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Jiwen Zhang, Tim Taylor, Roy Sturgill, Gabe Dadi and Nikiforos Stamatiadis

Predictive Risk Modeling of Differential Bridge Settlement

Abstract: Differential settlement between the roadway pavement resting on embankment fill and the bridge abutment built on more rigid foundation often creates a bump when driving from roadway to bridge, and vice versa. This paper studies the problem at a macroscopic level by determining a method to predict the levels of approach settlement to assist designers in developing remediation plans during project development to minimize the lifecycle costs of bridge bump repairs. A macro method considering a combination of maintenance times, maintenance measures, and observed settlement was used to classify the differential settlement scale as minimal, moderate, and severe. A set of project characteristics including approach, abutment type, embankment, foundation, and traffic volume that may influence the formation of differential settlement were identified and used as parameters to develop a model to predict the settlement severity for a given approach. Logistic regression analyses were implemented to identify the relationships between the levels of differential settlement and the input variables for a sample of 600 randomly selected bridges in Kentucky. Geographic region, approach age, average daily traffic, and the use of approach slabs are identified as the four most predominant factors that can significantly affect the formation of differential settlement. Based on the performance of bridge approaches in Kentucky, how those parameters interacted in the prediction model is illustrated in the logistic regressions.

Keywords: Differential Settlement, Logistic Regression, Prediction Model

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0060

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Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Jun Wang, Wenchi Shou, Peng Wu and Xiangyu Wang

Linked Data for Cross-Domain Constraint Information Sharing in LNG Construction

Abstract: Reliable construction plans are vital for effective collaboration across a projectÕs design, procurement and construction. Numerous constraints arising from engineering, supply chains and construction site are the main factors affecting planning reliability. Currently, there is not an efficient way to access all these constraint information because they are stored in various systems and managed by multiple domain participants. This paper aims to utilise Linked Data Technology to enable links to be set between data (i.e. constraint information) in different systems and therefore connect these systems into a single global data space. A prototype of the proposed approach was developed and tested on a sample LNG project.

Keywords: Linked Data; Ontology; Constraint Information Sharing; Liquefied Natural Gas; Lean Construction

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0318

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Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Karkkainen T

Using web in project management, production planning, material management and delivefung project documents

Abstract: Lecture handles Project Management tools supporting project task scheduling, on site work planning, commnnication between partners via Internet nsing system fnnclions for schedules and project task follow-up. Sub-contrators, manufacturers, designers and engineering offices also can make progress reporting using WEB-interface. Information is passed between parties of a construction project via Internet. Passed information may contain documents, plans and other material in electronic form Material orders based on project plans and scheduling are passed from building site to suppliers in electronic form or material requirements are to be reviewed via WEB.

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Series: ecce:1997 (browse)
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Kassem M,Chavada R,Dawood N,Benghi C,Sanches R

Road construction projects: an integrated and interactive visual tool for planning earthwork operations

Abstract: Road construction projects are expensive and highly affected by uncertainties related to factors such as weather, type of soil and other site and environmental factors. These uncertainties impact on the accuracy of predicting resource productivity and developing reliable schedules for earthwork operations. Current simulation and planning approaches and tools not only lack the capabilities of dealing with such uncertainties but they also lack the integration and intelligence to simulate multiple strategies – a model should be built every time a new scenario is required. As a result, planning decisions regarding the assignment of resources are purely based on planners experience and project plans are not the outcomes of comparing various allocation strategies. This paper proposed an approach which is visual, interactive, and integrator of the functions involved in earthwork operation such as activity scheduling, resource productivity calculation, optimal distance calculation and profile visualization. This specifically addresses the challenges related to the limited intelligence and capability of simulating multiple strategies of resource allocation in earthwork operation. The proposed development builds upon a prior study (Castro and Dawood, 2005) that developed a knowledge-driven approach to tackle the ‘uncertainty’ challenge affecting the productivity of resources. This paper hypothesizes that an integrated approach which integrates the various functions involved in earthwork operations and provides an interactive environment where planners could easily change planning decisions and promptly analyze the effect of their decisions could improve the reliability of plans and consequently improve the performance of road construction projects.

