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A Galach & Z Kotulski

Risk assessment in disaster recovery strategies development

Abstract: The paper describes the model for selecting disaster recovery strategies for information system. The risk assessment covers the threats and vulnerabilities related to the problem of losing the availability of information processes in the particular information system model. The analysis takes under consideration the relationships between the components of information system in order to find the risk of availability lost propagation within the system. That is the basis for finding the candidate disaster recovery strategies, which have to fulfil these basic requirements. Such an approach allows sifting these ones, which are basically not suitable for the security requirements of the information system. The preliminary accepted strategies are to be analyzed regarding to the estimated cost of implementation and maintenance. The next phase covers the detailed analysis of confidentiality and integrity risks in the candidate strategies. The level of risk related to the confidentiality and integrity of information processed in the disaster situation using given strategy is to be estimated.

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Full text: content.pdf (232,912 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Agger K

Geneobjectclases in construction IT

Abstract: The Geno project intent to participate in the development of the next generation of construction IT systems. Goals for this research should be to: * loose the design process from the production of design documents * free the geometry from orthogonal projection * make possible a full, variable, complete detailing without loosing consistency * move the development of building component specific IT modeling * tools closer to the end user * improve the efficiency and capability of these modeling tools The Geno project works with three developer / user layers: * GenoObjectClasses, the basic standardized data and functional structure, developed by IT specialists in a close dialog with the IAI IFC development. * ProtoObjectClasses: IT tools for modeling spaces, construction elements and parts. Developed by IT specialized architects,engineers, on the bases of Genotypes. Made available to the end user through Internet by component vendors. * PhenoObjects: spaces, construction elements and parts, specified, dimensioned and placed and interrelated by the designer, to be analyzed and supply project information for all participants in the construction and management process. Modeling, analyzing and information seeking and presentation done by Prototypes. The idea of this structure is to improve dynamic and user influence in IT modeling tool development. The standardized class structure for this, the GenoObjectClasses has to support three concurrent models, namely the: * SpaceModel, an interrelated surface model, a non detailed division of the project space in functional spaces (living room, kitchen,bath etc.) and construction spaces (foundation, wall, roof, slap etc.). * ComponentModel, a successive partitioning, ore filling theSpaceModel with building elements, components (facing wall, inner wall, insulation, window, door, ceiling, roof construction, inventory, furniture etc.), interrelated and related to the SpaceModel. * EntityModel, a similar fill to the Componentmodel with buildingparts (brick, joint, plaster, fitting, gutter etc.) to make a complete consistent productmodel possible. The "three model structure" to be filled out successively, add flexibility to the designprocess. When calculations and visualizations is performed the detailed model is used, but in areas with no detailing the model on the lower detailing level is used. This means that the total model will be "complete", if only the SpaceModel has been modeled. The development of GenoObjectClases will build as close as possible on IFC, and seek to expand IFC where it is nessesary. Status for the Geno project is that implementation has been started with AutoCAD ObjectARX.

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Full text: content.pdf (79,484 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.026583) class.represent (0.015546) class.synthesis (0.015011)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Aulis Kappi

Computer methods in concrete materials technology - an overview

Abstract: This paper describes some examples of computer methods available in concrete materials technology for the precast industry. The most simple and widely used tools are programs or more often just spreadsheet tables for calculation of combined grading curves and batch quantities of available aggregates. Packing programs are used to optimize aggregate combination. Mix simulation and mix design programs are more advanced basic tools in finding the targeted concrete mix. Presently the most helpful computer methods are definitely quality control programs. These are now also being presented in Windows versions. Next generation computer programs for precast plants would combine materials technology and process control.

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Full text: content.pdf ( bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: ecce:1997 (browse)
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B. Omar, S. Abu Hassan & T. Ballal

Exploring Context-Awareness in the construction logistics services delivery

Abstract: Managing a construction project supply chain effectively and efficiently is extremely difficult due to involvement of numerous sectors that are supported by ineffective communication system. An efficient construction supply chain system ensures the delivery of materials and other services to construction site while minimising costs and rewarding all sectors based on value added to the supply chain. The advancement of information, communication and wireless technologies is driving construction companies to deploy supply chain management strategies to seek better outputs. As part of the emerging wireless technologies, context-aware computing capability represents the next generation of ICT to the construction services. Conceptually, context-awareness could be integrated with Web Services in order to ensure the delivery of pertinent information to construction site and enhance construction supply chain collaboration. An initial study has indicated that this integrated system has the potential of serving and improving the construction services delivery through access to context-specific data, information and services on as-needed basis.

