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A Ekholm, L Häggström

BUILDING CLASSIFICATION FOR BIM – RECONSIDERING THE FRAMEWORK

Abstract: The purpose of building classification systems is to provide the sector with agreed and standardised ter¬minology and semantics, e.g. in systems for technical specification, cost calculation, and exchange of information. There is a growing need to use classification systems in a BIM context. In inter¬¬national construction projects and international construction product trade there is a need both to translate between national classification systems and to develop common systems. The idea behind the inter¬¬national framework standard for building classification ISO 12006-2 is that national systems would be easier to compare if they adhere to the class definitions suggested in the standard. A study of two classification systems, the BSAB system in Sweden and the DBK system in Denmark, both within the framework and yet not compatible, has risen the idea of a deeper analysis of the theoretical basis for the ISO 12006-2 classification system to find a solution to this problem. The project has developed such a theoretical framework in order to clarify the relationship between classes representing parts of buildings in the ISO 12006-2 standard, specifically the Construction entity part, Element and Work result classes. This is specifically needed when the standard is used in the context of BIM, since building models include both specialization and compositional relations among information objects representing parts of buildings. The proposed theoretical framework is based on a systems view on the built environment that distinguishes constructions in four main compositional levels: construction entities, technical systems, building elements and components. Based on the theoretical framework developed in this project, possible new interpretations of the classification standard ISO 12006-2 are discussed.

Keywords: building classification, ISO 12006-2, BSAB, DBK

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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A Kiviniemi, M Fischer & V Bazjanac

Multi-model Environment: Links between Objects in Different Building Models

Abstract: The current IFC specifications include relations between objects and enable representation of complex structures in a building product model. However, several research projects have addressed the problem of one integrated model by pointing out the different content and structure of different design domains. The existing software products cannot support all features of the IFC specifications, and because of the structure of AEC industry there are no potential customers for applications which would cover all different information needs. We believe that there will be several instantiated models representing a building project, and these models share some parts of the information which must be linked between the models. However, IFC specifications do not enable links between objects in separate instantiated models. This paper will (1) discuss the reasons for the separation of instantiated models, (2) present the necessary extensions of the IFC specifications, (3) include examples of the links between the requirements model and architectural design model, and (4) discuss some possibilities how to implement this link in a model server environment.

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Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Agger K

Modeling the pragmatic solution

Abstract: An architectural project, designed with a modeling system was followed closely from sketching to detailed design, a report was made. Experiences on the use of a system with an architectural voca- bularium and architectural operations will be presented. The presentation will concentrate on how building modeling is facilitated by the system's understanding of building and buil- ding parts, and the way they are built together to form rooms, and on facilities to represent details without modeling in full detail as a short cut in modeling. The pragmatic solution to the problem of CAAD-systems with archi- tectural knowledge is discussed in terms of current limitations and further extensions.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,332,591 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1988 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.024203) class.communication (0.009266) class.deployment (0.008203)
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Permission to reproduce these documents has been graciously provided by the Lund University and the Swedish Building Centre. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Per Christiansson and Prof. Henry Karlsson, is gratefully appreciated.


