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A Ciribini & G Galimberti

4D Project Planning and H&S Management

Abstract: A The European Client Organisations must face huge responsibilities by 92/57/EC Directive when the Health and Safety Management System has to be built in. Moreover, Public Client Organisations are trying, in different ways, to cope with such duties in modifying their Project Execution Plans over time so to update project schedules and reports complying with H&S Plan-related measures. The researchers have performed a detailed analysis which should allow Project Sponsors and Project Managers to deal with Time Management following a safety-oriented approach.

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Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Aalami F, Fischer M

Joint product and process model elaboration based on construction method models

Abstract: In practice, construction planners need to plan and replan projects at several levels of detail and would like create 4D visualizations to communicate construction schedules. The current construction planning and scheduling process is , however, still largely manual and time-consuming, making it difficult to maintain an appropriate and realistic set of plans, schedules, and 4D visualizations throughout design and construction. Researchers have demonstrated the usefulness of a product model with a decomposition hierarchy and supported-by relationships between project components to generate a construction process model automatically. The product model's decomposition hierarchy supports the generation of hierarchical activities, and the supported-by relationships between components enable automated reasoning. However, the resulting process model is typically not a usable or realistic construction schedule, since activities can only be sequenced if elaborated to the same level of detail, and component-based activity elaboration is limited to the original product model. This paper discusses how a customizable and general representation of construction method models supports the transformation of a design-centric product model into a production-centric view. A formalized hierarchical construction planning process forms the basis of this translation process. The planning process is broken down into method-driven elaboration and hierarchical planning and scheduling steps. User-defined and user-selected construction method models drive the elaboration process by supplying the necessary activity and component elaboration knowledge. The product model undergoes a transformation from a design-centric decomposition to a production-centric decomposition. The elaborated activities are sequenced based on constraints that are passed on to the activities from their construction methods. The output of the planning process is a 4D production model. A 4D production model is a linked representation of an elaborated product and process models. A 4D production model is a flexible representation of the construction process that can support many views for communication and evaluation, e.g., 4D visualization, CPM-network, barchart, or resource histograms.

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Full text: content.pdf (289,626 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.035804) class.processing (0.027755) class.communication (0.018300)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Al-Hajj A, Aouad G

The development of an integrated life cycle costing model using object oriented and vr technologies

Abstract: There is an increasing realisation of the importance of operation and maintenance as opposed to capital costs throughout the life of an asset. In addition, new styles of contracts such as PFI (Private Finance Initiative) are becoming more popular. This will require that the building product is addressed within its holistic picture including the design, construction and maintenance. It is therefore vital to embed the life cycle costing element of a facility within its design and construction. Whole Life Costing is a technique used to facilitate effective choice between alternatives in the search of economic solutions. Information technology, particularly integrated databases and VR (Virtual Reality), can provide the mechanism to facilitate the integration of the whole life cost information. The research project described in this paper aims to add a life cycle costing element to the design phase of the OSCON integrated database developed at Salford University in the UK. The current integrated database within OSCON supports the functions of design, estimating and planning. The proposed system will allow the user within a VR environment to navigate inside the building retrieving information about building components that need replacement or repair. A colouring mechanism will be developed to show various elements in different colours according to cost criteria. This would allow the user to easily inspect the building and get rough ideas of repair and maintenance programmes, running costs and cash flows. The system will allow data to be updated continuously so that it will enable the comparison with initial plans and estimates and provides a fresh view of future action and feedback.

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Full text: content.pdf (77,170 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.029049) class.processing (0.019301) class.software development (0.013495)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Amor R, Hosking J

ThermalDesigner: an application of an object-oriented code conformance architecture

Abstract: In an earlier paper an architecture was described for supportingcode conformance applications based on Kea, an object-oriented functional language. Here we describe a prototype application, developed using Kea, for checking conformance with a thermal insulation standard. Called ThermalDesigner, this application incorporates an object-oriented building model, a graphical plan entry system for editing plans, andform-based interaction for obtaining non-plan information and supplying results to the user.

