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A Cemesova, Y Rezgui, C J. Hopfe

Possibilities and challenges created by a smart material in building performance simulation

Abstract: Smart materials are predicted to ‘revolutionise’ the A/E/C industry. They are supposed to enable a building to change colour, shape, size and opacity. However, past research shows that smart materials are still not used very often in engineering applications to their full potential. In this publication we advocate that materials should not be only chosen for simple properties such as visual, physical and insulating characteristics, but for capabilities such as being able to save/generate energy, store information, and to react to stimuli from their local environment. Therefore, this paper will research into the addition of SolaVeil to a window, its physical configuration and the possibility to model and analyse it through Building Performance simulation (BPS). This material is primarily designed to eliminate glare and redirect light. As a result it can reduce energy use caused by air conditioning and artificial lighting systems. This paper researches into the behaviour of SolaVeil in a computer simulation using two different case studies. The first will compare how changing the width but maintaining the reflective area affects illuminance distribution, and the second will determine which physical properties of SolaVeil are most effective. Finally, conclusions are drawn based on the case studies and it is shown that smaller width light shelves are the most suitable for an anti glare product. It is also determined that for SolaVeil to minimise glare in a room without compromising illuminance levels, it should have a light shelf angle of 40 degrees, cover between 40-60% of a window and its strips should be spaced 5mm.

Keywords: SolaVeil, smart materials, building system design, illumination.

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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A Vasenev, F Bijleveld, T Hartmann, A Dorée

Visualization of asphalt paving process during operations on site

Abstract: Presently important changes are occurring in the road construction industry, resulting in changing roles of road agencies and contractors. Additionally, a lot of new asphalt mixes with new properties are introduced, such as warm or even cold asphalt mixes, thin surfaces, etc. Despite these changes, the current asphalt paving process still heavily relies on the skills and experiences craftsmanship. Instruments to monitor key process parameters are seldom applicable. To overcome these limitations, real-time visualizations of key indicators such as asphalt temperature could provide decisive information to working teams oriented to adjust their operations on site. To move towards real-time decision making support, this paper introduces a workflow to deliver information in meaningful way by providing close to real-time and easily understandable visualizations of asphalt temperatures to roller operators. Using modern technologies like DGPS, temperature linescanner, and wireless connection on site it is possible to deliver visual information about asphalt temperature to support roller operators’ decision making regarding working paths. To implement user-oriented visualization we outlined an overall workflow including equipment selection, infrastructure organization, data processing and visualization phases. We validated the feasibility of workflow implementation through visualization of asphalt temperature on a real-world asphalt paving project.

Keywords: Asphalt paving, construction, infrared thermography, visualization

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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A. Guerriero, L. Johannsen & S. Kubicki

Designing IT services for the Construction Industry. Lessons learnt for Selection of Validation Techniques

Abstract: Setting up collaborative working practices is a major stake in construction projects because each project is specific in terms of actors involved, documents produced and building elements designed. In such contexts the use of IT groupware tools to improve collaboration and their efficient appropriation by AEC practitioners is really a challenge. Designing such innovative collaboration-support services is an issue largely addressed in the scientific community especially to identify the factors of success/failure of the tools, but also to identify the scientific experimental approaches underlying it. This article describes five case studies of cooperation-support IT developments and for each of them the validation techniques used. It suggests an analytic framework distinguishing between 1) research project aims, 2) working practices and 3) IT developments types. Finally it introduces three experimental levels to be achieved in various research projects types and describes their related experimental properties.

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Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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AS Pavlov & DS Kulitchkov

Classification and Coding of Entities of Construction Data Domain

Abstract: The classification of objects and their properties is necessary for the semantic description of construction data domain. The authors have offered the facet-hierarchical classification of entities in construction. The authors propose also the project of classification of main concepts in data domain of construction: settlements, territories, buildings, resources, properties etc.

