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Bakens W

CIB in a period of transition

Abstract: Introductory presentation by the CIB Secretary General.

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Series: w78:1996 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Ljubljana. The assistance of the editor, Prof. Ziga Turk, is gratefully appreciated.


Bergsten S, Knutsson M

4D CAD- an efficient tool to improve production method for integration of apartments in existing buildings

Abstract: This paper describes an ongoing research project on application of a 4D CAD tool for design and production planning of vertical extensions of existing buildings (over-roofing) in Stockholm city, for creation of a more densely populated city as the demand for apartments in the city centre increases. 4D CAD is a concept, which combines an object oriented 3D CAD model with time. 4D CAD is a kind of information visualisation that is easier to understand than traditional methods, such as 2D drawings and time schedules, which are used to manage construction projects. 4D CAD is a logical way of imaging a construction management tool. It is a tool that is conceptually much closer to an intuitive picture of a construction process than 2D drawings and time schedules. The 4D concept is developed at Stanford University and to support the concept researchers at Stanford have developed a prototype that is being used in some complex construction projects in California. The focus of the research project “Integration of apartments in existing buildings by use of Light Gauge Steel Framing”, which this paper is a part of it, is to improve production methods in order to reduce design, planning and construction time for conversions of, and extensions to existing buildings in the city centres. A way to improve the production methods is by utilising a 4D planning process in combination with industrialised production of building components. Extensions to existing buildings are due to the demand for new apartments in attractive locations in the city centres and shortage of land for housing in city centres. The Light Gauge Steel constructions have many benefits for conversions of, and extensions to existing buildings. According to research results the Light Gauge Steel Framing system is suitable for industrial production. This building system results in a very light weight building compared with traditional materials e.g. concrete which makes it suitable for over-roofing extensions. The materials used in the Light Gauge Steel Systems is thin steel members, plaster boards and mineral wool. Many of the problems, which occur during vertical extensions of existing buildings today, are solved when they are discovered, that is sometimes on the site. Some examples of these problems are poor compatibility between the existing building (structural components and material) and the Light Gauge Steel Framing, detail solutions of the building components, shafts and piping for ventilation, water, sewage and drainage etc. It is less expensive to discover and to correct errors at an early stage compared to solving them on the site. Further a lot of construction time will be saved, which will decrease the disturbance on existing surroundings. Several problems have to be considered in the planning process in order to minimise the disturbance on existing activities and surroundings. This could be done by the use of a 4D CAD planning tool. An over-roofing project located in the city means that the land to use during the production period is limited and expensive. Thereby is the logistic to and from the site more complicated. Consequently the site management and logistic of building components to the building site and their storage on the site is most important. In fact the 4D concept is an efficient planning tool to organise the logistic of the site during the planning phase instead of as today during the production. The site layout can be simulated and visualised with a 4D CAD tool for the actors in the project which in particular will help the site engineer to organise the activities, material flow and site logistic. The value of using the 4D CAD concept is studied by comparing the traditional planning process of a number of over-roofing projects in Sweden with the planning process of the 4D CAD concept. This paper discusses how a 4D CAD tool together with an industrialised production method can be used for improving the production process for an over-roofing project in order to reduce the construction time and with secured quality. The reader will understand and appreciate the added value in form of a more efficient way of managing construction projects.

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Full text: content.pdf (708,786 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.022264) class.impact (0.010607) class.software development (0.010605)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Futcher K, Thorpe T

Longitudinal-grounded case study of a project management information system: a reality check.

Abstract: This paper presents the methodology and findings of a longitudinal-grounded case study of the ambitious implementation of a PMIS within the public works organization of the HKG SAR. It has provided an opportunity for practical experimentation through the quantitative measurement of 'before' and 'after' effects arising from a change in management techniques. These were substantially dependent upon the introduction of a novel PMIS that conformed to the Cleland and King model for a portfolio-management-system that is added-value gained from a project-management data pipeline. The timing of the implementation and its attributes makes it an appropriate vehicle for experimentation to substantiate the Cleland and King proposition for project and portfolio management in multi-projects scenarios. A triangulated-search of the case files covering all aspects of the implementation of the PMIS provides a reality check of the construction business issues that drive systems implementation. It leads to the observation that empirical research into the day-to-day reality of IT innovation within the industry is essential if the gap between research and practice is to be narrowed. Pre and post implementation measurements of performance are used to assess the results achieved from this example of in-practice innovation. At least a three-fold improvement in spending performance was achieved when five years post implementation performance was compared to the five-year pre-implementation period.