Agger K

Geneobjectclases in construction IT

Abstract: The Geno project intent to participate in the development of the next generation of construction IT systems. Goals for this research should be to: * loose the design process from the production of design documents * free the geometry from orthogonal projection * make possible a full, variable, complete detailing without loosing consistency * move the development of building component specific IT modeling * tools closer to the end user * improve the efficiency and capability of these modeling tools The Geno project works with three developer / user layers: * GenoObjectClasses, the basic standardized data and functional structure, developed by IT specialists in a close dialog with the IAI IFC development. * ProtoObjectClasses: IT tools for modeling spaces, construction elements and parts. Developed by IT specialized architects,engineers, on the bases of Genotypes. Made available to the end user through Internet by component vendors. * PhenoObjects: spaces, construction elements and parts, specified, dimensioned and placed and interrelated by the designer, to be analyzed and supply project information for all participants in the construction and management process. Modeling, analyzing and information seeking and presentation done by Prototypes. The idea of this structure is to improve dynamic and user influence in IT modeling tool development. The standardized class structure for this, the GenoObjectClasses has to support three concurrent models, namely the: * SpaceModel, an interrelated surface model, a non detailed division of the project space in functional spaces (living room, kitchen,bath etc.) and construction spaces (foundation, wall, roof, slap etc.). * ComponentModel, a successive partitioning, ore filling theSpaceModel with building elements, components (facing wall, inner wall, insulation, window, door, ceiling, roof construction, inventory, furniture etc.), interrelated and related to the SpaceModel. * EntityModel, a similar fill to the Componentmodel with buildingparts (brick, joint, plaster, fitting, gutter etc.) to make a complete consistent productmodel possible. The "three model structure" to be filled out successively, add flexibility to the designprocess. When calculations and visualizations is performed the detailed model is used, but in areas with no detailing the model on the lower detailing level is used. This means that the total model will be "complete", if only the SpaceModel has been modeled. The development of GenoObjectClases will build as close as possible on IFC, and seek to expand IFC where it is nessesary. Status for the Geno project is that implementation has been started with AutoCAD ObjectARX.

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Full text: content.pdf (79,484 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.026583) class.represent (0.015546) class.synthesis (0.015011)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Alina Delgado, Frank DeTroyer

Process Model for Understanding Stakeholders Expectations in New Projects Development

Abstract: There is in construction a fundamental change in the making and delivering of successful new projects: the focus shifts towards value adding for projects based on a better understanding of stakeholders expectations. The process of modelling this new paradigm in construction will put “the creation of value in the eyes of the client”, central in the development of new projects. This paper describes a model that is designed to help stakeholders to achieve their expectations regarding urban and housing projects. The process of integrating different sub-models (costs and qualities) is examined and includes quality evaluations based on people’s preferences and willingness to pay. The model is developed through a methodological pluralism, identifying people-oriented variables. The different parts of the model are described, besides data requirements for each part. The development of the model was based on a case study carried out on the city of Guayaquil-Ecuador. Information obtained from a field work research was used for testing of the model. The study examines implications and limitations of the use of the model for inclusion of stakeholders. The paper concludes with findings regarding the identification of most preferred attributes by housing users and the use of alternatives methods to incorporated additional value to the projects, translated in more appealing profits for developers and the provision of better and affordable houses for the users.

Keywords: urban process model, stakeholders, value, profitability, affordability

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Amor R

A UK survey of integrated project databases

Abstract: The UK network of experts in objects and integration for construction has now been in existence for a year. In this time it has built up to over a hundred members drawn in almost equal parts from industry and research. The initial meetings of this network have strived to identify areas of concern in the domain as well as to provide feedback to the supporting government agency in terms of policy issues, and to inform its members of the range of issues in the domain. The first published output of this network is to be a survey of integrated project databases (IPDB) in February 1998. This initial survey, analysed and described in this paper, looks at IPDB development and use in the UK. Preliminary work of the network determined a set of criteria to be used to measure the development and impact of various IPDB. These criteria were then used to survey a range of EC supported, UK developed, and commercial implementations of IPDB. Though not comprehensive in terms of the total number of IPDB developments in the world, it gives an initial benchmarking of the state of this domain. The results of this survey, and the ongoing surveys of IPDB developments, are being used to inform the network and government of the state of play in this area. It provides a point to determine: what work has previously been done; which data models might be re-used; where tools reside that could be re-used; where commercial developments have taken place which implement portions of the surveyed projects; what the problems of commercialisation have been; where there are gaps in research; and what life-cycle stages are poorly addressed by IPDB development.