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Full text: content.pdf (334,057 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


B Otjacques & F Feltz

Characterizing the visualization techniques of project-related interactions

Abstract: All construction projects can be considered as cooperative undertakings. Their strategic management as well as the daily operations causes numerous interactions to occur, either among persons or among persons and resources. These interactions have been studied from various viewpoints but few researchers have focused on their visualization. The graphical representation of the cooperation is however a powerful tool to help the project participants to get a correct understanding of the situation. This paper proposes thus a structuring framework (IVF - Interaction Visualization Framework) of the visualization techniques used to display such interactions. Three basic axes of classification are used to structure the study. Which objects are visualized? Why are they visualized? How are they visualized? For each axis, several properties have been identified and the admitted values have been specified. This work can be considered as a first step towards a structured view of the 'visualization of cooperation' domain.

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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Bellot Matas I

BECOC: a knowledge bank and its use in construction and CAD systems

Abstract: The development of the BECOC prototype (Structured Knowledge Bank for Construction Elements) was undertaken in order to test the integration of Data and Knowledge using the SITEC model (Construction Technology Information System). After the graphical definition of a building exterior, the assignment of the construction solutions is dynamically controled using the Knowledge Bank for real time decision making. To represent the knowledge that acts on the data the knowledge bank consists of an Object Oriented Data Base and a Rule System, developed using the NEXPERT/OBJECT package. In this manner it is possible to establish relationships among properties, concepts, restrictions in values, structural relations and the control of standards compliance, which in this case has been limited to thermic, acoustic and weight requirements. The system helps the user to take decisions and it analyses the context in order to make the deductions needed to maintain internal data consistency. The positive results of this work indicate the way €or further developments, and demonstrate that expert systems and traditional technologies coupled together can be effective and give the desired answers in monitoring design in the everyday problems in construction technology.

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Full text: content.pdf (977,770 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1991 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.store (0.066751) class.analysis (0.031103) class.synthesis (0.023636)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Eindhoven University of Technology.


C Gouy-Pailler, H Najmeddine, A Mouraud, F Suard, C Spitz, A Jay, P Maréchal

DISTANCE AND SIMILARITY MEASURES FOR SENSORSSELECTION IN HEAVILY INSTRUMENTED BUILDINGS:APPLICATION TO THE INCAS PLATFORM

Abstract: Energy management in residential buildings is taking an increasing role in the construction workflows.It entails understanding thermal processes at stake in the buildings and quantifying energyconsumption, which meets inhabitants comfort requirements. Experimental platforms such as INCASaim at providing experts with a practical way to study such problems in real conditions. These heavilyequipped buildings yield huge amounts of real-time data (sampling rates, number and types of sensors)for which new automatic approaches could be useful to thermal experts. Generic similarity measuresfrom data-mining could therefore provide comprehensive analysis tools to thermal experts. This paper focuses on the ability of some distance and similarity measures to organize millions ofdata from homogeneous and heterogeneous sensors into coherent clusters. Simplifying datainterpretations to thermal experts in highly equipped buildings, this approach could also stand as abasis for studying smart grids of less equipped domestic houses studies. Two types of similarity measures are explored. The first one consists of a set of three distances,and accounts for differences in terms of amplitude scaling and shifting between pairs ofmeasurements. It relies on the comparison of homogeneous sensors by quantifying the relativeproximity of their amplitude in terms of mean value, variance and time shift. The second type ofsimilarity measure employs a pre-processing step transforming continuous signals into binary events.The resulting spike trains are then compared by quantifying the amount of unitary transformations(events moves or events deletions/additions) needed to align pairs of events sequences. These proximity measures are computed on real data from experimental buildings of the INCASplatform. It comprises three experimental buildings (with different construction types) dedicated totesting various approaches regarding systems, control and energy-saving policies. These geometricallyidentical buildings are equipped with hundreds of sensors measuring temperature, humidity,differential pressure, and others data at various positions of the structures with sampling rates of onemeasurement per minute. Simulation-based temperatures are integrated in the sensors set providing acomparison between real and simulated data. Results illustrate the contribution of the applied methods when dealing with large amounts ofmeasurements related to instrumented buildings behaviors. Actually results show that coherent clustersregarding distinct signal properties are automatically generated. These clusters can be used fordimensionality reduction (clusters of sensors could be summarized by a single virtual measurement),or relative comparisons between sensors or between real and simulated datasets.