Keywords: Earthwork operations,interactivity,resource planning,visualisation

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Kitchens, Kevin and Shiratuddin, Mohd Fairuz

Interactive Home Design In A Virtual Environment

Abstract: In today’s residential market, clients are often faced with many challenges when designing and buying their own home. Most clients find it difficult to visualize exactly what they need by simply going through two-dimensional (2D) blueprints or floor plans. Study shows that 2D visualization has a much steeper learning curve because human naturally sees three-dimensionally. Common tools used to create 2D plans such as AutoCAD have certain advantages in home design, but it may be complex for average users to visualize exactly what has been created. 3D modeling addresses the third dimension (i.e. depth) that is not present in 2D CAD drawings. It allows for better visualization and understanding of designs. For architects, this is a leap from traditional method whereby clients are presented with numerous 2D drawings. The use of 3D modeling can improve precision and speed of the design process and eliminates potential costly errors. However, current 3D modeling software provides limited realtime 3D interactions for users. This paper presents an interactive home design application in a virtual environment. We developed a prototype using a next-generation 3D game engine known as the C4Engine. This paper also describes the development process of the prototype application, its components and features.

Keywords: home design, interactive visualization, next-generation 3D game engine, virtual environment

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Series: convr:2007 (browse)
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Leijten E, Vastert E, Maas G

Knowledge aspects of construction planningredesign

Abstract: Traditionally seen a construction company starts working on a project the moment thedesign phase is finished and the specifications of the project are defined. At this point in thebuilding process the company has to decide, in a rather short period of time, how, withwhat and with whom they are going to produce the specified design. Also traditionally,these actions of the construction company are regarded to be rather banal and they carrywith them the image to prepare a production process in which a lot of errors occur. Earlierresearch indicated a different approach to this planning process to be successful. Thisdesign approach however asks for new theoretical concepts and new working methods.In this paper we will present the temporary results of an ongoing research project inwhich we will develop a theoretical concept of designing construction processes and adesign tool for the planning engineer with which it becomes easier to monitor internalcohesion of the construction plan. The theoretical concept contains a description of theresults of the design process. This so called production plan consists of a set of plans and aset of scenarios. Each plan contains all collected information on one single productionaspect (e.g. labour and safety, timetables, measurement information). Each scenario orscheme contains all information concerning the production of a single part of the building(e.g. foundations, glazing, inner walls). The tool to be developed will be a knowledge basedsystem with which knowledge can be managed.The article is concluded with a description of the expected results of our research.

Keywords: planning; construction plan; knowledge based system.

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Full text: content.pdf (63,428 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1997 (browse)
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Lippold A

Immersive conceptual design in a 3d city model

Abstract: Facing the challenges of aging infrastructure, the search for better renewable energies and growing population in cities, Government agencies, municipalities and utilities are looking for more accountability, risk mitigation and collaborative decision making around investments in infrastructure design and construction. Often, what’s requested by stakeholders is a better overall process to understand, experience, and collaborate around infrastructure development while balancing the demands for sustainability with the need for economic growth and livability. For many stakeholders, an accurate 3D city model can help design professionals, agencies, and public stakeholders alike understand the impact of projects more intuitively than can 2D plans. The visually immersive presentation and interaction (interactive 3D navigation, manipulating, annotating, publishing, collaborating and distributing information on-demand) of 3D models can help to meet these challenges. Infrastructure planning processes typically involve several parties, from designers, agencies, and public stakeholders. Collaborative processes require that information is available from different platforms at any time. Collaboration includes the ability to markup and comment so that reviewers can share feedback with designers, as well as the ability to allow teams to improve efficiency by distributing design across communities of editors. Cloud-centric workflows enable users to enhance the process of collaboration throughout the planning process, such as comments and collaboration, in order to achieve a more confident and sustainable decision on infrastructure design and construction. This means being able to pass information, connect to the team or doing editing work on the same dataset using the internet connection to reach the model stored in the cloud. Moreover, 3D models enable all stakeholders to stay on the same page regarding proposed development, because of the more natural, intuitive way for communicating with non-technical stakeholders. Besides the collaborative environment the way those 3D models are visualized are important in terms of acceptance. Based on even simple GIS and CAD data the look and feel should be as realistic and immersive as it can represent the reality as it is or as it can be.

