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A Kiviniemi, M Fischer & V Bazjanac

Integration of Multiple Product Models: IFC Model Servers as a Potential Solution

Abstract: The development of the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) started from the vision of an integrated building product model which would cover all necessary information for buildings' whole lifecycle: requirements management, different design activities and construction and maintenance processes. Although the IFC model specification covers a substantial part of the required information its implementations into practical applications have shown several serious problems. One of the main problems is that the internal structures of the different software products do not support the information needs for the whole process. Thus, the idea of lossless, incremental data flow through the different applications used by the project participants has not come true. It is obvious that file based data exchange is not feasible solution, and some other solution for integrated project data model is necessary for the AEC industry. This paper discusses some viewpoints and potential solutions to the above problem.

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Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Al-Jibouri S, Mawdesley M, Al-Mohamdi G

Information link model for construction using artificial intelligence

Abstract: This paper reports on a novel project model developed to help clients plan, monitor and control their construction projects. It describes a knowledge-based system designed for this purpose. The paper initially concentrates on the practical aspect of knowledge acquisition indicating problems that were faced and solutions employed. Following this, the structure of the knowledge-based system which was developed is outlined and its use described. Conclusions are drawn as to the applicability of the model and the final system. The work undertaken shows that it is feasible to benefit from the field of artificial intelligence to develop a project manager assistant computer program that utilises the benefit of information and its links.

Keywords: construction, information model, project control, knowledge-based system, artificial intelligence

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Full text: content.pdf (450,482 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: itaec:2003 (browse)
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Alan Redmond, Alan Hore, Roger West, Mustafa Alshawi

Building Support for Cloud Computing in the Irish Construction Industry

Abstract: The construction industry has been traditionally recognised as a fragmented sector associated with a poor level of implementation and penetration of Information Communication Technology (ICT) by Small to Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs). The ability to collaborate in parallel with a change management process system that requires a central repository that can act as a base for interoperability between various construction disciplines and their software applications has long been sought. The proposed collaborative solution is not an invention, but more of a practical innovation combining several earlier inventions into something new and compelling. Cloud computing is a collective term for a large number of developments and possibilities. It is a new layer of internet architecture that creates an open opportunity to add functionality to an increasingly global network. The characteristics of Cloud computing such as shared infrastructure, on-demand applications, elasticity and consumption-based pricing, allows all disciplines in the sector to benefit. As part of the Irish Construction IT Alliance (CITA) Enterprise Innovation Network (EIN) research on investigating eBusiness technologies for the Irish construction industry, this paper will present the findings of its research methodology in developing a Web based collaborative platform for the SME market. It is envisioned that this opportunity gap will enable SMEs to support data exchange, information sharing and supply chain collaboration across a secure and affordable network that will allow them to compete in a global environment.

Keywords: Construction, Cloud Computing, Small to Medium sized Enterprises (SME)

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Bellot I, Barrobeacute C, Isamat A, Belinchoacute M P, Martinez A

Integration of knowledge and data: Results of the BECOC prototype

Abstract: The BECOC prototype - "Banc Estructurat de Coneixements sobre Elements Constructius" (Structured Knowledge Bank for Construction Elements) - is the first practical step to have been taken in the research project of the SITEC model. It is an example of a system designed to provide assistance in the control of standards in the project process of building design. More specifically, it controls the acoustic, thermal and gravitational standards, and is centered on the design of a building's shell. This prototype has represented a considerable advancement in the research on integrated modular systems and on knowledge representation systems in applying Artificial Intelligence techniques.

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Full text: content.pdf (973,096 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1992 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.store (0.036899) class.analysis (0.020992) class.impact (0.016723)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editor, Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Berkhahn V, Esch C

Re-engineering of objects in constructional drawings

Abstract: A lot of drawings of existing or new buildings in civil engineering are only available in an analogous version. In order to realize a computer aided process during the planning, construction, building and utilization phases drawings in digital version are indispensable. Algorithms and software tools are available to convert a digitised paper based drawing into a vector plot. But these systems did not prove in practice to be suitable for the recognition of constructional objects within the drawings. In this paper an approach to convert digitised drawing data into lines and curves with topological information is presented. Based on this topological information the semantics of the drawing objects is recognised and is translated into building objects. The theoretical background as well as the practical use of the developed various algorithms are explained in detail. This approach is applied to a realistic example of ground-floor plan for a detached house. The results of this example show the suitability of the developed software tool for a medium sized drawing.

