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O Samuelson

Adoption processes for EDM, EDI and BIM in the construction industry

Abstract: Three strategically important uses of IT in the construction industry are the storage and management of project documents on webservers (EDM), the electronic handling of orders and invoices between companies (EDI) and the use of 3-D models including non-geometrical attributes for integrated design and construction (BIM). In a broad longitudinal survey study of IT use in the Swedish Construction Industry the extent of use of these techniques was measured in 1998, 2000 and 2007 (Samuelson, 2008). The results showed that EDM and EDI are currently already well-established techniques whereas BIM, although it promises the biggest potential benefits to the industry, only seems to be at the beginning of adoption. In a follow-up to the quantitative studies, the factors affecting the decisions to implement EDM, EDI and BIM as well as the actual adoption processes, were studied using semi-structured interviews with practitioners, in autumn 2009. The theoretical basis for the interview studies was informed by theoretical frameworks from IT-adoption theory (e.g Cooper and Zmud, 1990; Davis et. al., 1989; Gallivan, 2001) where in particular the UTAUT model (Venkatesh, et. al., 2003) has provided the main basis for the analyses presented here. The contribution of this paper is to use general IT adoption theory in the IT construction context to explain, and increase the understanding of, how different types of IT innovations can be implemented in the sector.The results showed that the decisions to take the above technologies into use are made on three different levels: the individual level, the organisational level in the form of a company, and the organisational level in the form of a project. The different patterns in adoption can to some part be explained by where the decisions are mainly taken. EDM is driven from the organisation/project level, EDI mainly from the organisation/company level, and BIM is driven by individuals pioneering the technique.

Keywords: IT, innovations, construction, adoption, implementation, Sweden

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Full text: content.pdf (606,196 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Ojwaka P M

Process modelling approach to facilities management

Abstract: Facilities are part of a business. They therefore should be run like any other business sub-unit. This business approach should go beyond the mere selling and buying of buildings into complete understanding of all use factors and their relationships with other business units. In accordance with business stipulations facilities should be managed by facts. In contemporary business world there is no room for non quantifiable business actions. A forum through which requirement are standardised would ensure the continuous support of business by facilities. A further benefit of this approach is that it would enable the manager to communicate with any construction experts whose time limited intervention may be required. Facilities are going to be a factor in business competitive advantage in the future. This study establishes the information needed to guide the normal daily operations in facilities and hence establishes the link between the buildings and business. The approach enables the incorporation of key indicators and factors which a firm needs to further its business objectives The data so produced can be standardised for ease of use. The danger posed by rigorous planning systems devoid of input by management is identified and avoided through the creation of appropriate windows for management to express their views and make necessary changes if expedient.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,256,978 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.commerce (0.042801) class.strategies (0.029571) class.man-software (0.029391)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Oluwole Alfred Olatunji

Modelling the Cost of Corporate Implementation of Building Information Modelling

Abstract: The popularity of BIM has improved in the past years. However, its adoption and implementation rates are still slow. Apart from latent limitations regarding yet undefined market drivers; many potential BIM users are still speculative because of a number of concerns. Arguably, there is need for defining comprehensive frameworks for initiating and servicing BIM adoption and sustainable implementation, both in term of cost and non-cost indices. A process model for BIM implementation is discussed using different organization structures. This is indexed on skilling, hardware, software, on-costs, indirect costs and marketing costs. Conclusions are drawn on the benefits and limitations of implementing this model.

Keywords: BIM adoption, BIM implementation, organization structure

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Full text: content.pdf (273,336 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Ozsariyildiz S S, Tolman F P

First experiences with an inception support modeller for the building and construction industry

Abstract: Inception and very early design of complex building and construction projects requires a large number of decisions to be made, considered, rejected, changed, or confirmed. Many views on the project co-exist at the same time, requiring complex communications and access to complicated knowledge covering the complete project and product life cycles.Balancing the results of this non-monotonic decision taking process is (1) not a trivial task and (2) very important for the project outcome, as most of the product and construction process characteristics (like performance and cost) will largely be fixed. Further optimizations in later design stages will only be marginally possible.In order to support the inception and very early design of complex construction project we are developing an Inception Support Modeler (ISM) that guides the user through the decision taking process. Decision taking is supported by a combined PDT (Product Data Technology) and KT (Knowledge Technology) approach. The focus of the current modeler is on the inception of technical buildings, like Power or Process Plant Buildings, Factory Buildings, Hospitals and such. The product model and the knowledge base are developed in co-operation with the Brite- Euram CONCUR project.The paper reports about the first test case of the ISM. As part of a demonstration in CONCUR, the ISM has been filled with Business Objects and Business Logic concerning the inception of a simple Turbine Building.

