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A Khneisseh & R Schach

Application of Coloured Petri-Nets for the Business Process Modelling in Construction Companies

Abstract: Business processes represent a series of added value activities which lead flow-oriented with one or more measurable inputs to a defined, measurable output. The modelling of business process is very complex because of the large number of modelling purposes, modelling subjects and modelling methods and it therefore requires a systematic preparation. The modelling of business processes by means of CPN represents an excellent opportunity to carry out both qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the business processes in construction companies.

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Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


A. Z. Sampaio, P. G. Henriques

Virtual reality technology applied in engineering education

Abstract: The three-dimensional geometric models used to present architectural and engineering work, show only the final form, which does not allow progress in constructions to be observed. But, the visual simulation of the construc-tion process of a building need mod-els which are able to produce dynamic changes to their geometry. This paper re-ports how techniques of geometric modelling and virtual reality were used to obtain models that could show their physical evolution over time and which would be able to simulate construction processes visually. Two types of work, concerning the construction of a cavity wall and a bridge, were developed as virtual models for educational purposes. These models make it possible to view the physical evolution of the work, to follow the planned construction sequence, to visualize details of the form of every component of each work and to support the study of the type and method of op-eration of the equip-ment necessary in the construction process. These models have been used to distinct advantage as educational aids in first-degree courses in Civil Engineering. The use of virtual reality techniques in the development of educational applications brings new perspectives to the teaching of subjects related to the field of construction.

Keywords: education, engineering, simulation, 4d models, virtual reality

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Ahmed Ahmed, John Kawalek and Mohamad Kassem

A Conceptual Model for Investigating BIM Adoption by Organisations

Abstract: Studies investigating Building Information Modelling (BIM) adoption proliferated in recent years. Existing studies are characterised by both deficiencies in the adoption drivers and factors identified and an insufficient demarcation of key terms and concepts used. The suitability of using the results of these studies to investigate a conceptual model for BIM adoption is therefore impaired. This study presents (a) a holistic set of drivers and factors that influence BIM adoption by organisations, and (b) the theoretical fundamentals for the development of a conceptual model for BIM adoption by organisations. The set of drivers and factors for BIM adoption can be used by researchers and practitioners for different purposes (e.g., assessment, ranking, adoption strategies). The theoretical fundamentals of the proposed conceptual model combine the essential lenses from the pertinent theories (i.e., innovation diffusion theory, and institutional theory) and models (i.e., diffusion dynamic model: top-down diffusion dynamics including formal and informal mandates). The model can be used to empirically investigate the decisions to adopt BIM by organisations and understand the varying influence of different adoption drivers and factors.

Keywords: BIM, Systematic Literature Review, Conceptual Model, Adoption Drivers and Factors

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0103

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Aisha Abuelmaatti, Vian Ahmed

Collaborative Environments and its Effects on Construction Companies: The Current Context

Abstract: The ability of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to improve and enhance organisation’ productivity as well as their competitive situation has never been greater. Emerging technologies in the UK offer the construction industry many opportunities for computer supported collaborative environments, with regards to addressing some of the aspects that result in a complicated and complex construction process. However, the organisations adopting these technologies usually fail in achieving the full benefits from their implementations. Previous studies in the area have shown that 80 to 90 per cent of ICT investment did not meet their performance objectives. The fact of the matter is that collaborative environments have been evolving and effectively employed in large organisations and are believed to have high potential for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), but the use of collaboration technology remains low among 99% of enterprises in the UK construction industry usually referred to as SMEs employing less than 250 employees. The growing popularity of collaborative environments in the construction industry has, unfortunately, not been matched by parallel empirical research for SMEs.The work reported in this paper serves two purposes. First, the results of an intensive literature review reveals general causes of failure in ICT implementations, and the key areas to focus on during ICT implementation for collaborative working. Second, results from exploratory case study that was conducted in order to assess the use of collaborative environments and their adaptation approaches are analysed in order to further explain what issues are preventing SMEs from achieving their utmost collaboration potential. Therefore, the paper blends a combination of factors which may affect the success of collaborative environments for SMEs and are believed to contribute towards the improvement and implementation of collaboration systems.