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Full text: content.pdf (48,311 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.impact (0.035336) class.environment (0.032167) class.strategies (0.031179)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Appelqvist I, Keijer U

Building integrity a prototype for an it support system

Abstract: The industrialization of the building industry requires a profound understanding of the interactions between building parts, elements, spaces and systems. The industrialization also causes an increasing number of actors and suppliers to be involved in the building process. The problems concerning interactions are not limited to technical issues. The organization of the process, as well as responsibilities and liabilities of consultants, subcontractors and other actors of the process contribute to the growing implications that constitute the problem in its whole. Neglecting the interaction problems could affect what has been called the Building Integrity problem, BI. The first part of the research has been concentrated to formulate the problem and the key questions to be answered. A conceptual schema describing the BI problem tentatively has been outlined. The schema includes some interesting classifying attributes, e.g. the functions of a building, building parts, spaces, actors and the causes of building defects. A so called "defect model" has been chosen as a base for an IT Support System. The system aims at supporting certain actors to detect BI problems in the building process. A prototype system is currently developed and is described.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,206,229 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.029112) class.social (0.016984) class.represent (0.013808)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Appelqvist I, Keiljer U

Building integrity - interactions between building parts, systems and the actors of the building process

Abstract: Many of the problems concerning poor effectivity, low quality and increased cost in the building process pertain to the area of interaction between building parts, elements, spaces and systems. The industrialisation of the building industry requires a more profound understanding of these interactions. An increasing number of actors and suppliers are involved in the building process which implies interactions related to the organisation of the process. Thus, the interaction problems do not confine themselves to physical parts and technical issues. The organisation of the process, responsibilities and liabilities of consultants, subcontractors and other actors contribute to the growing implications of the variety of interactions that constitute the problem in its whole. An analysis of the general problem, which has been addressed as Building Integrity, BI, has commenced From a systems design point of view, BI is related to the ongoing research on building modelling, which is discussed briefly.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,870,258 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.041949) class.social (0.017435) class.analysis (0.010768)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


BJORK B-C

A Case Study of a National Building Industry Strategy for Computer Integrated Construction

Abstract: Computer integrated construction (CIC) is a future state of the use of IT in construction characterised by the extensive use of computers for all kinds of application as well as by the transfer of information between such applications in digital form. CIC necessitates an infrastructure of data structuring and transfer standards, computer networks, digital information services for construction, etc. This paper presents the efforts made during the last ten years by the Finnish construction industry to develop strategic parts of such an infrastructure, the RATAS project. In addition to a survey of a number of technical projects, the paper also presents the organisational aspects of the project and attempts to evaluate the results that have been achieved so far.

Keywords: computer integrated construction; product model; standardisation; data exchange; object-oriented

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Series: w78:1993 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Can Ersen Firat, David Arditi, Juho-Pekka Hamalainen, Johan Stenstrand, Juhani Kiiras

Quantity Take-Off in Model-Based Systems

Abstract: In recent years, as Information Technology (IT) tools and Building Information Models (BIM) are adopted by more practitioners, it has become apparent that it is possible to have a faster and more efficient quantity take-off system. The efficiency of quantity take-off lies in the smart transfer of the information produced in the design process to construction. Existing BIM-based quantity take-off is performed in the design phase of a project. BIM-based systems provide a smart platform for information exchange between design and construction.A “model-based” system refers in this paper to a Building Construction Information Model (BCIM)coupled with a location-based scheduling process.BCIM offers an environment in the construction phase, where data are stored, updated, and reused via the evolving project libraries of a building contractor. BCIM is composed of three submodels:(i) a building product model that provides the sections and quantities, (ii) a building resource and cost model that provides activity lists and labour consumptions to calculate activitydurations, and (iii) a building process model that introduces the interdependencies of the activities.· In the location-based scheduling process, a preliminary master schedule is obtained automaticallyfrom an information database, and then improved by the planner to fit the conditions of the company and of the project. The use of Advanced Line of Balance (ALoB) is proposed in location-based scheduling.The objective of this paper is to introduce the principles involved in quantity take-off in a “modelbased” system as implemented by a contractor. The paper consists of three parts: (1) the “modelbased” system (composed of BCIM and ALoB) is introduced as the theoretical background; (2) the steps in performing quantity take-off in “model-based” systems are described; and (3) a residential construction project is used to test the proposed quantity take-off principles.

Keywords: building information modeling, BIM, model-based systems, location-based scheduling, quantity take-off

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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