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Alarcon L F, Bastias A

Computer aided strategic planning

Abstract: Modelling concepts developed to analyse project strategic decisions have been extended and implemented in a computer system leading to a generalised methodology that allows modelling and evaluation of strategic decisions in almost any decision area. Some recent application areas of this modelling system are: strategic planning, evaluation of environmental policy impacts and evaluation of risks in owner contractor relationships . The system uses concepts of cross-impact analysis and probabilistic inference as the core of the analysis procedure. A modular model structure and a simplified knowledge acquisition procedure has been designed to avoid the excessive cognitive demands imposed to the users by the original cross-impact methodology. A simple questioning process is used to guide the discussion and elicit information in an ordered manner. The result is a powerful but easy to use computer modelling system where managers, or other potential users, are not exposed to the complexities of the mathematical model. The computer system is implemented in a Windows 95 platform and it provides a graphical interface to help the users in building a conceptual model for the decision problem. The model is a simplified structure of the variables and interactions that influence the decisions being analysed. Influences and interactions assessed by experts or decisions makers are stored in a knowledge base. The system provides powerful analysis capabilities, such as: sensitivity analysis, to identify the most important variables in the decision problem; scenario analysis, to test decision under different environmental conditions; prediction of selected performance outcomes; risk analysis, to identify the risk involved in different alternatives; comparative analysis of the effects of alternative actions on individual or combined performance measures; explanatory capabilities through the model causal structure; etc. The computer model can translate expertise collected from multiple experts into a prediction of significant outcomes for decision-making. The model allows management to test different combinations of options and predict expected performance impacts associated with the decisions under analysis. The use of this decision-support tool can provide valuable insights on alternative options for strategic decision-making

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Full text: content.pdf (360,296 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.strategies (0.068425) class.impact (0.056619) class.environment (0.054697)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Amor R

A UK survey of integrated project databases

Abstract: The UK network of experts in objects and integration for construction has now been in existence for a year. In this time it has built up to over a hundred members drawn in almost equal parts from industry and research. The initial meetings of this network have strived to identify areas of concern in the domain as well as to provide feedback to the supporting government agency in terms of policy issues, and to inform its members of the range of issues in the domain. The first published output of this network is to be a survey of integrated project databases (IPDB) in February 1998. This initial survey, analysed and described in this paper, looks at IPDB development and use in the UK. Preliminary work of the network determined a set of criteria to be used to measure the development and impact of various IPDB. These criteria were then used to survey a range of EC supported, UK developed, and commercial implementations of IPDB. Though not comprehensive in terms of the total number of IPDB developments in the world, it gives an initial benchmarking of the state of this domain. The results of this survey, and the ongoing surveys of IPDB developments, are being used to inform the network and government of the state of play in this area. It provides a point to determine: what work has previously been done; which data models might be re-used; where tools reside that could be re-used; where commercial developments have taken place which implement portions of the surveyed projects; what the problems of commercialisation have been; where there are gaps in research; and what life-cycle stages are poorly addressed by IPDB development.

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Full text: content.pdf (48,311 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.impact (0.035336) class.environment (0.032167) class.strategies (0.031179)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Carrillo P M, Anumba C J, Kamara J M

Knowledge management strategy for construction: key I.T. and contextual issues

Abstract: "Most business organisations often cite the staff as their greatest asset but have no appropriate mechanisms for managing the knowledge or intellectual capital that is embodied in these staff. The importance of Knowledge Management is now being realised and businesses are starting to formulate strategies and to invest in systems that will enable them to manage their corporate knowledge. This is a relatively new concept for construction organisations, which have a fundamental need to manage knowledge as they move from one project to another, working with different partners and supply chains. The aim of this paper is to explore the information technology (IT) and contextual issues involved in formulating an appropriate knowledge management strategy for construction organisations. It begins with basic definitions of knowledge and knowledge management, and then emphasises the importance of knowledge management in a construction setting. Drawing upon a number of research projects at Loughborough University, the paper discusses the contextual aspects of knowledge management. These include such issues as what types of knowledge should be managed, when and how; the business benefits that result from improving cross-project and inter-organisational knowledge management; the common groupings of knowledge classes, their appropriate transfer mechanisms and the implications for their management; the implications for an organisation’s policy, structure and working practices raised by managing knowledge across projects and enterprises; and how to develop an effective strategy for managing knowledge as an asset whilst enhancing the intellectual capital of an organisation within the constraints set by the business context for that organisation. Other issues relate to the relationship between knowledge management and improved business performance, and the cultural barriers to knowledge management. The paper also examines the role of information technology (IT) as an enabler for knowledge management, and reviews the some of the main IT systems that are being marketed as knowledge management tools. The concluding section of the paper formulates guidelines that will enable construction organisations to more appropriately develop IT and knowledge management strategies that will enable them to improve their business performance."

