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Côté S,Trudel P,Snyder R,Gervais R

An augmented reality tool for facilitating on-site interpretation of 2d construction drawings

Abstract: Two-dimensional drawings are the only type of design document that is legally approved for construction. For large construction projects, because of the drawings’ high level of abstraction and because of the very large number of drawings, interpretation and correct understanding of drawings is identified by some construction firms as their greatest single challenge. To do the building work as designed, the builder must understand the meaning of the drawings, and this comes from establishing a visual correspondence between the abstract 2D drawings and the physical environment. Unfortunately, that correspondence may not be easy to obtain when the structure of interest is not clearly visible from the user’s position (occlusion, differences between the model and the actual building, etc.). In this paper, we propose a technique that enables the display of 2D drawings into the real world using augmented reality in a way that can overcome those kinds of limitations. The tool enables users to browse the real world in search of drawings, or to request the real location that a specific drawing represents, and to view each drawing within a context composed of a combination of captured photographic reality and designed virtual modeling. Augmentation is achieved by displaying the drawing using either an animated sliding plane that shows it being inserted into the real building, or a clipping technique that displays the drawing inside a clipped 3D model which in turn is inside the real building. The 2 techniques were implemented and tested in a situation where section drawings are visualized from the outside of the building. Our results show that those visualization techniques provide good 3D perception in a representation that is easy to understand visually. They also enable quick localization of the drawing in its environment, and provide a better understanding of the drawing with respect to its context: the 3D model and the built environment.

Keywords: Augmented reality,panorama,construction,2D drawings,design,3D model

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Dan H,Yasumuro Y,Ishigaki T,Nishigata T

3d scan planning of outdoor constructions based on photogrammetric model and mathematical optimization

Abstract: A 3D scanner is capable of capturing surface shapes of the objects as a set of point cloud and is extending its applicability toward examining, re-designing and preserving the existing constructions as well as on-site information for BIM. One of the most difficult problems to collect complete surface data of outdoor constructions is to avoid self and mutual occlusions. If we want to collect complete data for covering whole surfaces of the constructions, then we have to measure them from multiple points usually. Moreover, multiple measurements require plenty of time and labor, and each measurement gives a data set consisting of hundreds of millions of 3D points to be processed for further computations. So it is very important to make an effective measurement plan a priori for avoiding redundancy for both labor and computational costs. In this research, therefore, we propose a method for 3D-scan planning of outdoor constructions based on photogrammetric models and mathematical optimization methods. In our proposed method, we first use photogrammetric techniques and make a rough 3D model of measurement scenery: we take photographs of the targets by a calibrated digital camera, and find corresponding characteristic points over the photographs, for example corners and intersection points of edge lines. Next, we triangulate the corresponding points by using 3D photo-modeling software. Finally, we obtain the rough 3D mesh model. After that, we make the optimal scan plan based on the rough 3D mesh model by using some mathematical methods: we examine the visibility and self/mutual occlusion property of each polygon of the 3D mesh, and calculate the minimum number of measurement points and their layout to scan all the surfaces of the targets. Moreover, our proposed method can calculate the optimal layout of the designated number of measurement points to maximize the obtainable data.

Keywords: 3D-Scan Planning,Photogrammetric Model,Mathematical Optimization

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Ito H,Makanae K

Occlusion method based on three-dimensional feature data for mobile augmented reality applications

Abstract: In recent years, the demand for augmented reality (AR) applications has been increasing owing to the spread of smartphones equipped with cameras and various sensors. Hence, there is a need for a high-speed processing method to build three-dimensional (3D) AR applications on mobile devices. In particular, an occlusion process, which determines the virtual object to be drawn on the real image, is indispensable. However, this process requires dynamic depth data of objects in real and virtual spaces in accordance with the movement of the camera. In this paper, we developed an AR tsunami simulation, which uses an occlusion method that cuts out a virtual water-wave by the 3D feature model obtained from real space. The application was developed by using the Unity game engine, which provides realistic rendering functions and compatibility with various sensors in smartphones with an occlusion program that uses OpenGL shader. As a result, the developed AR application performed the occlusion process without sacrificing processing power. The development of AR applications requires careful consideration of processing speed and accuracy in accordance with the requirements of presentation. The visualization of tsunami waves should also be improved, for example, sprays of wave collision should be represented. In the future, development of a more realistic representation technique and a simple method to retrieve depth data dynamically from real space will be necessary.

Keywords: Augmented Reality,Occlusion,OpenGL,Smartphone,Game Engine

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Ludovico Carozza, Enrique Valero, Frédéric Bosché, George Banfill, Rufus Mall and Minh Nguyen

UrbanPlanAR: BIM Mobile Visualisation in Urban Environments with Occlusion-Aware Augmented Reality

Abstract: Effective visualisation is critical to a wide range of activities conducted in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry. This paper presents an occlusion-aware Augmented Reality (AR) solution that is geared towards the visualisation of new developments Ð in the form of 3D BIM models Ð in urban environments, to enhance communication around proposed developments. The solution automatically fetches BIM models from project repositories and enables a user to visualise them within their urban environment with a mobile tablet. The localisation of the tablet is achieved using a visual-inertial approach that uses only the sensors embedded in the tablet. Furthermore, the solution uniquely includes a process for handling occlusions from the real world on the augmented content. Results are presented that demonstrate the full pipeline, including some visualisation results obtained in real urban environments.

Keywords: BIM, Visualisation, Visual-Inertial, Urban Environment

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0152

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