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Chen S E, McGeorge W D

A life-cycle decision-information model accommodating complexity in project processes

Abstract: Fragmentation and barriers to information flows between project participants has been a major obstacle to productivity quality in the construction industry. Strategies to overcome this needs to contend with the interaction between numerous project participants which generates considerable complexity in project dynamics. A “soft” technology approach has been advocated to managing the coordination and communication of project participants. A dynamic framework to provide integrated decision support to project participants has been previously described. As an extension to the development of this framework, this paper describes a conceptual approach which perceives a project as an integrated collection of decisions. The project development process .is modelled as a dynamic decision-information flow system operating across the project’s life cycle. The recognition of individual decisions as system components allows information sharing in a near red-time context, which would facilitate an integrated project process. Feedback processes in the model provide a framework for accommodating complexity in the project process.

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Full text: content.pdf (794,238 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.processing (0.066513) class.man-software (0.015397) class.communication (0.011923)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Flood I,Nowrouzian V

Construction process modelling: a constrained graphics approach versus conventional construction simulation

Abstract: Effective construction project planning and control requires the development of a model of the project’s construction processes. The Critical Path Method (CPM) is the most popular project modelling method in construction since it is relatively simple to use and reasonably versatile in terms of the range of processes it can represent. Several other modelling techniques have been developed over the years, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. Linear scheduling, for example, has been designed to provide highly insightful visual representations of a construction process, but unfortunately is largely incapable of representing non-repetitive construction work. Discrete-event simulation is generally agreed to be the most versatile of all modelling methods, but it lacks the simplicity in use of CPM and so has not been widely adopted in construction. A new graphical constraint-based method of modelling construction processes, Foresight, has been developed with the goal of offering the simplicity in use of CPM, the visual insight of linear scheduling, and the versatility of simulation. Earlier work has demonstrated the modelling versatility of Foresight. As part of a continuing study, this paper focuses on a comparison of the Foresight approach with discrete-event construction simulation methods, specifically Stroboscope (a derivative of CYCLONE). Foresight is shown to outperform Stroboscope in terms of the simplicity of the resultant models for a series of case studies involving a number of variants of an earthmoving operation and of a sewer tunnelling operation. A qualitative comparison of the two approaches also highlights the superior visual insight provided by Foresight over conventional simulation, an attribute essential to both the effective verification and optimization of a model.

Keywords: Construction process,Foresight,process modeling,construction simulation,Stroboscope,model complexity,visual insight

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Issa, Mohamed; Rankin, Jeff; Christian, John; and Pemberton, Evan

Using Interactive Workspaces for Team Design Project Meetings

Abstract: An Interactive Collaboration Laboratory (ICL) has been established at the University of New Brunswick (UNB) to research the application of interactive information and communication environments for the architectural, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry. This paper provides a quick overview of the laboratory within the wider context of interactive collaborative workspaces. It identifies opportunities to enhance information communication, and group decision-making offered by the laboratory, and focuses on lessons learned to date from its use. The paper reports on a survey conducted among final year undergraduate students who used the environment over the course of three months for their senior design project meetings. A questionnaire was distributed to those students to investigate the impact of the environment upon the effectiveness of their meetings and decisions, the issues and processes where the environment was more (or less) useful, and the context within which the environment and tools were used. The questionnaire also investigated the impact of the environment and its tools upon their project, the quality of their work, and their overall satisfaction. Students found the laboratory to be specifically useful at the preliminary design stage when designing, viewing, and analyzing the site and building layouts of their projects, and determining the project’s sustainability requirements, and targets. The laboratory enabled student groups to view information from different perspectives, access remote information, and save captured information instantaneously. It also enabled them to collaborate more effectively, make more educated decisions, make better use of their time, produce higher quality work, and develop among them a relationship of trust, respect and mutual understanding. Investigating how best to use the lab’s technology to serve their needs, occasionally slowed down their progress and distracted them at times from focusing on their work.