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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


Bloomfield D, Amor R

I-SEEC: an internet gateway to european construction resources

Abstract: For the construction industries to move into the knowledge society and knowledge economy they need to be able to build upon their existing information base. This information base is unique within individual countries (though often with significant overlap between countries, for example, with Eurocodes utilised across Europe) and usually widely dispersed. Drawing together the information resources within nations, and then connecting them with each other to form trans-national resources enables a more effective, informed and intelligent industry. I-SEEC is a collaborative project funded by the European Union with the overall goal of creating an infrastructure to enable and link high quality commercial electronic information services throughout its member countries. This project started in March 2000 and finishes in April 2001. It builds upon a previous EU project - CONNET (CONstruction information service NETwork). This paper provides a description of the final state of the infrastructure, services and business models available through I-SEEC. The countries participating in I-SEEC are Finland, Iceland, Italy, the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and the United Kingdom. CONNET provides access to a range of high quality Internet-based services for the construction industry in Europe. It provides both a European entry point to identify resources and national entry points for localised service delivery. The European CONNET entry point provides a range of technology park services as well as industry-specific services. These services include: · Management of security services, including installation and monitoring of security systems · Help desk, providing a point of contact for potential service providers and for problem resolution · Information broker role, enabling transparent access to information in the CONNET services · Technology observatory service, including leading edge, current and best-practice technologies · Provision of user profiles, allowing personalised delivery of updates in areas of interest · Multi-classification support, permitting handling of national systems used across the EC. · Inter-service communication services, allowing all comparable services to be identified and a query to be passed from one service to another service to answer. · Multi-language support, enabling EC languages to be handled correctly and to provide basic translations between them. The services offered by I-SEEC include a Technical Information Centre, Waste Exchange Centre, Electronic News Service, Calculation and Software Centre, Who's Who in Construction, Specialist Equipment Directory and a Best Practice Information service. The CONNET infrastructure and the I-SEEC information services provide the means to promote effective use of information by construction industry professionals in an efficient and cost-effective way. The ability to pass queries from one high quality service to another in a different country is a substantial contribution to the CIB goal of providing information to achieve performance. This paper draws out lessons learned - both technological and practical - in the course of this multi-country initiative to develop a portal for the construction industry. It also invites participation in this open initiative and describes how existing and developing services across the world can be made interoperable within a CONNET (and any Internet portal) environment.

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Full text: content.pdf (416,345 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.056731) class.deployment (0.046867) class.collaboration (0.041581)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Boughton G S, Futcher K G, Lloyd R H, McMahon M A

Management of dynamic projects within a virtual (paper-less) office

Abstract: This paper presents fresh directions currently being developed and implemented for project management of major works for the Highways Department of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (S.A.R). Techniques based on a new approach to computer-aided office practices and procedures, for office-based and on-site professionals and technicians. The intention is a replacement for previous technologies which are seen to be encumbered by outmoded traditional project information management processes. The Government of Hong Kong SAR gained considerable experience and immeasurable benefit from the use of IT, on what has been the world’ s largest infrastructure programme of the 1990’s, namely the new Chek Lap Kok international airport with accompanying arterial express routes. Through economic necessity, the Government plans to promote significantly more construction within the territory in the next two decades, with projects of comparable magnitude, commencing as the airport-core-programme reaches completion in 1998. What has emerged in the course of construction works since 1993, is a striking departure from traditional administration-centred-office-operations. It has become evident that project management processes must avoid being swamped by large volumes of project information and its dissemination. Disparate manual record keeping and paper document processing are a limitation and hindrance to collaborative tasking essential to any project. Computerised record keeping, status tracking and on-line project cost reporting are demanded as an essential panacea to these ailments. It is anticipated that full relief must be gained by implementing professional-centred-office, operations which provide full office automation: the creation of the ‘virtual’ project management organisation. The paper describes the practical research commissioned by the Highways Department to enable implementation of technologies for a practical information system to serve pragmatic people in the manner of a virtual project management organisation.