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Full text: content.pdf (987,383 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1992 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software development (0.055732) class.man-software (0.028975) class.impact (0.017424)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editor, Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Boughton G S, Futcher K G, Lloyd R H, McMahon M A

Management of dynamic projects within a virtual (paper-less) office

Abstract: This paper presents fresh directions currently being developed and implemented for project management of major works for the Highways Department of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (S.A.R). Techniques based on a new approach to computer-aided office practices and procedures, for office-based and on-site professionals and technicians. The intention is a replacement for previous technologies which are seen to be encumbered by outmoded traditional project information management processes. The Government of Hong Kong SAR gained considerable experience and immeasurable benefit from the use of IT, on what has been the world’ s largest infrastructure programme of the 1990’s, namely the new Chek Lap Kok international airport with accompanying arterial express routes. Through economic necessity, the Government plans to promote significantly more construction within the territory in the next two decades, with projects of comparable magnitude, commencing as the airport-core-programme reaches completion in 1998. What has emerged in the course of construction works since 1993, is a striking departure from traditional administration-centred-office-operations. It has become evident that project management processes must avoid being swamped by large volumes of project information and its dissemination. Disparate manual record keeping and paper document processing are a limitation and hindrance to collaborative tasking essential to any project. Computerised record keeping, status tracking and on-line project cost reporting are demanded as an essential panacea to these ailments. It is anticipated that full relief must be gained by implementing professional-centred-office, operations which provide full office automation: the creation of the ‘virtual’ project management organisation. The paper describes the practical research commissioned by the Highways Department to enable implementation of technologies for a practical information system to serve pragmatic people in the manner of a virtual project management organisation.

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Full text: content.pdf (48,899 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.021601) class.economic (0.014870) class.synthesis (0.009177)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Chang L M, Chen P H, Abdelraziq Y

Bridge painting defects recognition using samplying plans and image processing techniques

Abstract: Bridge painting inspection is a time-consuming work that relies on plenty of human visual efforts that are subjective, inefficient, and inaccurate. In order to shorten the inspection / evaluation time and increase the accuracy, two unbiased sampling plans and an automated recognition system were developed with the hope of standardizing and automating the inspection process. The system hybridizes image processing techniques and neural networks, which provide expert knowledge through training, to automatically diagnose the defects on an image. The developed recognition system can process vast number of images instantly and intelligently with simulated human expertise. The detection of rust areas is used to exemplify the recognition system.

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Full text: content.pdf (382,147 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.041745) class.synthesis (0.010450) class.strategies (0.006286)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Chuen-Chyi Hsieh, Te-Che Chen, Ting-Wu Ho and Chien-Cheng Chou

Taiwan High-Speed Trains Emergency Dispatching Using Ontology-Based, Multi-Agent Model

Abstract: High-speed rail (HSR) systems have played a more and more important role for todayÕs traveling public. To guarantee punctual, reliable and safe services, modern HSR systems are equipped with sophisticated computerized subsystems for daily operations. However, when a natural or man-made disaster occurs, currently extensive human interventions are needed and, consequently, extended delays and possible injuries may occur if HSR emergency dispatching plans utilized do not accommodate all the conflicts raised. Previous literature shows that multi-agent system (MAS) technology can be utilized to provide decision-making assistance in a distributed and dynamic environment and is often combined with ontology and semantic rules to enhance the reasoning capability. Hence, this research aimed at developing an ontology-driven MAS model for HSR emergency dispatching, and intelligent agents were constructed using JADE (Java Agent DEvelopment framework) and ProtŽgŽ with SWRL (Semantic Web Rule Language). The proposed model was validated with three real HSR emergency dispatching cases, plus 50 hypothetical cases. Experts from Taiwan HSR company were asked to assess the model performance. The assessment results showed that the HSR emergency dispatching plans generated were similar to those designed by experienced dispatchers, and the time required to develop a plan using the proposed model was significantly less than the time needed in the manual approach. The model is expected to help young dispatchers handle emergency dispatching cases under stress, as well as to strengthen the safety aspect of HSR services. Delays or casualties associated with a train disaster could be reduced if the proposed model is adequately utilized.