Keywords: Construction, ICT standards, re-engineering

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Alfredo F. Serpell, José M. Rueda

Modeling a project scope using a case-based reasoning approach

Abstract: The availability of a good, complete scope definition in the early stages of a project is widely recognized by industry practitioners as a key factor for overall project success. This paper presents a Project Scope Modeling Methodology for computerized decision support during the definition of a new project scope. The methodology is based on the effective reutilization of historical project scope definitions through the application of Case Based Reasoning (CBR), an Artificial Intelligence approach. In CBR, the previous experiences are reused in solving new situations re-ducing the complexities of modeling reasoning processes. By using CBR, the scope modeling methodology helps to find and reuse the most relevant historical information, allowing to easily consult and combine information from multiple scope definitions in a computerized environment. The resulting scope definitions are ready to serve as input information for different planning purposes. The application for conceptual cost estimating is discussed.

Keywords: project, scope, planning, modeling, case-based reasoning, methodology

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B de Vries

Building management simulation center

Abstract: Introduction to the BMSC In the Building Management Simulation Center new and experienced construction managers are trained. The center is unique because of the use of a virtual building site that can be inspected by the trainees. The actual status of the building and of the building materials and equipment on the building site is simulated by the system dependent on the trainee’s actions. The main part of the center is the simulation hall. Here, ten cabins are located with a view on a large parabolic projection screen. The trainee has to execute tasks in the cabin in an environment that is familiar to him/her. On the projection screen the building under construction can be viewed and it can be inspected by navigation through the full-scale model. Similar VR based training systems can be found in the aircraft industry, the automotive industry [http://www.ttsl.co.uk/home.htm] en de shipbuilding industry [http://thor.sv.vt.edu/crane/]. These examples inspired the initiators of the BMSC to investigate if the same methodology could be used in the building industry. Building site activity patterns Construction process simulation research has mainly been focused on the development of a construction planning analysis tool [e.g. V.R. Kamat, J.C. Martinez in proceedings of CIT2000]. In the BMSC though, interaction between the construction manager and the building on the building site will steer the construction process simulation. Investigations on the building site and discussions with experienced construction managers learned that they work in fixed patterns. A pattern consisting of a list of activities is called a transition type. These transition types describe all kinds of procedures that a construction manager performs to fulfill a specific tasks (e.g. ordering of new material). Transition types also take into account actions required to perform corrections beforehand or afterwards. For a specific case the transitions were entered into the system. The transitions were deduced from the construction managers that had worked on that building project when it was actually built. For the training purposes every possible situation the trainee can end up with has to be covered by the transitions. The interactive 3D training system The trainee’s actions are logged by a kind of Electronic Data Management System. All documents that are created during a training session are stored in the system. The system itself also contains project information that can be consulted. Finally the system offers an interface to communicate with the other participants in the project. After the training session that consists of the execution of a set of tasks, the system has stored all actions, their order and the produced documents. These data are compared with the predefined transitions for the case that was used. The document contents are compared with the predefined activity results. With this method it is easy to detect if the trainee missed certain activities in a transition and if the information is consistent. Finally, a visual feedback can be created be regeneration the 3D model in the VR environment in accordance with the trainee’s actions. The 3D model will show has far the building could have been built successfully. The learning effect After the training session the trainee will be confronted with the (possible) mismatch between has own actions and the preferred actions following from the predefined transitions. Evidently this is discussed during the evaluation after the training. Recognition of the right transition by the trainee to solve a specific task is considered one of the major learning effects of a BMSC training. Paper Outline In the paper the software architecture of the system will be explained. The activity patterns and the management of the system are discussed in more detail. A layout of the building where the BMSC is hosted is presented. Finally some examples of the training sessions will illustrate how the BMSC operates in practice and an overview will be presented of the first experiences.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,053,282 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.deployment (0.027827) class.man-software (0.018630) class.communication (0.013308)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Bhuta, C.; Shah, S.; Pamulu, M.