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Full text: content.pdf (275,360 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.strategies (0.035019) class.bestPractise (0.028224) class.commerce (0.027288)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Eden J, Eng C S, McGeorge D

Directions in construction IT strategies in Australia

Abstract: "There is a growing awareness of the value of information and communications technology to bring together the major parties in the construction process and share information in a meaningful way. A number of organisations in Australia are providing leadership and direction through the development and implementation of policies on the use of information technology in the construction industry. These include NSW Government, the Australian Procurement and construction Council (APCC) and the International Alliance for Interoperability ? Australasia Chapter (IAI-AC). In April 1998 the NSW Government launched its discussion paper, Information Technology in Construction setting out propositions as to how information technology could be effectively used to provide value for money for NSW Government capital works procurement by improving communication and teamwork during all phases of design, construction and facilities management. A policy document is to be prepared during early 2000 to further develop and implement the ideas and strategies in the discussion paper. The Australian Procurement and Construction Council with representatives from Commonwealth, State and Territory jurisdictions in Australia, is drafting a framework to provide industry and government agencies with an awareness of issues and to set directions for the take up of information technology. The IAI-AC has adopted a new direction for a broader role in information technology usage rather than just concentrating on the technology tools such as Industry Foundation Classes. This strategy should be developed by February/March 2000. The combined strategies of the NSW Government, the APCC and the IAI-AC crystallise time frames and objectives for the construction industry in terms of IT take up, and what can be achieved by effective communication and information sharing through the whole of a project's life cycle. This paper reviews the current aims and strategies of the three organisations in promoting IT uptake in the Australian construction industry."

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Full text: content.pdf (203,274 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.processing (0.030126) class.man-man (0.029118) class.communication (0.025878)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Estacio Pereira, Sanguk Han and Simaan Abourizk

Integrated Data Analytics-Simulation Framework for Proactive Assessment of Safety Performance

Abstract: Although considerable advances in the proactive control of construction project risks have been reported, identification and assessment of safety-related measures on safety performance remains challenging. This has been attributed to (1) difficulties in data collection; in particular, establishing the number of safety-related measures required to assess their influence on safety performance and (2) difficulties addressing the dynamic nature of projects; in particular, how measures affect safety performance over time. This papers aims to address these issues by implementing a framework that integrates existing departmental data with simulation models to proactively assess and predict safety performance. The framework is composed of three main components. First, safety-related measures available in various departmental databases are identified; second, the relationship between safety performance and measures is analysed and indicators with significant influence are incorporated into the assessment model; and third, a simulation model that reproduces the behaviour of these measures is used to test various scenarios. As evidenced by the results of a case study, the framework proposed here can assist companies with the proactive development of risk-avoidance strategies, thereby improving safety performance.

Keywords: Conceptual Safety Performance, Prediction; Policy Making; Simulation; Historical Data

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0029

Full text: content.pdf (989,397 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Franklyn Chukwunonso

THE ROLE OF ICT POLICY IN DEVELOPMENT, IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION OF ICT IN NIGERIAN TERTIARY INSTITUTION

Abstract: Nigerian tertiary education is approaching the point at which Information and Communication Technology (ICT) plays a part in nearly all phases of the educational process. In many institutions, this IT revolution has taken place without institutional policies in place and even where they exist, they have been inconsistently developed or have been unevenly implemented regarding the use of ICT in educational programs. Even as institutions help faculty members develop educational and research programs, they have not developed policies to address fundamental and relevant ICT usage and application in these programs. Faculty efforts to bring ICT into their teaching and scholarly activities are rarely considered in formal faculty review and evaluation of teaching curriculum. In the long run, the effectiveness of these new digital tools will be dependant on the way in which these ICT policies are adopted and implemented. This paper discusses the vital role policies can play in the development, implementation and evaluation of ICT in Nigerian tertiary institutions.

Keywords: ICT, Information and Communication Technology, Information Technology, IT, Evaluating ICT, Effective Implementation of ICt, Nigeria, Nigerian Tertiary Institutions, Nigerian Universities, Nigerian Education, Tertiary Institutions, Tertiary Education, Universities, Role of ICT, Development of ICT, Implementation of ICT

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Full text: http://www.franklynonso.com (available to registered users only)

Series: other (browse)
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Kernohan D, Isaacs N

The management and use of knowledge from building evaluations

Abstract: The School of Architecture at Victoria University of Wellington has developed a generic process of participatory building evaluation. The process is equally useful for any type and size of facility, for design proposals in preparation and for buildings in use. The reasons for an organisation to undertake evaluations or to offer evaluation services differ. Evaluation programmes and services are usually geared to long term benefits while one off evaluations promote both immediate and long term action. The long term value to an organisation of an evaluation programme or of offering evaluation services may be considerably enhanced by an operational database which can be used to influence building acquisition, operational policy and por tfdio management. However, it is our experience that the development of a knowledge database is not a straightforward matter. This paper discusses the issues of developing a database of the outcomes of building evaluations and reviews a number of approaches. The form and content of such databases and their management and use are considered. The paper describes the development of a knowledge database for an international banking organisation based on the information gained from participatory building evaluation activities. The process of information collection and the database structure are described. Methods of analysis are explained and some of the findings of these analyses presented. The paper concludes by outlining some of the difficulties of maintaining on-line databases and by cautioning that, to date, they have not been well used in building design or management practice.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,731,214 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.store (0.036176) class.bestPractise (0.006187) class.deployment (0.005687)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Khosrowshahi F