Keywords: Multi-Agent System, Ontology, High-Speed Rail, Disaster Response Phase, Emergency Dispatching

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0256

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D A L Calquin, M Trebilcock

Using Building Performance Information in the Design of Floor Plans

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Full text: content.pdf (256,987 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2014 (browse)
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Dado E, Tolman F

Support of site construction processes by product data technology

Abstract: In the last decade or so design/engineering of building and construction projects is gradually incorporating advanced information technologies, like Product Data Technology. The main drive for this development comes from the demand for meaningful electronic communication between CAxx systems of various disciplines. Getting rid of the islands of automation and information improves both the design processes and the design results. However islands of automation and information not only exist in design/engineering, but also in the construction phase. Moreover the design/engineering and the construction faces as a whole, are still very much isolated. Now that in the foreseeable future main contractors will receive a complete project description, a product model, in electronic format, the question becomes important how PDT can support site construction. In recent studies, researchers in the field of planning, scheduling and cost-estimating of construction projects, discerned the importance of the ability to deal with explicit information about construction methods and technologies is an important capability for future support systems. The main idea is that experiences and knowledge from earlier construction projects are stored in construction methods. By representing these construction methods in a standardized electronic form (i.e. databases, objects), an organization, such as a main contractor, is able to exchange information with other organizations and allows an organization to assemble a repository of techniques which they are familiar with. These computer-interpretable models for the representation of construction methods can be used to support the automated generation of plans, schedules and cost-estimations. This paper reports about a study into the question how to generate plans, schedules and cost-estimations given (1) a standardized product model and (2) a library of standardized process objects implementing information about construction methods. Initial results of a system that supports the translation of the product oriented design/engineering view into the process oriented main contractor view will be shown and discussed.

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Full text: content.pdf (112,343 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.026380) class.communication (0.018471) class.impact (0.016846)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Dawood, Nash and Sikka, Sushant

Measuring the Effectiveness of 4D Planning as a Valuable Communication Tool

Abstract: Construction industry is very much information hungry and is often described as a slow adopter of new IT technologies. The importance of sharing and communicating information is becoming increasingly important through out the whole life of a construction project. Communication of information among different stakeholders is becoming critical as each stakeholder possess different set of skills. As a result, extraction, interpretation and communication of complex design information from drawings is a time consuming and difficult process. Advanced visualisation technologies, like 4D planning (3D product model integrated with schedules) have tremendous potential to increase the communication efficiency and interpretation ability of the project team members. Visualisation is the process of displaying information which assists in understanding and evaluating information. However, its use as an effective communication tool is still limited and not fully explored. The main objective of this research is to measure the effectiveness of communicating construction information of product and processes using 4D models compare to traditional 2D (two-dimensional) CAD drawing approach. An experimental exercise was developed and experiments had been conducted among participants in different age groups (11 to above 22 years) and profiles. The purpose of this research is to evaluate how much information participants are able to extract and retain in their mind by analysing two different graphical representation formats (2D CAD or 4D models). Participants had been divided in two groups (2D & 4D). One group used 2D CAD drawings describing the plans, elevation and sectional drawings, and a bar chart showing the construction schedule. While other group used a detailed 4D model of the house showing the construction sequence. Participants in both the groups are required to construct the same physical model of the house using a Lego kit (423 bricks) in the allotted duration of two hours. Outcomes of the research has provided the quantitative evidence that 4D group has performed better than 2D group by constructing 7% faster the physical model, spent 22% less time in extracting information from building information and reconstructed 77% less Lego bricks compare to 2D group. Participants in 4D group were able to communicate and coordinate better as compared to participants in 2D group.

Keywords: communication, 2D CAD, 4D planning, visualisation, Lego bricks

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Series: convr:2007 (browse)
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