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A decision support system for building refurbishment design

Abstract: "Refurbishment work in the EC currently accounts for more than one-third of the total construction output. This market is expected to grow stronger with the progressive ageing of buildings and the environment impetus to retain buildings. A further dimension is the need to adapt buildings for a greying population. There are important differences between refurbishment and new construction works. The existing building constraints the design solutions, construction technologies and work methods. Mechanisation, planning, and efficient organisation of refurbishment work is difficult, due to the small, labour intensive, and ad hoc, dynamic nature of the work. Also due to the relatively small scale of refurbishment projects, there have been no opportunities for standardisation and the applications of prefabrication and industrialisation are limited. Today, larger sized contractors are rapidly moving into the refurbishment market, in response to the shrinking new-build market and the higher technological demands of large scale refurbishment projects. The EC funded Brite Euram project 4670 is titled ‘Decision Support Systems for Building Refurbishment.’ This project has started in August 1998 and will finish in July 2001. Its objective is to develop a socio-technological-commercial framework and corresponding Decision Support Systems (DSSs) for housing refurbishment, to achieve: ? refurbishments which are more focused on user requirements; ? refurbishment designs which take into account the constraints of the existing building structure; ? increased incorporation of industrialised systems and components; ? organisational procedures and production technologies that recognise the unique nature of refurbishment work. The project is divided into three tasks. Task one aims at developing a DSS for the determination of the refurbishment demand and ballpark costs. Task two involves the development of a DSS for refurbishment design. Task three will result in a DSS for refurbishment process planning and control. This paper describes the approach followed for the ongoing development in task two, the DSS for refurbishment design. The main objectives of this task are to provide decision support at the project level. It will develop a database of layouts of representative existing housing estates and a database of preferred refurbishment layouts for these representative existing housing estates. Another database will be developed containing information on building systems and components that are relevant for the refurbishment process. Task two will establish a protocol for refurbishment design support. This protocol, which is implemented in a decision support information system, involves a number of steps that aid the user in selecting an appropriate housing layout and building systems and components that meet the user’s requirements. These steps involve the evaluation of a the user’s refurbishment demands and selection of a matching representative existing housing layout. Based on further dialog with the system, a preferred refurbishment layout is selected, which in turn is used as the basis for the selection of building systems and components that meet the performance requirements as stated by the user. The paper describes the methodology that is implemented in the system for retrieving performance requirements from the user, and the approaches for matching these to the stock of existing and preferred housing layouts available in the system’s database. The system is characterised by a flexible architecture of both the databases and the user interface, which results in a scalable system that allows the expansion of the databases with new graphical layouts and building systems and components, as well as the addition of new kinds of performance requirements. The system is implemented as an Internet application, which allows the database to be maintained centrally and facilitates world wide access to the system. The system’s implementation involves the combination of graphical and non-graphical data that can be queried and matched with only typical Internet browsing software installed at the client-side."

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Full text: content.pdf (465,782 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.029035) class.environment (0.012122) class.impact (0.010657)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


A M Khalafallah

Assessing the Performance of the Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm in Optimizing Construction Site Planning

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Full text: content.pdf (112,659 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2014 (browse)
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Agger K

Geneobjectclases in construction IT

Abstract: The Geno project intent to participate in the development of the next generation of construction IT systems. Goals for this research should be to: * loose the design process from the production of design documents * free the geometry from orthogonal projection * make possible a full, variable, complete detailing without loosing consistency * move the development of building component specific IT modeling * tools closer to the end user * improve the efficiency and capability of these modeling tools The Geno project works with three developer / user layers: * GenoObjectClasses, the basic standardized data and functional structure, developed by IT specialists in a close dialog with the IAI IFC development. * ProtoObjectClasses: IT tools for modeling spaces, construction elements and parts. Developed by IT specialized architects,engineers, on the bases of Genotypes. Made available to the end user through Internet by component vendors. * PhenoObjects: spaces, construction elements and parts, specified, dimensioned and placed and interrelated by the designer, to be analyzed and supply project information for all participants in the construction and management process. Modeling, analyzing and information seeking and presentation done by Prototypes. The idea of this structure is to improve dynamic and user influence in IT modeling tool development. The standardized class structure for this, the GenoObjectClasses has to support three concurrent models, namely the: * SpaceModel, an interrelated surface model, a non detailed division of the project space in functional spaces (living room, kitchen,bath etc.) and construction spaces (foundation, wall, roof, slap etc.). * ComponentModel, a successive partitioning, ore filling theSpaceModel with building elements, components (facing wall, inner wall, insulation, window, door, ceiling, roof construction, inventory, furniture etc.), interrelated and related to the SpaceModel. * EntityModel, a similar fill to the Componentmodel with buildingparts (brick, joint, plaster, fitting, gutter etc.) to make a complete consistent productmodel possible. The "three model structure" to be filled out successively, add flexibility to the designprocess. When calculations and visualizations is performed the detailed model is used, but in areas with no detailing the model on the lower detailing level is used. This means that the total model will be "complete", if only the SpaceModel has been modeled. The development of GenoObjectClases will build as close as possible on IFC, and seek to expand IFC where it is nessesary. Status for the Geno project is that implementation has been started with AutoCAD ObjectARX.