Beterministic management decision making using forecasting models

Abstract: It is widely accepted that forecasting is an activity essential to management decision making. Forecasting models are extensively used by the management to assist evaluation of project fmmcial viability and its resulting financial commitments and capabilities. Furthermore, these models are used at the corpsrate level with wider implications. However, it appears that often, the forecasting models are either used as a procedural necessity without much faith in their outcome or, they are used fatalistically where the outcome is accepted on the whole. This paper attempts to extend the boundaries of the applications of forecasting models and asserts that the pro-active management should be able to take a progressive attitude towards the concept of forecasting and exploit it as a tool for deterministic, rather than fatalistic decision and policy making. This paper is concerned with the above notions primarily in the context of forecasting models for construction project cash flow. To this end, the paper introduces TASC - a mathematically based model - the structure and various features of which, accommodate the implementation of the above concept.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,570,416 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.impact (0.013056)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


P Lodhia, S Donyavi

Extranet technology in a small and medium size construction companies

Abstract: Project extranets have been used in construction for the last 10 years and research shows that there are many benefits to their use. However, their use has not been taken on by all firms. A project extranet as a web-based portal allows subscribers to securely share information over the internet. This research looks into the drivers and barriers faced by small and medium sized contractor and house builder companies in terms of employing extranets on construction projects.The objectives of this research are to identify the characteristics of contractor and house builder companies in the UK, to identify the extent to which project extranets are used and to investigate the drivers and barriers to contractor and house builder companies of using project extranets. Extranets have the potential to improve traditional processes by improving communication and document and information transfer between the vast numbers of organisations that can be involved on a construction project. Yet it is found that many contractor and house builder organisation are facing barriers such as the perceived expense of the systems and time required for implementation and training. The construction industry needs to overcome these perceived barriers in order to reap the benefits that extranets can provide. This research forms a scoping study as a basis for further research into the drivers and barriers of extranets for the wider industry. Semi-structure interviews were used as the primary method of data collection, companies’ policy documents and other literature were also reviewed to assist the entire data collection process.

Keywords: Extranet, Technology, Efficiency, Construction, Collaboration

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Full text: content.pdf (91,117 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Pe?a-Mora F, Craig M

AVSAR: a collaboration system for disaster search and rescue operations using autonomous vehicles

Abstract: The disaster relief community is increasingly focused on issues of critical physical infrastructure in search and rescue operations. As the disaster relief and civil engineering community attempts to expand its abilities in this arena, it is being confronted with constraints related to manpower, risks to human personnel, and system stability. The community can address these barriers by integrating autonomous vehicles and intelligent software agents into its traditionally human elements. The military has been actively pursuing this goal in order to minimize human casualties and expand its functionality, and a technology transfer to the disaster arena would be greatly beneficial. The transition from the military to the disaster relief community is a logical step because of the great number of similarities between the two areas. Both are concerned with operations carried out in hostile, chaotic environments, where many participants from different areas of expertise collaborate to reach an objective, and both are constrained by the quality of intercommunication and the effectiveness of their equipment. Experience gained by the military in the field of autonomous vehicles has shown that while the ratio of autonomous vehicles to humans remains low, there is little trouble in directly controlling these vehicles as personnel can be dedicated to this task alone. However, as the number of autonomous vehicles increases to include personal human assistants and entire teams of vehicles, the task of control and collaboration becomes increasingly difficult. To date, most autonomous vehicle control work has been done with a one-to-one structure where one human controls one vehicle. While this works well when the vehicles are relatively simple and the number of vehicles is small, it does not translate well into the ideal situation of large populations of complex autonomous vehicles. Under these circumstances, intelligent software agents, residing both on the autonomous vehicles and on the communication devices, are needed to handle the task of distributed decision-making. This autonomous decision making ability is particularly critical for the cases where the autonomous vehicles fall out of contact with their human commanders or remote experts such as geotechnical, structural, and earthquake engineers. This paper examines past work done for and by the military in the area of autonomous vehicle systems and examines its application to the field of disaster relief involving critical physical infrastructures. It then presents a system that meets the needs of a combined human - intelligent software agent - autonomous vehicle SR (Search and Rescue) team, operating on critical physical infrastructure in an unstable and hostile environment. The collaboration infrastructure includes an information policy layer and a client application layer that address the need for inter-user communication and flexible command structures, which can be dynamically arranged to meet the situational need.

Keywords: collaborative environments, disaster relief, search and rescue, autonomous vehicles, intelligent software agents, self-organization, control structures, information policy

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Series: itaec:2004 (browse)
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