper.

Keywords: multi-agent system, GIS, incident management, social web

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Full text: content.pdf (912,710 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Martin Hooper, Anders Ekholm

A Pilot Study: Towards BIM Integration - An Analysis of Design Information Exchange & Coordination

Abstract: Construction projects are costing too much and taking too long as a consequence of unnecessary omissions and errors in project documentation and sub-optimal co-ordination of design information between consultant disciplines. One reason for this is that much project production information relies substantially on human input and subsequent multiple manual checks and cross-referencing operations which, on projects laden with design data, inevitably leads to errors or missing information. If implemented intelligently BIM may offer a solution.Typically projects are becoming increasing complicated in nature, requiring more specialist discipline input resulting in a much greater volume of technical information which in turn requires to be co-ordinated and kept up-to-date and relevant through the life cycle of a project. In such contexts conventional project filing systems and information work-flows are becoming un-manageable and there appears to be a need for more clearly defined and agreed information deliveries which if adequately tested, could be standardised. The theory behind BIM provides an exciting integrated solution for project information management however in this new process further effort is required to define the content of information deliveries and a number of basic who?- what?- when?- how?- questions relating to object and property definitions need to be resolved.This study investigates and attempts to define the functional requirements for integrated information management through the design stages of a construction project focusing on architectural practice requirements within the residential sector in Sweden. The pilot study aims to prepare for the development of an extensive study of information deliveries and standardisation needs using BIM.The study utilises buildingSMART Alliance's new Building Information Modelling Execution Planning Guide together with a case residential construction project in Sweden. The principle BIM planning procedures are applied to the case, tuning requirements to the specific project and localised to support Swedish classification standards. Through the enquiries required to develop and define these processes, a new information exchange protocol emerges, tuned to the Swedish residential sector.

Keywords: BIM, information exchange, design coordination

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Full text: content.pdf (361,568 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Mauricio Toledo & Martin Fischer

GPOP: REPRESENTATION OF SUSTAINABILITY CONSIDERATIONS ON BUILDING PROJECTS

Abstract: Sustainable development has attracted much attention in recent years and has created an increasing awareness of environmental issues affecting construction projects. Stakeholders of sustainable building projects seek inspiration and benchmarks on existing sustainable buildings. However, the documentation of the sustainability considerations (SC) on building projects is inconsistent and usually focused on the design solution with little or no attention to the project requirements or process and organizational aspects of the design. The comparison of sustainable projects is therefore difficult due to the varied nature and extent of the documented sustainability considerations. We propose a systematic representation of the SC, which we call gPOP model, that facilitates the comparison of sustainable projects. We created gPOP models of twelve recognized green buildings which led to a list of the 36 most common sustainability considerations (MCSC). We show that our representation of the SC allows the comparison of sustainable projects and helps uncover insights that otherwise remained hidden in the free-form text-based narratives used for documenting the SC.

Keywords: Sustainability, product model, process model, green building

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Full text: content.pdf (133,428 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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Mohd Fairuz Shiratuddin, Walid Thabet

Information-rich virtual environment (VE) for design review

Abstract: In the A/E/C industry, design review techniques are used to improve design quality, insure compliance with current codes and standards, improve design constructability, and meet project’s goals and owner’s objectives. Design review is a multi-tasking approach; information from various independent sources (e.g. building codes and standards, design specifications, design manuals, etc.) needs to be referenced concurrently while reviewing and coordi-nating plans of various design disciplines. Current common design review methods rely mainly on paper-based checklists and 2D plans to perform the review. Several disadvantages of these manual methods can be identified, including: 1) checklists are generic and reviewers need to identify the guidelines that apply to a given review; 2) checklists are also linear in nature which may force the review to follow a pre-defined top-to-bottom sequence; 3) current methods do not allow for a structured automated approach to capturing and sharing reviewers’ comments and feedback; 4) information may not be retrieved quickly and efficiently within the limited review time frame. This renders the design review process time- and resource-intensive which may force reviewers to sacrifice the thoroughness of their reviews. This paper describes an information-rich virtual environment (VE) framework for design review. The framework util-izes a real-time intelligent algorithm to access needed data and information to perform a design review while viewing the 3D model. The algorithm provides various search and retrieval modes to assist the user in filtering, querying, sort-ing and displaying data and information during the 3D model walkthrough. Reviewer’s comments and changes are cap-tured and shared by others. A proof of concept prototype is being implemented using the Torque 3D Game Engine.

Keywords: 3D modeling, design review, game engines, rule-based, torque game engine, virtual environments

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Full text: content.pdf (773,170 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Moore D R

Perception "noise" in the cognition of visualised construction process concepts

Abstract: Within the context of a scoping study the paper examines factors having a possible effect on the nature of cognition achieved with regard to specific construction industry production process concepts. These factors are considered with regard to the level of cognition, as a follow-on from the act of visual perception, that may be achieved by individuals with regard to production process concepts. The key production concepts considered are those of the extent of continuous specific interdependency (CSI) and discontinuous specific interdependency (DSI), as determined through assessing type and extent of discontinuities between construction activities linked by the process logic to form process chains. Existing means of visualising dependencies within and between projects are argued to be deficient with regard to their ability to communicate relationships such as discontinuous specific interdependency. Existing HCIs, for example, are suggested as simply seeking to replicate means of visualisation that are historically established, such as the bar chart, CPN, PERT, etc. This approach is considered within the paper from the perspective of the suggested differing abilities of experts and novices to "fill-in" the gaps presented in the context of communicating relationships such as DSI. The use of a structured entity approach to enhance the communication of concepts such as interdependency through the visualisation of relevant characteristics of individual activities is proposed. This entity is developed from work carried out in areas of research such as thinking with diagrams (TWD), knowledge maps, and the theories of perception with regard to pattern recognition. The suggested entity also seeks to maximise the value of current HCIs rather than imposing a radically new means of visualisation on project planning software.