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Full text: content.pdf (79,484 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.026583) class.represent (0.015546) class.synthesis (0.015011)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Alexander J, Coble R, Crawford J, Drogemuller R, Leslie H, Newton P, Wilson B, Yum Kwok-Keung

Information and communication in construction : closing the loop

Abstract: Both nationally and internationally, the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) sector is highly fragmented : it is dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), the nature of information and knowledge can be dispersed among firms and organisations, and consortia are frequently formed from geographically dispersed firms. In recognition of the potential improvements to be gained through an integrated approach to project information used throughout the design, documentation, construction and operation processes, substantial research is underway in Australia to "close the loop" of information flows between designers and constructors. The paper will explore and discuss both the technology platform in terms of information and communications technology (mobile, high-speed and wide area networking linking the design and engineering offices with the construction site) and the information platform in terms of the content of communications between project stakeholders and the requisite information (traditional spatial as well as non-spatial data) of key concern to the stakeholders at various stages of the project lifecycle. The paradigm shift that has occurred over recent years from stand-alone personal computing (which reinforced fragmentation) to mobile and Wide Area networked computing now provides a platform capable of promoting integration, accessibility and co-operation within the sector with attendant gains in efficiency. A minimum requirement to achieve these gains is access to the right information (not just simple data) at the desired level of scale and detail for a particular stakeholder’s view - information which once collected can be stored and refined and then held for use elsewhere on the project without loss and without the need for subsequent re-entry. The information needs to be available quickly and easily, that is at the right time and in the right location for maximum benefit and project efficiency. Demonstration collaborative systems to support interactive Computer Aided Design and information exchange between project stakeholders such as architects, various engineers (electrical, hydaulic, mechanical, structural) and project managers, in an innovative collaborative manner have become available to bring dispersed project members together electronically. Such systems allow project members attached to a network to undertake a range of information access and exchange from simple e-mail; through on-site access to central project data sources via handheld computers; right through to the use of optional live (or pre-recorded) video to enhance collaboration. Using communications infrastructure, this functionality can be shared in various ways - in a corporate-wide environment between regional and/or interstate offices within a company, or in a consortium situation (between offices of a consortium working together on a specific construction project). The questions then arise as to how such systems fit into industry practice, and how the industry might adapt to embrace new opportunities provided by such technological advances. Ease of access to up-to-date, accurate project information for a range of project stakeholders is being extended through research in the US and Australia to close the loop between some of the stakeholders, and this will be discussed in detail in the paper. As well, the progress of industry-based support for a level of interoperability for building and construction information by organisations such as the International Alliance for Interoperability (IAI Australasian chapter) will also be discussed, plus the likely impact of the adoption of Industry Foundation Classes in the Australian building and construction industry in areas such as the design life for buildings based on durability of materials.

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Full text: content.pdf (719,511 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.057235) class.environment (0.023003) class.synthesis (0.022896)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Amor R, Hosking J

ThermalDesigner: an application of an object-oriented code conformance architecture

Abstract: In an earlier paper an architecture was described for supportingcode conformance applications based on Kea, an object-oriented functional language. Here we describe a prototype application, developed using Kea, for checking conformance with a thermal insulation standard. Called ThermalDesigner, this application incorporates an object-oriented building model, a graphical plan entry system for editing plans, andform-based interaction for obtaining non-plan information and supplying results to the user.

