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A Akanmu, C J. Anumba, J I. Messner

Mechanisms for Bi-directional Coordination between Virtual Design and the Physical Construction

Abstract: There is considerable growth in the use of virtual models in the construction industry. Many projects are now based on fairly sophisticated models but the use of these models is often limited to the design and tendering/bidding stage. Much more benefit can be derived from these models by extending their use to the construction, operation and maintenance phases of a facility’s lifecycle. A good way of achieving this will involve real-time bi-directional coordination between as-designed models and the physical construction. This will enable improvements in progress monitoring, construction process control, archiving as-built status and active control of building components and sub-assemblies. To maintain bi-directional coordination, computational resources are required to tightly integrate the virtual models and the physical construction. This is termed a Cyber-Physical systems approach. This paper focuses on describing the role of the Cyber-physical systems approach in enhancing bi-directional coordination. It highlights the mechanisms necessary to facilitate this and presents future deployment scenarios to illustrate the potential benefits to the construction industry.

Keywords: Bi-directional coordination, Building Information Models, Cyber-Physical Systems, Physical Construction

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Full text: content.pdf (352,164 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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A Akcamete

An Approach to Capture Facility Maintenance and Repair Information to Store Change History

Abstract: During operations, changes happen to facilities frequently due to maintenance and repair (M&R)work, upgrades and renovations. Consequently, corresponding facility information needs to be updatedso as to provide reliable information to facility operators and managers. Moreover, the record offacility changes is necessary to understand the patterns of failures and to support proactivemaintenance decisions. Therefore, there is a need to enable storing of the information about suchchanges at the time that they occur. In current practice, facility documents are not frequently updatedand a complete history of changes is not available for supporting facility management decisions. Theauthors_ objective is to streamline the capturing of M&R information when these activities areperformed, so as to have a history of facility changes that can be used to understand how a building isdeteriorating and to support facility information updates. By observing M&R work records, weidentified the need for capturing different types of facility and change information for different typesof M&R work. Moreover, we observed the need for a spatial database to support pattern analysis byidentifying clusters that may not be found by using traditional databases. We developed a taxonomy ofM&R work that classifies various types of work on different types of facility components and listsassociated information modules that represent data required to be collected in the field. This approachenables a formal approach for capturing change information as a result of M&R work by providingcustomized templates for each type of work. The focus of this paper is to present the need forcustomization of information capture templates. The paper also gives a description of the approach offormally generating customized templates based on a taxonomy of M&R work and linking thecaptured history information with a facility information model. Enabling such a linkage will be thefirst step towards reasoning about the M&R history in order to analyze how a building deteriorates,identify problems in the building, and inform the users of facility information update needs.

Keywords: Facility maintenance, maintenance changes, change history, maintenance planning

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Full text: content.pdf (769,778 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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A Kiviniemi & J Haymaker

Integration of Multiple Product Models

Abstract: The development of the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) started from the vision that an integrated building product model would cover all necessary information for a buildings’ entire lifecycle: from requirements management, through different design processes to construction and maintenance processes. Although the IFC model specification covers a substantial part of the required information, AEC projects still have encountered many problems putting this model into practice. AEC professionals still find it difficult to have dynamic, lossless, truly effective data flow amongst the different participants and applications. It is obvious that file based data exchange alone is not a feasible solution - some other solution for integrating project information is necessary. This workshop discusses some viewpoints and potential solutions to the above issues and problems.

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Full text: content.pdf (117,391 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


A Kiviniemi, M Fischer & V Bazjanac

Multi-model Environment: Links between Objects in Different Building Models

Abstract: The current IFC specifications include relations between objects and enable representation of complex structures in a building product model. However, several research projects have addressed the problem of one integrated model by pointing out the different content and structure of different design domains. The existing software products cannot support all features of the IFC specifications, and because of the structure of AEC industry there are no potential customers for applications which would cover all different information needs. We believe that there will be several instantiated models representing a building project, and these models share some parts of the information which must be linked between the models. However, IFC specifications do not enable links between objects in separate instantiated models. This paper will (1) discuss the reasons for the separation of instantiated models, (2) present the necessary extensions of the IFC specifications, (3) include examples of the links between the requirements model and architectural design model, and (4) discuss some possibilities how to implement this link in a model server environment.

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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


A Kiviniemi, M Fischer & V Bazjanac

Integration of Multiple Product Models: IFC Model Servers as a Potential Solution

Abstract: The development of the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) started from the vision of an integrated building product model which would cover all necessary information for buildings' whole lifecycle: requirements management, different design activities and construction and maintenance processes. Although the IFC model specification covers a substantial part of the required information its implementations into practical applications have shown several serious problems. One of the main problems is that the internal structures of the different software products do not support the information needs for the whole process. Thus, the idea of lossless, incremental data flow through the different applications used by the project participants has not come true. It is obvious that file based data exchange is not feasible solution, and some other solution for integrated project data model is necessary for the AEC industry. This paper discusses some viewpoints and potential solutions to the above problem.

