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Arnold J A, Teicholz P

Modeling and usle of component information in the process industry

Abstract: This in-process research project investigates the life-cycle information requirements for the components3 which are installed in process plant facilities. We have done this to gain insight into existing standards efforts and to understand the content requirements for the development of standard information models that represent such components. This work seeks to understand how these information models may be used to improve business and technical work processes through the development of software applications which support information sharing between component design objects rather than information exchange between design documents.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,424,261 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.026230) class.commerce (0.019810) class.processing (0.019388)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Arthur W T Leung, C M Tam

Assessment of Impacts of Project Technical Complexity on Building Production Using Clustering and Knowledge-Based System

Abstract: Site production layout planning is highly correlated with the technical complexity of a building project. Building structures, building layouts, scales of project and external site conditions are the major components affecting allocation and positioning of site facilities and construction plant. The relationships between these attributes are well known by experienced project managers. In the planning and tendering process, project managers and planners would assess and decide the site production layout by applying their cognitive knowledge using intuitive rather than quantitative approaches. They recognize the benefit of using quantitative models in decision making, which however present much difficulty when modeling the intwined and complex relationships between large numbers of variables. This study proposes an assessment model to examine impacts of technical designs, building layout designs and site conditions on building production with respect to the site layout plan using a data-based platform, which can assist decision making in site planning.The system consists of two components, the Building Production Impact Assessment Model (BPIA) and the Building Production Impact Database (BPIDB). The BPIA adopts the natural clustering technique, the self-organizing Map (SOM), to classify building project samples in terms of technical complexity to compute the technical complexity index for the sample projects. The sample projects and their index are uploaded to the BPIDB forming the data records. In the assessment platform, planners can input the project information of a new project, and the system will return with a complexity index and three sample projects with the highest similarity. The objective of the proposed system is to generate both a quantitative complexity index derived by the clustering model and the cognitive knowledge through the selected projects to improve the quality of decisions. The conceptual framework of the system will be discussed and illustrated with examples.

Keywords: technical complexity, building production, clustering, database

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Full text: content.pdf (73,314 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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C Kasprzak, C Dubler, E Gannon, E Nulton

ALIGNING BIM WITH FM: STREAMLINING THE PROCESS FOR FUTURE PROJECTS ON THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY CAMPUSES

Abstract: A study performed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 2004 found that owners account for approximately $10.6 billion of the $15.8 billion total inadequate interoperability costs of U.S. capital facility projects in 2002. Because of these inefficiency costs, it becomes vital that information produced during the design and construction phases of a project be transferred into operations with maximum leverage to the end users. However, very few owners have defined these informational needs or developed an integration strategy into existing maintenance management systems. To increase operational efficiency, an organization must first develop an understanding of their operating systems, as well as identify how Building Information Modeling (BIM) will add value to their daily tasks.The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) has a unique opportunity to diversely implement BIM processes because not only does the University act as an owner, but also as designer and construction manager on the majority of projects. The struggle that PSU faces is one that is unique only to owners with a large, existing, multifaceted building inventory. This paper outlines the current initiative by the Office of Physical Plant (OPP), the asset manager at PSU, to develop an information exchange framework between BIM and FM applications to be used internally. Specific topics to be ascertained are: the research steps taken to develop a strategic implementation plan for information exchange process between project stakeholders and the OPP; an overview and gap analysis of the existing operations processes currently implemented; and a summary of the collaboration effort between vendors, project stakeholders and the OPP to develop this information integration. As a result of this research, PSU has been able to define owner operational requirements for future projects and develop a flexible integration framework to support additional BIM tasks and information exchanges.

Keywords: BIM, Facility Management, Owner, Operations

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Full text: content.pdf (236,201 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Edwards D J, Yang J, Love P E D

A Computer Based Software Tool for Assessing Plant Operatives' Productivity

Abstract: Developments in computer hardware and software have significantly influenced the accuracy of estimating and predicting construction productivity. To date, a plethora of unique computer software packages is readily available and these packages have helped to increase production and profitability whilst simultaneously reducing financial risk. This paper presents and describes the development of a new prototype Computer Based Software (CBS) human resource management tool, that can be used to assess a plant operative's potential productivity output. The CBS utilizes information extracted from a range of factors and variables that exhibit a significant correlation between machine production and operator attributes (for example, management practices and site conditions).

Keywords: computer software, productivity, plant operative, off-highway plant and equipment

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Full text: content.pdf (301,404 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: itaec:2004 (browse)
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F Qin, F Fan, Z Li, H Qian, X Jin

Thermal Simulation of Hydration Heat in Slab of Taishan Nuclear Power Plant Unit 2

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Series: w78:2014 (browse)
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G Hamazaki, G B. Monteiro Lopes

An Approach about the Modelling process to Geometric Objects with the ISO 15926 standard

Abstract: No matter in which area they are applied, information technologies are used to increase the productivity of companies that use different computer systems from different suppliers. Most of time, data are stored in proprietary format. This fact creates difficulties for the integration and interoperation between the computer systems, forcing companies to invest money to simply mitigate this problem. Specifically in the field of Oil & Gas, the ISO 15926 standard (Industrial automation systems and integration – Integration of life-cycle data for process plants including oil and gas production facilities) proposes a standard for integration, sharing, exchange and delivery of data between computer systems based on the standardization of data formats and on an ontology approach to represent common industry classes and relations. Due to the structure and the large number of terms defined at the ISO 15926 standard, the complexity to model objects using that library is high. This work presents a methodology to model geometric objects following structure of the standard, harmonizing Parts 2, 3, 4 and 7 of ISO15926. The writers take into account the need for complete abstraction between geometry and business data, as well as the requirement for a federated architecture for managing process plant project item symbology.