Keywords: Interactive Workspaces, Collaborative Environments, Information and Communication

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Full text: content.pdf (184,091 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2007 (browse)
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JH Lee, JW Son, J-S Yi

Multilevel project-oriented risk-mining approach for overseas construction project’s preemptive action

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Full text: content.pdf (361,107 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2015 (browse)
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Khalfan M M A, Anumba C J

Implementation of concurrent engineering in construction - readiness assessment

Abstract: "There is growing interest in the adoption of Concurrent Engineering (CE) in the Construction Industry. CE has the potential to make construction projects less fragmented, improve project quality, reduce project duration and reduce total project cost. Also, the urgent need to improve the performance of construction can be achieved during the design process by concurrently considering key aspects of the construction project’s downstream phases. It is evident that by adopting CE, the software and manufacturing industries have significantly improved their business processes. While Concurrent engineering (CE) is gaining acceptance, some implementation efforts have not realised their full potential for reducing costs, reducing time, and increasing efficiency, effectiveness and performance for product development efforts. This is due in part to weak planning to support the implementation. One method that has been used successfully to improve CE implementation planning is to conduct an organisation readiness assessment prior to the introduction of CE. This helps to investigate the extent to which the organisation is ready to adopt Concurrent Engineering. Therefore, in order to facilitate the adoption of the CE concept in construction, it is necessary to assess the extent to which firms in the construction industry are ready for the adoption of CE. This can be done by carrying out Readiness Assessment for any construction organisation before the adoption of CE. Readiness assessment tools and models have been developed and used in other industries such as the manufacturing and software engineering industries. This paper discusses Concurrent Engineering and its application to construction. It includes a comparative review of existing readiness assessment tools and models that have been successfully used in the manufacturing and IT sectors. It argues that readiness assessment of the construction supply chain is a necessity for the implementation of CE in construction and assesses the applicability of existing tools and models to the construction industry. A new readiness assessment model for the construction industry called “CERAMConstruct” is presented, with details of the development of the model and its associated questionnaire, assessment methodology, and case studies. The paper concludes that the CERAMConstruct model offers useful benefits in the implementation of CE in construction. Aspects of further work to be done are also outlined."

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Full text: content.pdf (385,123 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.012585) class.strategies (0.009727) class.commerce (0.008958)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Leiringer R T

Modelling the complexity of modern construction projects

Abstract: "The search for significant cost savings and quality improvements on construction projects is a routine activity and one where there is plenty of theory, but few results capable of being reproduced elsewhere. One reason is that the organisational infrastructure of a project is not always properly understood and defined, meaning that novel ways of bringing about such savings and improvements can be frustrated by invalid or erroneous assumptions. A case study of a large housing project, as part of a top level investigation by a government department, has shown how even domestic scale construction is not without problems in understanding the complexity of the process. The investigation is documented as a set of computer-based process models for the entire project, which have then been used to pinpoint failures in communication and information management. Of particular interest are the early, pre-design stages (briefing) and the supply chain covering the off-site design, fabrication and assembly of components. The findings show that large parts of the process are not adequately defined. The parties have difficulty in agreeing upon the amount and specifics of the activities that have and are taking place, as well as the resources and information that are necessary for the project’s successful completion. Conclusions are drawn that outline the need for clear and transparent guidelines and procedures."

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Full text: content.pdf (222,193 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.044918) class.processing (0.016621) class.impact (0.012253)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Mallasi Z, Dawood N

A generic inclusion of space strategies with activity execution patterns in 4D tools

Abstract: In this paper we describe construction generic space strategies that affect the development of realistic 4D space visualisations. The simple and dynamic approach has been implemented in the PECASO model to allow a new insight into a project’s space-time schedules. Our approach considers the activities execution patterns among the variables used for minimising space-time conflicts between site operations. The semantics of a construction activity execution patterns are illustrated in this work and they are: 1) progress of work direction, 2) execution of work direction, and 3) activity volume of work per week. The PECASO system applies a Simple Genetic Algorithm (SGA) to search for the most suitable execution pattern suitable for a construction activity. Among the included space strategies are the physical constraint such as activity-products Assembly Sequence Constraints (ASC) and the construction logic dependencies. The SGA has been proposed here to model the generic space strategies for the execution patterns. This research suggests that the definition of activity execution patterns semantics in 4D is an important element of interaction between site operations and could shape the site space usage in a different way. Other advantages are the benefits that can be generated from rehearsing different ‘what-if’ scenarios for coordinating site operations and to communicate the project plan in 4D. The paper presents an experimental execution patterns SGA runs with results, and shows how they are used to minimize space-time conflicts.