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Full text: content.pdf (48,899 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.021601) class.economic (0.014870) class.synthesis (0.009177)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Brbatur Fuat, Hasancebl O

Ga based structural optimization

Abstract: Genetic Algorithms have emerged to be a very versatile optimization and search algorithms wbicb are most snitable for discrete optimization. This paper describes the fundamentals of a genetic algorithm based computer software designed for structural optimization. At present the program is capable to treat discrete size optimization of two and three dimensional structures made of 1-D elements. The main system integrates with a structural analysis program which uses the displacement method of analysis. The constraints involved are typically; nodal displacements, element stresses and stability. The program incorporates code requirements. However, any preferred code restrictions can easily be incorporated. The program has a number of practical features including member linking and multiple loading. The penalty function and crossover techniques used in the GA are newly proposed and also explained in the paper. The paper also discusses an illustrative example.

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Series: ecce:1997 (browse)
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C Gouy-Pailler, H Najmeddine, A Mouraud, F Suard, C Spitz, A Jay, P Maréchal

DISTANCE AND SIMILARITY MEASURES FOR SENSORSSELECTION IN HEAVILY INSTRUMENTED BUILDINGS:APPLICATION TO THE INCAS PLATFORM

Abstract: Energy management in residential buildings is taking an increasing role in the construction workflows.It entails understanding thermal processes at stake in the buildings and quantifying energyconsumption, which meets inhabitants comfort requirements. Experimental platforms such as INCASaim at providing experts with a practical way to study such problems in real conditions. These heavilyequipped buildings yield huge amounts of real-time data (sampling rates, number and types of sensors)for which new automatic approaches could be useful to thermal experts. Generic similarity measuresfrom data-mining could therefore provide comprehensive analysis tools to thermal experts. This paper focuses on the ability of some distance and similarity measures to organize millions ofdata from homogeneous and heterogeneous sensors into coherent clusters. Simplifying datainterpretations to thermal experts in highly equipped buildings, this approach could also stand as abasis for studying smart grids of less equipped domestic houses studies. Two types of similarity measures are explored. The first one consists of a set of three distances,and accounts for differences in terms of amplitude scaling and shifting between pairs ofmeasurements. It relies on the comparison of homogeneous sensors by quantifying the relativeproximity of their amplitude in terms of mean value, variance and time shift. The second type ofsimilarity measure employs a pre-processing step transforming continuous signals into binary events.The resulting spike trains are then compared by quantifying the amount of unitary transformations(events moves or events deletions/additions) needed to align pairs of events sequences. These proximity measures are computed on real data from experimental buildings of the INCASplatform. It comprises three experimental buildings (with different construction types) dedicated totesting various approaches regarding systems, control and energy-saving policies. These geometricallyidentical buildings are equipped with hundreds of sensors measuring temperature, humidity,differential pressure, and others data at various positions of the structures with sampling rates of onemeasurement per minute. Simulation-based temperatures are integrated in the sensors set providing acomparison between real and simulated data. Results illustrate the contribution of the applied methods when dealing with large amounts ofmeasurements related to instrumented buildings behaviors. Actually results show that coherent clustersregarding distinct signal properties are automatically generated. These clusters can be used fordimensionality reduction (clusters of sensors could be summarized by a single virtual measurement),or relative comparisons between sensors or between real and simulated datasets.

Keywords: INCAS, low-energy consumption, sensor selection, multivariate data mining

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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C M Tam, Arthur W T Leung

Using Construction Process Simulation to Assess Productivity of Laying Water Mains in Hong Kong

Abstract: Construction process simulation is becoming a general technique in managing design and construction processes in the western world (Hossain and Chua 2009). However, there is a paucity of records on its practical application in Hong Kong and in the Greater China. Thus, it still remains as a tool for generating academic papers within the academic arena. In Hong Kong, there is a plan to upgrade 45% of the existing 7,700 km of water mains, giving a total of 3,000 km of aged water mains to be replaced in the next couples of years. In managing this sheer amount of construction works, studying its productivity is of prime importance in order to complete the works on time and within budget. This study has applied one of the simplest simulation tools, Web-CYCLONE, to assess the productivity and explore ways to optimize it. The study reveals that Web-CYCLONE is user-friendly in assessing productivity. However, it has a number of shortfalls. For example, in running two consecutive programs, the system needs to be refreshed to renew the interface and trace the charts and diagrams generated. Besides, Web-CYCLONE has the limitation of inability in identifying the critical path of a project and thus the floats cannot be considered. Web-CYCLONE is also difficult in modeling projects with complex resource involvement.

Keywords: water mains construction, construction process simulation, productivity

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Full text: content.pdf (441,041 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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