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Full text: content.pdf (64,960 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.011734) class.impact (0.010804) class.commerce (0.010593)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Hemmet F J

Project management in the IT era

Abstract: The author has been concerned with the development and application of computer management systems far the construction and allied industries far more than a decade. Based OR that experience the evolution of IT based management systems is traced over that period. The present state of development is examined and an attempt is made to look forward to the possibilities which are becoming daily more apparent. Particular the role of the Client and his increasing involvement in the process is discussed and examined and the effect of the growing demand for quality control in performance and product, through IT systems is discussed.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,226,752 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.022000) class.deployment (0.009739)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Howard R, Petersen E

Monitoring Communication in Partnering Projects

Abstract: This report is a summary of a two year research project carried out by the IT byg group at BYG. DTU for the Danish government agencies Erhvervsfremmestyrelsen and By- og Bolig-ministeriet. The objectives were to collect data on the use of IT by the PPB housing consortia, a development project to test out various innovations, to map communications between the partners, and compare IT usage with their original proposals. Data was collected on communications in housing projects in the period June 1999- Aug 2000. The original PPB proposals were made in 1994/5 but there have been breaks in the flow of projects, and information technology has gone through much change since then. Use of Email has taken over from post and fax, and Project Webs have been developed in most consortia. Consortium members' policies have dominated the choice of management and logistics software, restricted compatibility in the consortia, and limited willingness to share data. Greater involvement by the client, and more sharing of equity, would have encouraged adoption of common IT systems and created more trust for data sharing between partners. PPB projects have allowed consortium members to test out new technologies but, in general, the IT systems used have been similar to those which the larger firms use elsewhere. Vertical integration has been limited by lack of experience and technology in smaller firms. In future, access to Project Webs from mobile devices should help use by all partners from any location. In all the projects studied, and in spite of the introduction of Email and Project Webs, the ratio of non-IT communications to IT varied from 0.8 to 4.6. When problems need to be solved rapidly there appears to be a tendency to revert to traditional means of communication - meetings, telephone and fax.

Keywords: communications, partnering, project web, social network analysis, housing

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/2001/1 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:2001 (browse)
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Howard R

Monitoring use of communications on a partneringproject

Abstract: The 'Process and product development in the building industry' (PPB) projectin Denmark has acted as a test bed for various types of innovation in buildingsocial housing since 1995. Four consortia developed methods of design andconstruction that were tested on a series of similar housing projects. Thedevelopment project was supported by the Ministries of Industry and Housing,who commissioned the ITbyg group to monitor use of information technology.Partnering between the designers and constructors, should have been verysuitable for electronic communication. DTU studied various media used duringboth design and construction stages. It carried out Social Network Analysis ofthe number of messages, and partners involved, in different methods of sharingdata. This is a case study of one consortium and describes its communicationsover a two-week period and their use to solve a design problem. It found thatelectronic communication was little used to solve the problem, but Email wasgenerally used and Project Webs were being tried. However even 5 years ofpartnering is too short for a project team to change its methods of working.

Keywords: Partnering, Communications, Project Web, Social Network Analysis, Housing

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Full text: content.pdf (313,284 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: ecce:2001 (browse)
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Koch C,König M,Neges M,Abramovici M

Performance study on natural marker detection for augmented reality supported facility maintenance