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Full text: content.pdf (192,550 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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B.H. Goh

Progression in IT adoption and stage of IT maturity in the construction sector of Singapore

Abstract: The IT maturity model, based on Nolan’s Stages of Growth Model, is applied to analyse the characteristics of IT users, IT facilitators and IT providers in relation to their respective degrees of awareness, degrees of application and degrees of integration. The objective is to assess and draw useful conclusions about the progression in IT adoption by the construction sector in Singapore. At the same time, it can help to determine the stage of IT development for this sector. The data used for the analysis includes information obtained from an industry-wide questionnaire survey followed by informal discussions with industry players, as well as a review of the relevant publications. Evidence shows that there is an increasing trend of companies improving their efficiency and productivity through using IT. There is also an increasing trend of education institutions promoting IT usage through providing training. And, catering to this, there is an emergence of software development by IT vendors. Going beyond, it is clear that stakeholders need to focus their attention on achieving integration of technology, process and people as the next stage of development. It is recommended that appropriate strategies be put in place.

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Full text: content.pdf (28,476 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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Bandic M, Izetbegovic J

A framework for research of IT application in Croatian construction companies

Abstract: Croatian construction companies are passing dramatically changes by privatisation and restructuring according to the market needs of today and especially during future huge reconstruction and development of Croatian (as well Bosnia and Herzegovina) economy. The market conditions in these Republics are for now: scarcity of financial means, scarcity of personal educated and trained in modern management methods, scarcity of some profiles of skilled people in construction, very strong competition of foreign companies, since Croatian (and B and H) market is now open for foreign companies. The specific after war conditions include also new legal and business structure (completely new legislative based on the practice of developed western democratic states) new financial structure and institutions (also based on the financial structure of the developed countries). In the chaining of the subsystems: [ ownership - undertaking - management - transformed ownership] , information technology is fundamental but not sufficient enabler for quality decision making and efficiently management of the construction processes. Based on the IT application, there are necessary educated and trained management people, adequate decisions, and realisation. By adequate IT application design and construction processes are probably rationalised and accelerated, by satisfaction of the high quality standards, so that construction companies could easier adapt to market needs. What are necessary prerequisites (organization, IT, personnel, other) for making and carrying out of the quality decisions? In which degree IT application (modern information technologies, expert systems, CAD/CAM, GIS, CASE) influence on decision quality? What are other factors are influencing (knowledge degree, psychological state, environment, market)? On such question have been proposed and accepted research program under the name "Development of IT application in Croatian construction companies" by Croatian Ministry for science and technology. The goals: * Continually research of development of IT application in companies that are active in design, construction and maintenance of construction objects. * Comparative overview of IT application state to different criteria * Proposition of strategy development of IT application in construction * Creation of IT data base for information and experience exchange between the foreign and domestic construction companies * Proposition of education programme of IT application in construction * The questionnaire is now in distribution, and research will be carried out in the next three years. * The paper will explain the research approach, and eventually the first results.

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Full text: content.pdf (48,526 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.024035) class.legal (0.021667) class.education (0.019299)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Boughton G S, Futcher K G, Lloyd R H, McMahon M A

Management of dynamic projects within a virtual (paper-less) office

Abstract: This paper presents fresh directions currently being developed and implemented for project management of major works for the Highways Department of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (S.A.R). Techniques based on a new approach to computer-aided office practices and procedures, for office-based and on-site professionals and technicians. The intention is a replacement for previous technologies which are seen to be encumbered by outmoded traditional project information management processes. The Government of Hong Kong SAR gained considerable experience and immeasurable benefit from the use of IT, on what has been the world’ s largest infrastructure programme of the 1990’s, namely the new Chek Lap Kok international airport with accompanying arterial express routes. Through economic necessity, the Government plans to promote significantly more construction within the territory in the next two decades, with projects of comparable magnitude, commencing as the airport-core-programme reaches completion in 1998. What has emerged in the course of construction works since 1993, is a striking departure from traditional administration-centred-office-operations. It has become evident that project management processes must avoid being swamped by large volumes of project information and its dissemination. Disparate manual record keeping and paper document processing are a limitation and hindrance to collaborative tasking essential to any project. Computerised record keeping, status tracking and on-line project cost reporting are demanded as an essential panacea to these ailments. It is anticipated that full relief must be gained by implementing professional-centred-office, operations which provide full office automation: the creation of the ‘virtual’ project management organisation. The paper describes the practical research commissioned by the Highways Department to enable implementation of technologies for a practical information system to serve pragmatic people in the manner of a virtual project management organisation.