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Full text: content.pdf (987,383 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1992 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software development (0.055732) class.man-software (0.028975) class.impact (0.017424)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editor, Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Aouad G, Cooper R, Kagioglou M, Hinks J, Sexton M

A synchronised process/IT model to support the co- maturation of processes and IT in the construction sector

Abstract: In recent years many efforts had taken place in order to develop process and IT maps within the construction sector. However, the subject of co-maturation between IT and the process has not been given enough attention. This has resulted in the development of impractical solutions because of an apparent lack of balance between the IT and process capabilities. For instance, some organisations in the construction sector have adopted the rapid prototyping concept which is widely used within the manufacturing sector without even investing in 3D modelling and VR technologies which are the most appropriate for this task. Paradoxically, some organisations have invested in these technologies, but rapid prototyping is non existent. This paper addresses the issue of co-maturation between the process and IT in order to establish a balanced profile. The work is based on the CMM (Capability Maturity Model) model which was developed by the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University in order to develop software for the US government, particularly to be used by the Department of Defence. The CMM is a five-level model which include ad-hoc, repeatable, defined, managed and optimised stages. The model is designed so that capabilities at lower stages provide progressively stronger foundations for higher stages, reducing the change management risks. Each development stage - or "maturity level" distinguishes an organisation’s process or IT capability. This paper builds on the work achieved within the generic design and construction process protocol (GDCPP) which is being undertaken at the university of Salford. The main contribution of this paper is a conceptual model of co-maturation between IT and process. A synchorised IT/process model will be presented and discussed. This model is being developed through knowledge obtained form the industrial collaborators of the GDCPP project.

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Full text: content.pdf (120,604 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.029904) class.processing (0.022049) class.impact (0.010457)
Similar papers:
Sound: read aloud.

Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Arnaud Doniec, Stéphane Espié, René Mandiau, Sylvain Piechowiak

Traffic Simulation At Junction : Non-Normative Practices Vs. Deadlock

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Full text: content.pdf (826,606 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2006 (browse)
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Atkin B L

Refocusing project delivery systems on adding value

Abstract: The ability to manage a lean supply chain that contains no non-value adding elements is the ultimate challenge. The research behind the paper's findings is based on the production of functional process models adopting IDEFØ methodology to portray information flows, participants, organisations and IT use. Key participants in 11 projects contributed to the research and subsequently verified the models. Analysis was then performed on the models, including checks for consistency and process integrity. A generic model was developed from the best practice elements of all 11 projects, alongside changes in construction procurement and out of sector best practice industrial design and production. The result is a new project generic process model that could form a blueprint for subsequent construction projects. The research continues through modelling and costing different project scenarios so that non-value adding activities can be isolated and eliminated from the supply chain.

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Full text: content.pdf (530,599 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.processing (0.029860) class.impact (0.014831) class.analysis (0.014508)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Badrah M K, MacLeod I A, Kumar B

Development tools for computer-aided design applications in structural engineering

Abstract: This paper reviews some development tools for CAD applications in structural engineering. These tools include spreadsheets, database applications, object-oriented applications, graphics-based applications and neural networks applications. The paper compares these tools against some criteria including standards representation capability, ease of development, suitability for large-scale systems, suitability for in-house software development, maintenance and extensibility capability, integration with other CAD applications, support for non-standard design. Recommendations for both in-house software developers and commercial software developers are given.

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Full text: content.pdf (189,496 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.051037) class.analysis (0.047134) class.software development (0.031381)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Berto P,Cachadinha N

A BIM and AR based platform for managing non-conformances

Abstract: Defects and errors are common and occur repeatedly during construction projects. An effective management of non conformances is vital for a streamlined and efficient production progress. Large quantities of data and information are produced, which can be lost or misinterpreted. Several defect managing systems have been developed to facilitate measuring and correcting defects. However, few focus on data and information gathering and sharing, as well as providing an efficient communication tool for teams on site. Building Information Modeling (BIM) has proven to improve communication and information sharing. The lack of platforms that integrate BIM in the communication processes used on site is hindering the full exploitation of its potential in improving communication. The overarching aim of this research is to develop a unified real-time communication platform capable of providing richer information for the decision making in the non conformances management process. This study lays out the conceptual framework for the communication platform “C-BIM-thru-AR” (Communicating BIM through Augmented Reality). This platform integrates BIM models into the communication channels used on-site and offsite via Augmented Reality (AR) systems. To develop the “C-BIM-thru-AR”, first the systems functional requirements had to be established. To accomplish this, the Integrated Definition for Function Modeling (IDEF0) technique was used to create as-is maps to analyze processes included in production management and establish functional requirements. With the functional requirements gathered and by applying a system thinking approach, the platforms framework and network architecture were developed. The proposed platform aims at enhancing the management and quality of all the information produced from the management of non conformances, ultimately improving the processes productivity. In future studies, the proposed platform could be exploited in the management of subcontractors’ performance which could be stored automatically in the “C-BIM-thru-AR” platform.

Keywords: Building Information Modeling,Augmented Reality,Unified Communication Platform,Communication,Information Sharing

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Full text: content.pdf (2,100,186 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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