Abstract: The operation and maintenance phase is the longest and most expensive life-cycle period of building facilities. Operators need to perform activities to provide a comfortable living and working environment and to upkeep equipment to prevent functionality failures. For that purpose they manually browse, sort and select dispersed and unformatted facility information before actually going on the site. Although some software tools have been introduced they still spent 50% of the on-site work on inspection target localization and navigation. To improve these manual, time consuming and tedious procedures, the authors previously presented a framework that uses BIM-based Augmented Reality (AR) to support facility maintenance tasks. The proposed workflow contains AR supported activities, namely AR-based indoor navigation and AR-based maintenance instructions. An inherent problem of AR is marker definition and detection. As introduced, indoor natural markers such as exit signs, fire extinguisher location signs, and appliances’ labels were identified to be suitable for both navigation and maintenance instructions. However, small markers, changing lighting conditions, low detection frame rates and accuracies might prevent the proposed approach from being practical. In this paper the performance of natural marker detection will be evaluated under different configurations, varying marker types, marker sizes, camera resolutions, and lighting conditions. The detection performance will be measured using a pre-defined metric incorporating detection accuracy, tracking quality, frame rates, and robustness. The result will be a set of recommendations on what configurations are most suitable and practical within the given framework.

Keywords: Augmented Reality,Facility Maintenance,Natural Markers,Building Information Modeling,Detection Performance

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Kähkönen K, Leinonen J

Visual product chronology as a solution for accessing building product model data

Abstract: Building product modelling technology is principally aiming for solutions which are capturing the data of gradually developing buildings. In simple terms these solutions can be characterised as storages where the most recent data and its updates exist. At the moment IFC standard is providing a common starting point for sharing building product model data between various applications. Having this as a starting point one major current challenge is to build methods and practical tools for accessing building product models. Here the term access means both data input and different analyses over building product model data. For example, the user needs to find out all building components where changes have appeared during certain period and visualise those in an appropriate level of detail. It is considered that these types of operations shall provide a true basis for wide acceptance and impact of building product modelling technology. Visual Product Chronology is an application, which can be used for linking data from various sources with the objects of building product model and for analysing the content of the resultant data storage. Development of Visual Product Chronology is proving improved understanding of various problems and their potential solutions when we are on way to develop applications enabling versatile but an easy access of building product model data.

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Series: w78:2003 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


Leijten E, Vastert E, Maas G

Knowledge aspects of construction planningredesign

Abstract: Traditionally seen a construction company starts working on a project the moment thedesign phase is finished and the specifications of the project are defined. At this point in thebuilding process the company has to decide, in a rather short period of time, how, withwhat and with whom they are going to produce the specified design. Also traditionally,these actions of the construction company are regarded to be rather banal and they carrywith them the image to prepare a production process in which a lot of errors occur. Earlierresearch indicated a different approach to this planning process to be successful. Thisdesign approach however asks for new theoretical concepts and new working methods.In this paper we will present the temporary results of an ongoing research project inwhich we will develop a theoretical concept of designing construction processes and adesign tool for the planning engineer with which it becomes easier to monitor internalcohesion of the construction plan. The theoretical concept contains a description of theresults of the design process. This so called production plan consists of a set of plans and aset of scenarios. Each plan contains all collected information on one single productionaspect (e.g. labour and safety, timetables, measurement information). Each scenario orscheme contains all information concerning the production of a single part of the building(e.g. foundations, glazing, inner walls). The tool to be developed will be a knowledge basedsystem with which knowledge can be managed.The article is concluded with a description of the expected results of our research.

Keywords: planning; construction plan; knowledge based system.

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Series: w78:1997 (browse)
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Leung A W T, Tam C M

Scheduling for high-rise building construction using simulation techniques

Abstract: High-rise buildings are commonly built in densely populated countries or urban areas. A balanced floor construction cycle is critical for construction of the frame structures. The objectives in scheduling the floor cycle are to ensure smooth flows of resources and to optimise the use of formwork and other materials. The floor area is usually divided into zones to allow the labour force and formwork materials moving between zones. The preparation of the floor construction cycle would therefore be a resources allocation exercise. However, the process is complex and difficult when it is done manually. Floats are created deliberately in the schedule to ensure the balance in resources and to provide buffers. Simulation that can demonstrate the real world operations is an effective tool in handling this scheduling problem. This paper examines the constraints in planning the floor cycle and the effects of working period on the overall schedule. Network based simulation model is used to investigate the problems. It is noted that variations in working periods have significant impacts on the time schedule. A saving of 37.2% in time could be achieved when the working period is extended by 20%. The findings indicate that simulation can be used to assist planners to improve their decisions and decide the strategies in scheduling and reviewing the floor construction schedule.

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Full text: content.pdf (132,534 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2003 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


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