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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


A Kühlen, R Drogemuller, F Schultmann

What Information is Necessary to Assess the Environmental Impacts of Deconstruction_

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Full text: content.pdf (530,931 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2013 (browse)
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A. Z. Sampaio, P. G. Henriques

Virtual reality technology applied in engineering education

Abstract: The three-dimensional geometric models used to present architectural and engineering work, show only the final form, which does not allow progress in constructions to be observed. But, the visual simulation of the construc-tion process of a building need mod-els which are able to produce dynamic changes to their geometry. This paper re-ports how techniques of geometric modelling and virtual reality were used to obtain models that could show their physical evolution over time and which would be able to simulate construction processes visually. Two types of work, concerning the construction of a cavity wall and a bridge, were developed as virtual models for educational purposes. These models make it possible to view the physical evolution of the work, to follow the planned construction sequence, to visualize details of the form of every component of each work and to support the study of the type and method of op-eration of the equip-ment necessary in the construction process. These models have been used to distinct advantage as educational aids in first-degree courses in Civil Engineering. The use of virtual reality techniques in the development of educational applications brings new perspectives to the teaching of subjects related to the field of construction.

Keywords: education, engineering, simulation, 4d models, virtual reality

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Full text: content.pdf (969,857 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Aalami F, Fischer M

Joint product and process model elaboration based on construction method models

Abstract: In practice, construction planners need to plan and replan projects at several levels of detail and would like create 4D visualizations to communicate construction schedules. The current construction planning and scheduling process is , however, still largely manual and time-consuming, making it difficult to maintain an appropriate and realistic set of plans, schedules, and 4D visualizations throughout design and construction. Researchers have demonstrated the usefulness of a product model with a decomposition hierarchy and supported-by relationships between project components to generate a construction process model automatically. The product model's decomposition hierarchy supports the generation of hierarchical activities, and the supported-by relationships between components enable automated reasoning. However, the resulting process model is typically not a usable or realistic construction schedule, since activities can only be sequenced if elaborated to the same level of detail, and component-based activity elaboration is limited to the original product model. This paper discusses how a customizable and general representation of construction method models supports the transformation of a design-centric product model into a production-centric view. A formalized hierarchical construction planning process forms the basis of this translation process. The planning process is broken down into method-driven elaboration and hierarchical planning and scheduling steps. User-defined and user-selected construction method models drive the elaboration process by supplying the necessary activity and component elaboration knowledge. The product model undergoes a transformation from a design-centric decomposition to a production-centric decomposition. The elaborated activities are sequenced based on constraints that are passed on to the activities from their construction methods. The output of the planning process is a 4D production model. A 4D production model is a linked representation of an elaborated product and process models. A 4D production model is a flexible representation of the construction process that can support many views for communication and evaluation, e.g., 4D visualization, CPM-network, barchart, or resource histograms.

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Full text: content.pdf (289,626 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.035804) class.processing (0.027755) class.communication (0.018300)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Addison A,O’Hare W-T,Kassem M,Dawood N

The importance of engaging engineering and construction learners in virtual worlds and serious games

Abstract: The engineering and construction industries require their workforce to undertake complex learning and training activities. Exposing new employees, graduates, or apprentices to these environments could endanger their safety and the safety of those working with them. On site education and training also requires an investment of time from skilled individuals and companies. Problems accessing environments, such as construction sites, heavy plants or chemical manufacturers, are substantially heightened by the need to risk assess and comply with Health and Safety legislation making the traditional “hands on” and “shadowing” approaches to training and education more complicated than in the past. These difficulties are also compounded by changes to the geographical locations (e.g. distance learning, on site) of those studying to join these career paths or progress within them. Therefore, educational institutions and trainers must consider how to deliver this skill based learning for both those with access to academic premises and those learning at a distance. New technologies such as serious games are one of the solutions being explored. This paper undertakes an analysis of safety issues and safety training and learning methods relating to the construction industry. The paper takes its start point from a Health and Safety Executive commissioned report in 2003 (Hide et al, 2003) and questions if sufficient improvements in safety have been achieved within the construction industry since its publication. Then, the paper investigates the development of education and training that meets the necessary reality and complexity of engineering and construction sectors and the ability of serious games to provide timely and accessible training to achieve competency within these sectors.

Keywords: Competency,learning,safety,serious games,training,virtual worlds

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Agger K

Facilities management IT tools: building model, basic information and graphics

Abstract: The need for small easy to use Facilities Management IT tools for the existing building stock has led to the development of IokalEjdlnFo a windows based managementhnformation system with graphical navigation. The first version is in use in public institutions and the second version is under consideration among a broad group of FM experts in DK. IokalEjdlnFo has been implemented as a database system with graphicdCAD added on. The paper will discuss the building model used in the system, the sufficient model for FM in comparison with the necessary CAD model for building and the possibilities for extracting the FM building model from the CAD model. Basic information on the property is extracted from public databases and is used for automated generation of part of the objects in the building model. Graphic information is extracted from CAD models of the building or created from scanned drawings by the means of simple CAD tools added to the database tool as extensions. Graphics are used for graphic navigation in the model, for extracting quantities and for presentation of information. The paper discuss strategies for FM and CAD.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,174,117 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.036948) class.man-software (0.031639) class.communication (0.011701)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


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