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Full text: content.pdf (414,617 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2003 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


Mohd Fairuz Shiratuddin, Walid Thabet

Information-rich virtual environment (VE) for design review

Abstract: In the A/E/C industry, design review techniques are used to improve design quality, insure compliance with current codes and standards, improve design constructability, and meet project’s goals and owner’s objectives. Design review is a multi-tasking approach; information from various independent sources (e.g. building codes and standards, design specifications, design manuals, etc.) needs to be referenced concurrently while reviewing and coordi-nating plans of various design disciplines. Current common design review methods rely mainly on paper-based checklists and 2D plans to perform the review. Several disadvantages of these manual methods can be identified, including: 1) checklists are generic and reviewers need to identify the guidelines that apply to a given review; 2) checklists are also linear in nature which may force the review to follow a pre-defined top-to-bottom sequence; 3) current methods do not allow for a structured automated approach to capturing and sharing reviewers’ comments and feedback; 4) information may not be retrieved quickly and efficiently within the limited review time frame. This renders the design review process time- and resource-intensive which may force reviewers to sacrifice the thoroughness of their reviews. This paper describes an information-rich virtual environment (VE) framework for design review. The framework util-izes a real-time intelligent algorithm to access needed data and information to perform a design review while viewing the 3D model. The algorithm provides various search and retrieval modes to assist the user in filtering, querying, sort-ing and displaying data and information during the 3D model walkthrough. Reviewer’s comments and changes are cap-tured and shared by others. A proof of concept prototype is being implemented using the Torque 3D Game Engine.

Keywords: 3D modeling, design review, game engines, rule-based, torque game engine, virtual environments

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Full text: content.pdf (773,170 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Qi Hao, Weiming Shen, Joseph Neelamkavil, Russ Thomas

CHANGE MANAGEMENT IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS

Abstract: Decisions are made everyday in construction processes based on incomplete information, assumptions and the personal experience of the construction professionals. Project changes and/or adjustments are inevitable as they are a fact-of-life at all stages of a project’s life cycle. Managing changes effectively is crucial to the success of a construction project.Change management in construction requires an integrated solution to discipline and coordinate the process, for example, documentation, drawing, process, flow, information, cost, schedule and personnel. The construction industrial needs an effective construction change management process. This paper summarizes various aspects of the existing construction change management processes and provides a comprehensive literature review as well as some comments on possible future directions.

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Full text: content.pdf (130,089 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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Rezgui Y, Cooper G, Vakola M, Tracey A

Advanced electronic document management solutions for the construction industry: the CONDOR project

Abstract: The paper is based on research carried out within the CONDOR project funded under the European ESPRIT programme. CONDOR is specifically concerned with defining the working practices, processes, techniques, tools and technical infrastructure to allow the construction industry to progress from its current position towards a large scale, computer integrated industry. Furthermore, the project aims at bridging the gap between current information systems and future ones, and provides a migration path from document-based to model-based approaches to information representation and structuring. After a brief overview of the state of the art of Electronic Document Management systems in the construction industry, the paper presents the overall CONDOR system architecture, along with a detailed description of its components. The latter include: * the CONDOR Integration Services (implemented as a class library in the CONDOR demonstrator); * the CONDOR API: it defines the services to allow on the one hand, inter-working between the project’s legacy EDM systems, and on the other, semantic linking between different documents and between documents and other information objects (the precise services that are provided have been largely determined from the results of the analysis conducted by the project’s end-users), * the Adaptors: they provide the mapping between the CONDOR API and each of the document and object management systems to be integrated. It is worth pointing out that the CONDOR system is designed to be open enough to coexist and inter-operate with construction legacy applications, as with other existing and emerging distributed components, in a seamless way. These legacy applications can then, in turn, take advantage of the generic, and construction specific, advanced document management functionality developed within the CONDOR project. The paper then presents the conceptual models that support the CONDOR system, this includes the CONDOR Information Management Model (CIMM). The CIMM is concerned with the management of information produced within a project’s lifecycle, from inception to demolition. Whilst the CIMM is developed within the frame of the construction industry, it is aimed to be generic enough to be used in any other industrial context. CONDOR addresses four primary issues that are central to information management: ownership, rights and responsibilities; versioning of information; schema evolution ; and recording of intent behind decisions leading to information. Finally, the paper presents one of the project end-user’s implementation strategy of the Condor approach. The CONDOR project is ongoing and supported by a user interest group, which involves representatives from a variety of non-construction industry companies all over Europe.

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Full text: content.pdf (80,216 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.store (0.032403) class.social (0.011299) class.represent (0.009936)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


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