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Full text: content.pdf (48,899 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.021601) class.economic (0.014870) class.synthesis (0.009177)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


C M Tam, Arthur W T Leung

Using Construction Process Simulation to Assess Productivity of Laying Water Mains in Hong Kong

Abstract: Construction process simulation is becoming a general technique in managing design and construction processes in the western world (Hossain and Chua 2009). However, there is a paucity of records on its practical application in Hong Kong and in the Greater China. Thus, it still remains as a tool for generating academic papers within the academic arena. In Hong Kong, there is a plan to upgrade 45% of the existing 7,700 km of water mains, giving a total of 3,000 km of aged water mains to be replaced in the next couples of years. In managing this sheer amount of construction works, studying its productivity is of prime importance in order to complete the works on time and within budget. This study has applied one of the simplest simulation tools, Web-CYCLONE, to assess the productivity and explore ways to optimize it. The study reveals that Web-CYCLONE is user-friendly in assessing productivity. However, it has a number of shortfalls. For example, in running two consecutive programs, the system needs to be refreshed to renew the interface and trace the charts and diagrams generated. Besides, Web-CYCLONE has the limitation of inability in identifying the critical path of a project and thus the floats cannot be considered. Web-CYCLONE is also difficult in modeling projects with complex resource involvement.

Keywords: water mains construction, construction process simulation, productivity

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Full text: content.pdf (441,041 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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C McCartney, L Kiroff

Factors affecting the uptake of BIM in the Auckland Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry

Abstract: Building Information Modeling (BIM) is seen as the next paradigm shift in the building design and construction industry since the move from traditional drafting to 2D computer aided design systems. Although BIM has been available for a number of years worldwide, its adoption and use in the New Zealand, and especially Auckland Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry has been relatively limited.The aim of this research is to explore the factors affecting the uptake of BIM in the Auckland market by incorporating the views of various architecture, engineering and construction firms. This study is based on a qualitative research methodology. A number of semi-structured interviews, using a questionnaire guide, were conducted with industry professionals from the architecture, structural engineering, services engineering, and construction contractor industry sectors to gain an insight into their current use of BIM and identify what benefits and barriers they encountered in its use and implementation.The findings of this research showed that most industry sectors are currently using BIM as a three dimensional tool for coordinating the various design disciplines, as well as for 3D clash detection and 2D documentation production. Other reasons for BIM use included producing 3D and 4D visualizations and virtual walkthroughs to help non-technical people understand the design intent. Although the literature describes training and cost of implementation as major factors affecting the uptake of BIM, most of the research participants downplayed these issues, explaining that adopting BIM was a commercial decision made to stay ahead of their competitors, and that the extra training involved actually improved the skill base of their organizations. This study concludes that to progress with the use of BIM, a truly integrated and collaborative approach must be adopted in order to achieve gains in coordination, productivity, cost management, and overall project outcomes.

Keywords: BIM, AEC industry, 3D modeling, 4D visualization, Survey

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Full text: content.pdf (194,682 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Christiansson P

Dynamic knowledge nets in a changing building process

Abstract: Hypotheses and explanation models are put forward about the future global structure manipulation and transfer of knowledge. The so called Dynamic knowledge Nets, DKN, are defined and used to explain changes for the next generation of computerized communication and knowledgehandling systems. More and more powerful tools become available to model and visualize different parts of our reality. These tools will influence our possibilities to create useful models and will also have a great impact on how these models are integrated and accessed. Behind the interfaces dwell more and more capable integrated knowledge representations which are closely related to pertinent search strategies. It is now possible in a changing building process to create models which bring about a clearer and more obvious connection between the applications, our intentions and the computer stored models. The systems we are formulating today may thus provide us with dramatically better communication tools as communication rooms, personal "telescreens", and virtual realities. We must formulate and try out new concepts. New tools for building, using and maintaining the next generation systems have been and are continuously created and tested at the KBS- MEDIA LAB (knowledge based systems - media) at Lund University. Examples are given outgoing from ongoing research mainly the Material and Vendor Information and Building Maintenance Systems as well as Decision Support at theBuilding Site. These systems can shortly be described as multi agent environments with multimedia context dependent user interfaces to underlying facts bases.

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Full text: content.pdf (2,277,177 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1992 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.046718) class.environment (0.034346) class.bestPractise (0.026216)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editor, Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


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