Keywords: INCAS, low-energy consumption, sensor selection, multivariate data mining

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Full text: content.pdf (803,535 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Christiansson P

Properties of future building hyper documents

Abstract: The paper describes and exemplifies how modem information technology may impact the properties of future computerized building documents and models. It is now possible to practically handle large quantities of data in the form of color pictures, film, sound recordings, animation sequences, drawings etc. The systems we formulate today are better suited to capture information putting higher pressure on the users concerning formulation of demands on user interface, model descriptions and model building tools. A group of projects under the label KE3S-MEDIA, knowledgebased systems - media, are aiming at integrating advanced software (knowledgebased systems, Hyper Card from Apple computer. etc) with new distribution and storage media. The hyper documents which are created possess powerful man-machine interface and dynamic model building properties. The system forms a demonstrator environment used in different applications to capture, test and communicate ideas and admitting fast prototyping. New tools are defined, developed and tested. Tools which support conceptual modeling activities, use and building of hyper documents in a multimedia environment. The following building applications are at the moment included in the research: The City Advisor, Window Renovation Advisor, Advanced Information Technology in Building Maintenance Support (the Delphi project) and Advanced Material and Vendor Information, (the AMVI project)

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Full text: content.pdf (2,550,602 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1988 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.072996) class.environment (0.037882) class.synthesis (0.024467)
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Permission to reproduce these documents has been graciously provided by the Lund University and the Swedish Building Centre. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Per Christiansson and Prof. Henry Karlsson, is gratefully appreciated.


Christiansson P

Properties of the virtual building

Abstract: The paper discusses properties of future digital Virtual Buildings from the client, design, construction and operation and maintenance perspectives. In this context the author defines a Virtual Building as "a formalized digital description of an existing or planned building which can be used to fully simulate and communicate the behavior of the real building in its expected contexts".The paper focuses on: (1) requirements formulations of future Virtual Building models, (2) the necessity and possibilities to build redundant, overlapping descriptions of buildings and (3) why and how formal temporal building process properties may be included in the descriptions. The author believes that it is not possible or desirable to create a single non-redundant model to represent a building from concept to demolition. In this discussion an account is also taken of the influences of meta level information models, dependencies between multimedia presentation and application model views, the introduction of platformindependent Internet-based solutions, and the IT-support tools in future intelligent and responsive buildings.

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Full text: content.pdf (312,166 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.social (0.025760) class.communication (0.024143) class.roadmaps (0.018838)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Christiansson P

IT in distributed open learning environments

Abstract: "The paper describes, accounts experiences, and analyses ongoing open IT supported education's at Aalborg University. The requirements and properties of distributed learning systems are explained as well as available IT-tools support and requirements on underlying application and user models. Pedagogical models are developed to support project organized problem based learning environments. Students are situated at different places in Denmark and meet in person once a month during a weekend seminar. New learning IT tools are introduced to support self study, project work, self tests, project delivery, and course administration. The open Master of IT education and IT courses in the Civil Engineering and Architecture and Design curricula are used as examples for discussions on course information content and structure, and personalized IT tools and their properties. Our conclusions are that we are only in the beginning of development of cross-disciplinary university courses in a global setting with highly communicative IT tools in contrast to traditionally open environments. It is also concluded that IT supported distributed learning provides us with excellent possibilities to advance the learning methodologies suitable for life long learning and to render existing courses more effective. There is a great need to raise the IT competence of the teachers to meet the needs for and carrying through of the changes in education on all levels. We will in the future see a closer natural collaboration between universities in course development and experience exchange."

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Full text: content.pdf (290,092 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.deployment (0.064533) class.education (0.052856) class.communication (0.041303)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


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