Strategic Management of Information Technology in Construction Industry: Case Study of a Developing Country

Abstract: This paper presents findings of a research project, which explores the current use of information technology (IT) in the Indonesian construction Industry. The findings are based on a survey questionnaire taken between December 2002 and April 2003 among 250 construction companies registered in the National Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) of Indonesia. The CIDB has listed and classified these companies as B category or large company. A total of 48 valid replies were received, representing a response rate of 38%. The survey includes IT environment and management use of software, hardware, internet applications, staff competency, investment in IT, benefits gained and problems associated with its implementation, and an assessment of the exploitation of IT for business strategic purposes. The paper also suggests to aggressively pushing for a need for the relevant government initiatives that would increase strategic use and adoption of IT. Government and public agencies should consider policies that encourage the use of IT in the construction industry, thus making this industry sector more competitive.

Keywords: IT, Stategic, Construction Industry, Developing Country, Indonesia

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Bhuta, Chandra; Shah, Samir; Pamulu, M. Sapri

Strategic Management of Information Technology in Construction Industry: Case Study of a Developing Country

Abstract: This paper presents findings of a research project, which explores the current use of information technology (IT) in the Indonesian construction Industry. The findings are based on a survey questionnaire taken between December 2002 and April 2003 among 250 construction companies registered in the National Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) of Indonesia. The CIDB has listed and classified these companies as B category or large company. A total of 48 valid replies were received, representing a response rate of 38%. The survey includes IT environment and management use of software, hardware, internet applications, staff competency, investment in IT, benefits gained and problems associated with its implementation, and an assessment of the exploitation of IT for business strategic purposes. The paper also suggests to aggressively pushing for a need for the relevant government initiatives that would increase strategic use and adoption of IT. Government and public agencies should consider policies that encourage the use of IT in the construction industry, thus making this industry sector more competitive.

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Full text: content.pdf (740,925 bytes) (available to registered users only)

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Bhuta, Chandra; Shah, Samir; Pamulu, M. Sapri

Strategic Management of Information Technology in Construction Industry: Case Study of a Developing Country

Abstract: This paper presents findings of a research project, which explores the current use of information technology (IT) in the Indonesian construction Industry. The findings are based on a survey questionnaire taken between December 2002 and April 2003 among 250 construction companies registered in the National Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) of Indonesia. The CIDB has listed and classified these companies as B category or large company. A total of 48 valid replies were received, representing a response rate of 38%. The survey includes IT environment and management use of software, hardware, internet applications, staff competency, investment in IT, benefits gained and problems associated with its implementation, and an assessment of the exploitation of IT for business strategic purposes. The paper also suggests to aggressively pushing for a need for the relevant government initiatives that would increase strategic use and adoption of IT. Government and public agencies should consider policies that encourage the use of IT in the construction industry, thus making this industry sector more competitive.

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Full text: content.pdf (740,925 bytes) (available to registered users only)

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Bouchlaghem N M, Liyanage I G

Virtual reality applications in the UK's construction industry

Abstract: A survey has been conducted to investigate the use of Virtual Reality and its applications within the construction industry in the UK. It surveyed the general perception of the new technology and its potential in improving design and construction processes as seen by practitioners in the industry and reviewed the work being undertaken by researchers in the academics' field.In recent years there has been attempts to apply Virtual Reality to various sectors of the construction industry, however due to the high cost of the new technology in terms of hardware and software most of these applications, as shown by the survey, remain unknown by the construction practitioners. The survey also showed that there is a lack of understanding of the new technology that is not surprising in an environment where even some more traditional aspects of IT are still to be improved to achieve the intended purposes.The survey first traced the history of Virtual Reality applications and its developments during the last forty years and then reviewed the different systems available in terms of hardware and software. It discussed the level of sophistication offered from desk top to fully immersive comparing and contrasting them with traditional visualisation techniques. A review of current and potential applications of VR in the construction industry was also undertaken covering those sectors likely to benefit the most from it. Design applications were found to be at a more advanced stage due to the fact that computer visualisation and modelling techniques have always been an important part of building design. However attempts to use the technology as a tool to improve construction processes have been made but most of them are still at the development stage.The results of the survey are presented and discussed in this paper and the future role of VR in the construction industry is debated in the light of the current and proposed work by researchers in the field.

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Full text: content.pdf (37,336 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1996 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.roadmaps (0.036580) class.strategies (0.029776) class.environment (0.015793)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Ljubljana. The assistance of the editor, Prof. Ziga Turk, is gratefully appreciated.


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