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A Khneisseh & R Schach

Application of Coloured Petri-Nets for the Business Process Modelling in Construction Companies

Abstract: Business processes represent a series of added value activities which lead flow-oriented with one or more measurable inputs to a defined, measurable output. The modelling of business process is very complex because of the large number of modelling purposes, modelling subjects and modelling methods and it therefore requires a systematic preparation. The modelling of business processes by means of CPN represents an excellent opportunity to carry out both qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the business processes in construction companies.

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Charles Woodward, Jani Lahti, Jukka Rönkkö, Petri Honkamaa, Mika Hakkarainen, Jani Jäppinen, Kari Rainio, Sanni Siltanen, Jouko Hyväkkä

Case digitalo – a range of virtual and augmented reality solutions in construction application

Abstract: We describe a range of Virtual and Augmented Reality (VR/AR) solutions applied during the planning and construction of VTT’s new head offices, the Digitalo (“Digital House”) in Espoo, Finland. During the building phase as well as in later evaluations 2003-2006, the various approaches used for Digitalo’s visualisation included: radiosity rendering by still images; immersive virtual reality visualisation; mobile outdoors augmenting; augmented scale model; augmented web camera; 3D landscapes; and interior design by means of virtual and augmented reality. We employed various display devices ranging from HMD video glasses to CAVE screens, and from PDA’s to varying kinds of PC solutions. Some of our solutions, for example the augmented web camera and scale model systems, have not been previously presented and they appear here for the first time. Also, we describe the current status of the applied methods, as well as directions for future research. Altogether, we believe this case study to be among the most comprehensive ones in the world to include such a wide variety VR/AR techniques applied in a single building project.

Keywords: virtual reality, augmented reality, CAVE, HMD, web cameras, mobile computing, feature detection, markers, tracking, tangible user interfaces

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Felix Hofmann, Volker Berkhahn

Adjusting a tool for collaborative planning to requirements in practice - realisation of a client-server architecture

Abstract: The planning of projects in building engineering is a complex process which is characterized by a dy-namic composition and many modifications. For a computer-aided and network-based cooperation a formal description of the planning process is necessary. In the research project “Relational Process Modelling in Cooperative Building Planning” a hierarchical process model was defined and divided into three parts: an organisation structure, a building structure and a process structure. Furthermore, we implemented a prototype graph modelling tool in Java to build up the process model dynamically. Our tool includes functions to instantaneously check the structural correctness of the graphs. The usage of critical path and Petri net methods is possible. In our transfer project “Verification of a Tool for Co-operative Planning in Practice”, we currently use a practice building project to test our process model and the prototype implementation. With many engineers working on the process model in collaboration, our implementation needs a client-server architecture to allow distributed work. This architecture comes along with different types of problems: simultaneous work demands a real-time status and thus Cli-ent-Callback, for instance through firewalls. The separation of model and view is difficult, and finally concurrent modi-fications have to be prevented. In this context, problems and solutions are discussed.

Keywords: project management, process modelling, network based collaboration, client-server architecture

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J-H Lee & Z-X Chou

Web-based Interactive Support for Combining Contextual and Procedural Design Knowledge

Abstract: Design study can take design as a process in the form of observing what designers do and how they tackle their tasks. The content of designer decisions and the organization of the process can be corresponded to contextual and procedural design knowledge respectively and they are typically inspected in design process. In this paper, we build a web-based interactive computational tool for designers to support their design process by integrating contextual and procedural design knowledge model. We use a scenario-based analysis to model the contextual design knowledge and the concept of Petri-nets to model a graphical workflow of procedural design process. To exemplify and illustrate our concepts, we focus on a sign design process, even though the system can be applied to a wide variety of design domains.

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Meissner U F, Rueppel U, Greb S, Theiss M

Network-based co-operation processes for fire protection planning

Abstract: To avoid personal and property damages a building has to be planned in accordance with the valid fire protection guidelines. Also with respect to structural alterations the fire protection is a dominant aspect. In order to guarantee the protection objectives in all planning phases, the planning information has to be provided to all designers. Each designer supplies planning information which must be incorporated and considered by other designers. In every building project a new composition of planning partners, processing the distributed information, has to be established. The research project, presented in this contribution, supports the fire protection oriented collaboration between planning partners through the creation of a co-operation network on the basis of software agents. A networkbased co-operation platform to support the process-oriented planning activities has been developed. With regard to the dynamical communication between planning participants a system design with Petri-Nets is presented for process modeling. In addition, the verification of planning steps is enabled by decentralized communication methods in the network. In accordance with their characteristics software agents are well qualified to support the co-operative planning in this network-based environment.

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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


R Katzenbach & J Giere

Supporting Geotechnical Design with Petri-Net-Based Process Patterns

Abstract: The paper deals with process patterns based on Coloured Petri-Nets as a process model to coordinate planning in structural engineering, e.g. geotechnical engineering. Coloured Petri-Nets are mathematically well-founded, and are often used to solve problems concerning concurrency in processes in other engineering domains. The paper introduces a new method to represent geotechnical information in Coloured Petri-Nets, thus enabling a content-based control over design process. Elementary process patterns are introduced, which serve as smallest modules in a bottom-up approach to the more complex process models.

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Recuero A, Alvarez M

Applications of petri nets in construction

Abstract: Petri nets are a very important tool for the analysis of dynamic systems. They should be know by all experts in Computational Science. Their most important applications in Building are in manufacturing processes an in the exchange of electronic messages among different participants in the Building process. In this paper, a brief description of Petri nets is presented, and their application to message interchange is shown.

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V Berkhahn, A Klinger, U Rueppel, U F Meissner, S Greb & A Wagenknecht

Processes Modelling in Civil Engineering based on Hierarchical Petri Nets

Abstract: Process modeling is a central aspect for the support of the network-based coordination of planning processes in civil engineering. Hereby, the planning processes are characterized by some significant aspects, especially the great complexity and the dynamical behavior. To master both, the complexity and the refinement of planning processes, appropriate hierarchical structured process models are necessary. This contribution provides a Petri Net based approach for hierarchical process modelling. The focus is on the formalism to ensure the structural and behavioural correctness of the hierarchical process models and a proto-typic software implementation for hierarchical process modelling in civil engineering.

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