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Aouad G, Cooper R, Kagioglou M, Hinks J, Sexton M

A synchronised process/IT model to support the co- maturation of processes and IT in the construction sector

Abstract: In recent years many efforts had taken place in order to develop process and IT maps within the construction sector. However, the subject of co-maturation between IT and the process has not been given enough attention. This has resulted in the development of impractical solutions because of an apparent lack of balance between the IT and process capabilities. For instance, some organisations in the construction sector have adopted the rapid prototyping concept which is widely used within the manufacturing sector without even investing in 3D modelling and VR technologies which are the most appropriate for this task. Paradoxically, some organisations have invested in these technologies, but rapid prototyping is non existent. This paper addresses the issue of co-maturation between the process and IT in order to establish a balanced profile. The work is based on the CMM (Capability Maturity Model) model which was developed by the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University in order to develop software for the US government, particularly to be used by the Department of Defence. The CMM is a five-level model which include ad-hoc, repeatable, defined, managed and optimised stages. The model is designed so that capabilities at lower stages provide progressively stronger foundations for higher stages, reducing the change management risks. Each development stage - or "maturity level" distinguishes an organisation’s process or IT capability. This paper builds on the work achieved within the generic design and construction process protocol (GDCPP) which is being undertaken at the university of Salford. The main contribution of this paper is a conceptual model of co-maturation between IT and process. A synchorised IT/process model will be presented and discussed. This model is being developed through knowledge obtained form the industrial collaborators of the GDCPP project.

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Full text: content.pdf (120,604 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.029904) class.processing (0.022049) class.impact (0.010457)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Pohl J, Myers L, Chapman A

The ICADS model in retrospect

Abstract: This paper reviews work, involving the development and implementation of a prototype working model of an intelligent computer-aided design system (ICADS), conducted at the CAD Research Unit over the past four years. In the ICADS model, images drawn by the architect are analysed in background to establish higher level architectural objects, such as spaces, windows, doors and furniture. Combined with non-geometric attributes obtained from prototypical building type and contextual site/neighborhood knowledge bases, these design objects serve as a highlevel representation of the current state of the design solution. Domain experts, functioning as intelligent design tools, continuously evaluate the current state of the progressively evolving solution model to test solution validity, confirm design program compliance and propose alternative solution strategies. Conflicts among the domain experts are resolved within a blackboard-like coordination and control system.The domain experts and the blackboard, together constituting an Expert Design Advisor, are implemented in a production rule environment utilizing a frame- based representation structure.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,727,109 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1992 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.042682) class.analysis (0.032188) class.man-software (0.029231)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editor, Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Raphael B, Smith I

A probabilistic search algorithm for finding optimally directed solutions

Abstract: "Evolutionary search techniques such as Genetic Algorithms (GA) have recently gained considerable attention. They have been used for solving a wide range of problems including function optimisation and learning. In this paper, a new global search technique, called Probabilistic Global Search (PGS), is presented. Results of benchmark tests indicate that this technique performs better than genetic algorithms on a wide range of problems. PGS is a stochastic search technique. It works by generating points in the search space according to a probability distribution function (PDF) defined over the search space. Each axis is divided into a fixed number of intervals with equal probability density. The probability densities of intervals are modified dynamically so that points are generated with higher probability in regions containing good solutions. The algorithm includes four nested cycles: 1. Sampling 2. Probability updating 3. Focusing 4. Subdomain cycle In the sampling cycle (innermost cycle) a certain number of points are generated randomly according to the current PDF. Each point is evaluated by the user defined objective function and the best point is selected. In the next cycle, probabilities of regions containing good solutions are increased and probabilities decreased in regions containing less attractive solutions. In the third cycle, search is focused on the interval containing the best solution after a number of probability updating cycles, by further subdivision of the interval. In the subdomain cycle, the search space is progressively narrowed by selecting a subdomain of smaller size centred on the best point after each focusing cycle. Each cycle serves a different purpose in the search for a global optimum. The sampling cycle permits a more uniform and exhaustive search over the entire search space than other cycles. Probability updating and focusing cycles refine search in the neighbourhood of good solutions. Convergence is achieved by means of the subdomain cycle. The algorithm was tested on highly non-linear, non-separable functions in ten to hundred variables. Results are compared with those from three versions of GAs. In most cases PGS gives better results in terms of the number of times global optima were found and the number of evaluations required to find them. The application of the technique to non-parametric optimisation problems is further illustrated using an example from conceptual structural design."

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Full text: content.pdf (373,661 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.retrieve (0.019177) class.impact (0.015651) class.deployment (0.013039)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Strasky J, Navratil J, Susky S

Time dependent analysis of progressively erected structures

Abstract: A specialized software " TDA has been developed for the time-dependent analysis of structures which combine different structural systems, materials and methods of construction. During construction these structures utilize different static systems, new structural members are gradually assembled or cast, post-tensioning is applied and temporary elements are removed. The account is taken of the creep and shrinkage of concrete. The linear aging viscoelastic theory is applied. The mean properties of a cross-section, and the average relative humidity and member size are taken into account. The finite element method is used for structural analysis. The examples of analyzed structures are given in the paper.

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Series: ecce:1997 (browse)
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Wen M-C,Tsai M-H,Kang S-C,Chang Y-L

Flood game: an alternative approach for disaster education

Abstract: Flooding is a frequent disaster in typhoon season in Taiwan nearly every year. To prevent flooding, the decision-makers need to invest in costly constructions, such as embankments and disaster parks. They also need to carefully allocate resources, such as sand bags and pumps, to minimize the damage caused by the heavy rain during a typhoon. This paper presents an ongoing disaster education project, for disaster education for which we designed a flood game allowing high school students to play the role of the decision makers. We based the flood game on the popular “tower defense game,” in which players need to allocate limited resources before and during random attacks because the decision behaviors are very similar between the decision makers of flood prevention and the players of tower defense. The flood game has two independent goals: happiness index and money. The happiness index represents the citizens’ satisfaction. The money is a subtraction of the construction items from the total tax income. If the city is well protected, the tax income will increase and vice versa. The players need to wisely allocate the money to build the necessary facilities around the riverside in the right places and at the right time to maximize efficiency of the expenditure. We included six common construction items for flood prevention, including sand bags, pumps, dikes, disaster parks, green roofs, and green streets. We also developed six levels for the game, from the easiest (only one available construction item) to the most difficult (six available construction items) to help players progressively learn the game. If the city resists attacks from heavy rain successfully, the players can pass the level and proceed to the next one. To validate the use of the game, we tested the game with 148 high school students and found that it cannot only increase their interest in learning but also help students understand the complexity of flood prevention for the decision-makers. In the near future, we will develop follow-up teaching materials and videos to leverage the learning outcome after playing the game.

Keywords: Game-Based Learning,Interactive Game,Flood Defense,Education

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Full text: content.pdf (1,134,206 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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