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Full text: content.pdf (435,817 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.commerce (0.017970) class.processing (0.012190) class.represent (0.011874)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Pakanen J E, Hakkarainen K., Karhukorpi K., Jokela P, Peltola T, Sundström J

A Low-Cost Internet Connection for Intelligent Appliances of Buildings

Abstract: To date, the Internet has been a network connecting mostly desktop PCs, but soon all kinds of intelligent devices containing a small microprocessor will exchange data over the Internet. This will have a big impact on buildings and their technical systems, which now include a number of processor-based devices. Internet connectivity implies a totally new way to control and manage these devices. The potential benefits will be significant. Therefore, the need to design low-cost Internet appliances is worldwide today, and many commercial products are already available. This paper proposes a new technical approach to connect small processor devices to the Internet. The approach makes possible a connection both through the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) and the Global Systems for Mobile Communications (GSM) network. The connection is based on networking software programmed in the processor device and a gateway server, which together transfer data between the PSTN and other communication networks. The data communication utilizes the Short Message Service (SMS) and the Extended Machine Interface (EMI) protocol. Besides the low cost, the proposed system has several benefits, such as uncomplicated structure and operation, standardized data transfer, and an ability to be embedded in an 8-bit processor device. Yet, the approach does not require high-speed data communication. Thus, it is especially suitable for applications controlling slow and non-critical building processes. The proposed system was demonstrated by designing a microprocessor device interfaced to an Air Handling Unit (AHU). Sensor data from the AHU was transferred to the Internet through the PSTN and the GSM networks. In addition, a Web-user interface was created for the remote control of the AHU. The results of the pilot project were encouraging and will be used as a basis for further development of the system

Keywords: Technical systems of buildings, HVAC, Internet appliance, Web appliance, remote control, monitoring.

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/2002/3 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:2002 (browse)
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Pantouvakis, J.P.

Non-Procedural Systems: the key to the Successful Implementation of IT in Construction Management

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Full text: content.pdf (5,960,405 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1990 (browse)
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Peter Katranuschkov, Matthias Weise, Ronny Windisch, Sebastian Fuchs, Raimar J. Scherer

BIM-Based Generation of Multi-Model Views

Abstract: Building information modelling (BIM) introduces a new work paradigm that enables improved interoperability and better coordination of AEC processes. The current IFC standard provides an excellent core reference model for that purpose, together with a growing number of supporting domain extensions. However, generation of task-specific model views from a general-purpose BIM is still a difficult problem. Efforts related to the development of an Information Delivery Manual (IDM) and Model View Definitions (MVD) suggest solutions but reveal also gaps that need to be overcome. This includes: (1) more flexible tool-supported specification of domain model views, (2) mechanisms for generation of (ad-hoc) views on object instance level, and (3) multi-model views, combining BIM data with data from other (non BIM) models, such as costs, equipment, supply chain etc. nD-modelling, extending BIM, only partially gives answers to these issues.In this paper we describe a new approach for the generation of multi-model views that meets the above requirements. It is based on the use of an open IFC toolset developed at the University of Weimar and a formal model subset definition schema (GMSD) initially developed by two of the authors. With GMSD and an associated editing tool it is possible to define arbitrary model views on class level, including a subset of IFC classes, attribute constraints (such as wall thickness > 14cm) as well as partial or full tracing of the object relationships. We extend these definitions on instance level by applying a set of geometric, topological and semantic queries that are resolved at runtime. Moreover, using XML schema based representations we provide for simultaneous import of BIM and non BIM data that can be queried, selected and filtered via harmonised cross-model requests. With the same approach, comparison or merging of BIM model views is also possible.

Keywords: BIM, IFC, model filtering, multi-model views, BuildingSMART

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Full text: content.pdf (416,067 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Philipp Geyer

Embedding optimization in the design process of buildings – a hall example

Abstract: Considering the economic effort and the ecologic impacts of the building industry, optimization embedded in the design process of buildings is desirable as a flexible tool. To apply Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) to building design, adaptations to the special needs of this field are required. In this paper, first, appropriate objectives are discussed, which distribute to three major groups: economic performance, ecologic performance, and preference accordance concerning aesthetics and functionality. Second, the decomposition by components specific for building-design, which link non-numerical qualities with physical, economic, and ecologic quantities, is discussed. The steps are illustrated by means of a demonstrational hall design. Finally, the results of a test run presented for this example reveal the nature of the design space. In conclusion, the specific objectives and components and the system-oriented decompo-sition provide the basis for a CAD-oriented usage of optimization during the design process.

Keywords: multidisciplinary optimization, building-design-specific decomposition, optimization model, computer-aided design

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Full text: content.pdf (639,115 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Pitts, J.M.

Programming Techniques for Non-Professionals

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Series: w78:1986 (browse)
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Pohl J, Myers L, Chapman A

The ICADS model in retrospect

Abstract: This paper reviews work, involving the development and implementation of a prototype working model of an intelligent computer-aided design system (ICADS), conducted at the CAD Research Unit over the past four years. In the ICADS model, images drawn by the architect are analysed in background to establish higher level architectural objects, such as spaces, windows, doors and furniture. Combined with non-geometric attributes obtained from prototypical building type and contextual site/neighborhood knowledge bases, these design objects serve as a highlevel representation of the current state of the design solution. Domain experts, functioning as intelligent design tools, continuously evaluate the current state of the progressively evolving solution model to test solution validity, confirm design program compliance and propose alternative solution strategies. Conflicts among the domain experts are resolved within a blackboard-like coordination and control system.The domain experts and the blackboard, together constituting an Expert Design Advisor, are implemented in a production rule environment utilizing a frame- based representation structure.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,727,109 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1992 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.042682) class.analysis (0.032188) class.man-software (0.029231)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editor, Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


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