Keywords: infrastructure design,conceptual design,3D sketching,Cloud-centric workflows,Collaboration,3D modeling,immersive visualization

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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M Betts & J Yang

The Significance and Priorities of IT in Sustainable Construction Development

Abstract: On a worldwide basis, sustainable construction is increasingly recognised as the primary challenge faced by the development industry. It requires a multi-faceted approach and a magnitude of professional intertwining, in contrast to the current pockets of fragmented knowledge development in areas such as indoor air quality and grey-water management. There is a need to consider the big picture concerning more complex processes, decision making, integration, collaboration, and coordination between hierarchies both internal and external to the industry. The handling of these issues can rely on information technology as a proven tool for managing projects and industry development for construction. Existing IT applications for sustainable development have been limited, with isolated studies on energy modelling, intelligent control of systems, and assessment tools for environmental ratings. There needs to be an emphasis on developing a common IT vision for sustainable development and action plans for strategic implementation. There should be expansion of IT application areas prioritising on benchmarking, simulation, process modelling, decision support, communication and education of sustainable construction principles and practices. The level of success in this endeavour will depend on how we demonstrate IT's significance to sustainable development and how we prioritise sustainability constraints appropriate for IT to enable alleviation. This can be aided by the promotion of exemplar projects and international alliancing, as outlined in this paper through some QUT initiatives.

Keywords: IT, sustainable construction, management, industry development

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Full text: content.pdf (290,775 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2004 (browse)
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Marasini R, Dawood N, Dean J

Real-time management of stockyard using integrated digital technologies

Abstract: This project is a follow up from a stockyard layout planning research where simulation approach has been used to find the best stock layout for the efficient storage, loading and dispatch of precast concrete products. It was concluded from the study that a more robust real time management system should be in place to implement stockyard layout plans and help to retrieve products in an efficient manner. The proposed system will be composed of a number of integrated digital technologies that assist in retrieving products from the stockyard. The technology is composed of a central database where storage locations (bays) for the products are determined through the simulation model and actual supply from the production lines (presses). During loading and dispatch processes, the order number to be served is fed to the system. The system then guides the loaders (forklift drivers who load the products into the lorries) the products about the locations to be visited through a graphical display system installed in the lift trucks, the visitation sequence as well as quantity to be loaded in the lorries. To identify the right products to be loaded within the storage bay (location), geodetic positioning system (GPS) is utilised. Through intelligent system fitted in the lift trucks, and using bar code technology, products are retrieved efficiently. In this paper, the various technologies available for product identification have been reviewed, and an integrated real time model has been developed. Using a case study, the preliminary real-time implementation of the model and its results, problems encountered, and future steps have been discussed.

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Full text: content.pdf (201,966 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.013616) class.impact (0.010128) class.retrieve (0.009144)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Mecca S, Marco M

An IT oriented approach supporting the integration of technical risk, quality, environment and safety management in construction

Abstract: "I.T Context I.T. plays a key role to connect risk management with an integrated three dimension management system integrating quality, environment and safety management. Planning Techniques in construction aims to support the decision integration in the on/off site interfaces of construction processes. Starting just from the design phase the quality management strategies integrated with the performance theory allow to formulate a full list of requirements for project activities which can effectively stored in product models of construction elements. The technical risk analysis aims to operate a large performances analysis in on/off site processes. The risk analysis supports quality management in construction planning for determining a graduation of levels of performance required to the management system, which means identifying the specific project criticality in time, cost and quality fields and combining the most appropriate measures of prevention. Objective The objective for the developing research has been focussed on a planning technique integrating the information flow from the design phase to the construction process, oriented to allow the main contractor and the subcontractors to utilize quality plans schemas and risk analysis deriving from design phases as input in the risk analysis detailing and quality plans refinement. Methodology By a widespread collaborative analysis, dealt with an AI planning methodology applied in the construction domain, it might be possible to identify all actions aiming at reducing and preventing failure risk, intended as specific non conformance risk of elements and activities characteristics, and develop the right organizing strategies to increase the contractor's reactivity toward failure and defects. The Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) methodology and the quality management applied to the construction planning are developed by means an intensive data exchange involving the project operators – e.g. designer, owner, contractor and subcontractor – in identifying the failure risk and in planning the prevention and control measures. Results An experimental FMEA system for analyzing risk factors in construction planning is advanced. Based on a schema of integrated tools, the techniques aims to provide a cooperative planning system toward a systematic approach representing a non conformance technical risk analysis in construction management."

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Full text: content.pdf (255,308 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.020367) class.strategies (0.019228) class.environment (0.016653)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


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