Keywords: Geometry, Ontology, Semantic Web, Interoperability, Oil & Gas¬

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Full text: content.pdf (290,049 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Howard H C

Modeling process and form for process plant pipe routing

Abstract: The Design Power Auto Router rapidly generates conceptual pipe routes using an integrated object model built from process schematics along with the geometry and layout of equipment and pipe supports. The software reasons about physical and topological relationships between the components to position nozzles on the equipment and to route pipelines between the nozzles while avoiding obstacles, minimizing unsupported pipe lengths, and placing pipeline components such as tees, reducers, flow meters, and control valves. The router reduces the time required for conceptual routing from weeks or months to a few hours to set up the routing model and a few seconds or minutes to generate a set of routes. With this kind of improvement in speed, plant designers can produce more accurate and detailed estimates, or explore many more layouts.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,205,367 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.processing (0.033662) class.synthesis (0.016560) class.software-machine (0.002612)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


I.C. Wu, A. Borrmann, E. Rank, U. Beißert & M. König

A Pattern-Based Approach for Facilitating Schedule Generation and Cost Analysis in Bridge Construction Projects

Abstract: The paper presents a computational method to help in automating the generation of time schedules for bridge construction projects. The method is based on the simulation of the construction works, taking into account the available resources and the interdependencies between the individual tasks. The simulation is realized by means of the discrete-event based simulation software originally created for plant layout in the manufacturing industry. Since the fixed process chains provided there are too rigid to model the more spontaneous task sequences of construction projects, a constraint module that selects the next task dynamically has been incorporated. The input data of the constraint module is formed by work packages of atomic activities. The description of a work package comprises the building element affected, the required material, machine and manpower resources, as well as the technological pre-requisites of the task to be performed. These input data are created with the help of a 3D model-based application that enables to assign process patterns to individual building elements. A process pattern consists of a sequence of work packages for realizing standard bridge parts, thus describing a construction method which in turn represents a higher level of abstraction in the scheduling process. In the last step, the user specifies the available resources. The system uses all the given information to automatically create a proposal for the construction schedule, which may then be refined using standard scheduling software.

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Full text: content.pdf (384,072 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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Mcgowan P H , Randall C W, Horner R M W

Resource significant models for estimating, planning and control in construction

Abstract: The production of acceptably accurate estimates and programmes in any contracting organisation is a function of the reliability of the estimating and planning data, the soundness of judgement applied by the estimators and planners, and the abnty of the organisation to manipulate and process the data. By applying the lessons learnt from historical projects, the estimator or planner hopes to minimise the risk associated with the current project. In order to gain access to this vital information the historical data should relate to a realistic and measurable yardstick to which productivities, gang compositions, etc can be assigned. This should in turn dictate the format of the estimating or planning model issued by the client, Equally, it is vital that the resources expended on site can be efficiently and conveniently allocated against the requisite yardstick, ideally as a part of the control process. The authors have used the philosophy of resource significance to produce rational models for the generation and maintenance of a comprehensive and realistic estimating and planning database for construction projects. The models reflect the level of detail necessary for the production of acceptably accurate estimates and programmes by encompassing the sign%cant labour, plant and material resources of a project. A factor is applied to the value of the significant resources to calculate the total value. The work packages of the resulting resource significant models relate to site operations and activities, thus ensuring that the database can form the basis of the site control and feedback system, as well as the tender models.

Keywords: resource significance; cost modelling; control; feedback; programme

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Full text: content.pdf (612,842 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


N. Shaw, D. Bouchlaghem, D. Kerr

Strategic review of the production of a 4D construction sequencing model – the lessons learnt

Abstract: Construction project losses can often be associated to information failures caused by poor coordination between the multi-disciplinary organisations that deliver them. Information failure could include late, inaccurate, in-adequate and inconsistent information. 4D Construction Sequencing Models (CSM) seek to improve the coordination of design, plant, equipment and labour through the visual representation of the construction process by linking project programmes with 3D design information. This paper reports on the experiences of a major UK contractor during the development of a 4D CSM, with a focus on the lessons learnt and the recommendations made. Team problem solving workshops, semi-structured interviews and a lean study review were conducted to establish these findings. The concluding recommendations not only highlighted the importance of establishing a standard method and proce-dure, but also identified several software limitations that have subsequently been reported to the developers and will be incorporated as future enhancements. The challenge of maximising the value of 4D CSM for clients and change man-agement also form key topics within the paper.

Keywords: 4D, construction, sequencing, process, lean

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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