Keywords: Perception, near-criticality, interdependency, visualisation, TWD, structured entities.

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/2002/10 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:2002 (browse)
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Motawa I A, Price A, and Sher W

A fuzzy approach for evaluating the iterated implementation of innovations in construction

Abstract: A fundamental challenge of implementing construction innovations is the planning and control of work. Most innovative projects do not fulfil their time and/or cost. Evaluation of innovation performance is not often simulated within existing innovation process models. Such an evaluation enables managers to accept new processes/ products or iterate the implementation process to achieve satisfactory performance. This paper introduces a conceptual model that deals with the effectiveness of the innovation implementation phase. This model adopts the Dependency Structure Matrix (DSM) tool to simulate the iterated implementation of an innovation. The model uses influence information, and managerial and technological performance to control and simulate the implementation of innovations by their nature of experimentation, iteration and refinement. The paper presents a fuzzy logic approach to identify the required classification of interdependencies among iterated tasks within the DSM. Analysis of the model resulted in the implementation of innovations being programmed more effectively.

Keywords: construction innovations, dependency structure matrix, fuzzy logic, planning techniques

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Series: itaec:2003 (browse)
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Neilson A, Kumar B, MacLeod I A

Issues in representation and processing of structural design codes of practice

Abstract: This paper presents a hybrid approach to standards processing. Standards processing is a term used the denote the procedures of designing and checking a design in accordance with the relevant code(s) of practice. The use of the conventional printed version of codes of practice is inherently fraught with problems. They are renowned for being voluminous, ambiguous in nature, and frequently full of cross references. Thus the extraction of relevant information is difEicult. The strategy adopted for representing and processing codes of practice, discussed in this paper is aimed at alleviating these problems. Hypertext is employed as a form of representation, allowing the drawbacks of ambiguity, and cross referencing to be overcome. In addition a method of organising standards information is proposed aimed at aiding the retrieval of relevant information.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,298,152 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.030943) class.analysis (0.016477) class.represent (0.012149)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Newton S,Lowe R,Kember R,Wang R,Davey S

The Situation Engine: a hyper-immersive platform for construction workplace simulation and learning

Abstract: The prospect of being able to place an individual within an entirely interactive, simulated environment has long been held, but only recently is it being realized. Flight simulators were the first to provide a hyper-immersive experience using a combination of very detailed and accurate models of aircraft systems, high-resolution visualization and motion platforms. More recently, advanced video game technologies have been coupled with augmented reality systems and sophisticated tracking technologies to provide hyper-immersive experiences of battlefield conditions, crime scenes, operating theatres, industrial processes, etc. A key problem for developers of any hyper-immersive environment is the significant overhead costs of modeling, programming, display technologies and motion simulation. The Situation Engine is an application platform that provides for specific and managed building and construction experience to be made available using low-cost, advanced digital technologies. The same engine can drive a multitude of learning situations. Multiple users collectively occupy the same simulated workplace but experience that situation individually by individual movement through the space. Head tracking, gesture recognition, voice communication, 3D head-mounted displays, location-based sound and embedded learning resources have all been incorporated into the Situation Engine at minimal cost. The total enabling technology cost per participant is currently around $600 Australian. This paper will focus on the hyper-immersive nature of the Situation Engine. In particular, the distinction between immersion (as a quantitative measure of sensory fidelity) and presence (as a qualitative perception of ‘being there’) will be articulated and clarified. The paper also highlights one of the various ways in which hyper-immersion is manifested in the Situation Engine: gestural control. Gestural control has been implemented using a Microsoft Kinect™ and proprietary gesture detection algorithms to monitor a range of gestures in parallel, including gestures that are context dependent.

Keywords: Simulation,Hyper-Immersion,Cost,Situation Engine,Gestural Control

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Full text: content.pdf (820,250 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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O. Tatari & M.J. Skibniewski

Business Benefits Framework of Enterprise Systems in Construction: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

Abstract: Many construction firms have implemented enterprise-wide information systems in order to improve their business operations. It is critical to assess the benefits realized through such systems through a systematic method. The business benefits framework proposed in this paper offers a comprehensive assessment of enterprise systems in construction. We conducted a survey to quantify these benefits and used exploratory factor analysis to determine the benefit dimensions that tackle different aspects of benefits that could be realized by implementing enterprise systems in construction. Industry practitioners can use these dimensions to help them assess the nature of impact of the enterprise systems implemented.

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Full text: content.pdf (77,397 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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