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A Borrmann; C van Treeck; E Rank

Towards a 3D Spatial Query Language for Building Information Models

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André Borrmann, Christoph van Treeck, and Ernst Rank

Towards A 3D Spatial Query Language For Building Information Models

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Series: w78:2006 (browse)
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André Borrmann, Stefanie Schraufstetter, Christoph van Treeck, Ernst Rank

An octree-based implementation of directional operators in a 3D spatial query language for building information models

Abstract: In a current research project, our group is developing a 3D Spatial Query Language that enables the spa-tial analysis of Building Information Models and the extraction of partial models that fulfil certain spatial constraints. Among other features, the spatial language includes directional operators, i.e. operators that reflect the directional relationships between 3D spatial objects, such as northOf, southOf, eastOf, westOf, above and below. The paper pre-sents in-depth definitions of the semantics of these operators by means of point set theory. It further gives an overview on the possible implementation of directional operators using a new space-partitioning data structure called slot-tree, which is derived from the objects’ octree representation. The slot-tree allows for the application of recursive algorithms that successively increase the discrete resolution of the spatial objects employed and thereby offer the possibility for a trade-off between computational effort and required accuracy.

Keywords: spatial query language, building information modelling, direction, octree

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Bloomfield D, Amor R

I-SEEC: an internet gateway to european construction resources

Abstract: For the construction industries to move into the knowledge society and knowledge economy they need to be able to build upon their existing information base. This information base is unique within individual countries (though often with significant overlap between countries, for example, with Eurocodes utilised across Europe) and usually widely dispersed. Drawing together the information resources within nations, and then connecting them with each other to form trans-national resources enables a more effective, informed and intelligent industry. I-SEEC is a collaborative project funded by the European Union with the overall goal of creating an infrastructure to enable and link high quality commercial electronic information services throughout its member countries. This project started in March 2000 and finishes in April 2001. It builds upon a previous EU project - CONNET (CONstruction information service NETwork). This paper provides a description of the final state of the infrastructure, services and business models available through I-SEEC. The countries participating in I-SEEC are Finland, Iceland, Italy, the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and the United Kingdom. CONNET provides access to a range of high quality Internet-based services for the construction industry in Europe. It provides both a European entry point to identify resources and national entry points for localised service delivery. The European CONNET entry point provides a range of technology park services as well as industry-specific services. These services include: · Management of security services, including installation and monitoring of security systems · Help desk, providing a point of contact for potential service providers and for problem resolution · Information broker role, enabling transparent access to information in the CONNET services · Technology observatory service, including leading edge, current and best-practice technologies · Provision of user profiles, allowing personalised delivery of updates in areas of interest · Multi-classification support, permitting handling of national systems used across the EC. · Inter-service communication services, allowing all comparable services to be identified and a query to be passed from one service to another service to answer. · Multi-language support, enabling EC languages to be handled correctly and to provide basic translations between them. The services offered by I-SEEC include a Technical Information Centre, Waste Exchange Centre, Electronic News Service, Calculation and Software Centre, Who's Who in Construction, Specialist Equipment Directory and a Best Practice Information service. The CONNET infrastructure and the I-SEEC information services provide the means to promote effective use of information by construction industry professionals in an efficient and cost-effective way. The ability to pass queries from one high quality service to another in a different country is a substantial contribution to the CIB goal of providing information to achieve performance. This paper draws out lessons learned - both technological and practical - in the course of this multi-country initiative to develop a portal for the construction industry. It also invites participation in this open initiative and describes how existing and developing services across the world can be made interoperable within a CONNET (and any Internet portal) environment.

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Full text: content.pdf (416,345 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.056731) class.deployment (0.046867) class.collaboration (0.041581)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Borrmann A; van Treeck, C; Rank, E

Towards a 3D Spatial Query Language for Building Information Models

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Keywords: Building Information Modeling, Spatial Query, Topology

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Brien M O'

Production and evaluation of a multi-media product selector

Abstract: Intercommunication between diverse computer systems demands the use of standards. Initial standards were concerned with the physical and electrical including the structure of the messages sent by one system to another. The most recent developments have addressed high level semantic issues which are the primary concern of the users. The trend therefore has been one from lower, syntactic, system concerns to higher, semantic, application issues. Whereas the development of the ISO Open Standards Intercommunication standard has been universally accepted the creation of higher level standards has not been so simple. This paper addresses some of those issues. In particular, it draws on the lessons learnt in the production and evaluation of a multi-media product selector that has been built to support the construction industry. A primary concern that has been highlighted by this product is the need to provide novel query mechanisms which can cope with a diversity of data structures. This demand for differentiation is directly at odds with the standardised capabilities of current distributed data structures.

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Full text: content.pdf (48,793 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1996 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.030805) class.represent (0.026535) class.deployment (0.025640)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Ljubljana. The assistance of the editor, Prof. Ziga Turk, is gratefully appreciated.


Daum S,Borrmann A

Checking spatio-semantic consistency of building information models by means of a query language

Abstract: One of the characteristic features of object-based Building Information Models is the close integration of geometric and semantic information into one model. This concept is thoroughly implemented by the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), a comprehensive data model designed to provide a sound foundation for complex data exchange scenarios. Besides the provision of a large variety of data types for capturing the semantics of building elements and spaces, the IFC also makes it possible to define relationships between building elements and/or spaces, respectively. In particular, a spatial aggregation hierarchy can be modeled by successively applying the relationship IfcRelAggregates to space objects. However, no validation options currently exist to check whether the semantically defined aggregation hierarchy complies with the geometric setup of the individual spaces and building elements. This lack of consistency between the semantic and the geometric part of the BIM model may lead to serious data interpretation errors at the receiving end. To prevent this, we propose a new method for validating spatio-semantic consistency based on the usage of the Query Language for Building Information Models (QL4BIM) which on the one hand provides a means of accessing the IFC object model and on the other hand provides high-level spatial operators, such as Disjoint, Touching and Containing. The formulation of corresponding queries makes it possible to verify the spatio-semantic consistency of the IFC model. The paper discusses application scenarios and provides a number of relevant examples.

Keywords: BIM,IFC,Topology,Validation,Consistency,Spatial Relationships

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H Ying, S Lee, Q Lu

Comparative analysis of the applicability of BIM query languages for energy analysis

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Series: w78:2016 (browse)
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Hollister K C

An extended structured query language incorporating object data types for the construction industry

Abstract: will have a dramatic positive impact on productivity is the development of an appropriate database language. This research involved the development of a standard construction industry specific extension to the Standard Query Language (SQL), the de fact0 international standard for relational database query languages. Construction Industry-SQL (CI-SOL), is the first industrial extension to SQL and serves as a prototype for a host of other extensions from other ifidustries. CI-SQL uses object data, object attributes, and user-defined extensions to allow rapid access to industry databases. CI-SQL can play a significant role in the way infoi mation is retrieved by Construction industry, allowing the development of robust databases that support SQL. Ultimately the implementation of CI-SQL will force industry to reconsider the heavy duplication of information that negatively affects productivity and will allow the introduction of keyless data entry and retrieval systems that enhance the speed and accuracy of information handling. Examples in construction material procurement will be used to illustrate the potential for CI-SQL applications. The ultimate use of CI-SQL will be to allow the use of keyless data entry systems, the foremost of which is bar coding, in construction specifications. The key to developing a system of information handling in construction that

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Full text: content.pdf (1,474,912 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.retrieve (0.027396) class.environment (0.024484) class.impact (0.023842)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Jakob Beetz, Leon van Berlo, Ruben de Laat, Pim van den Helm

BIMSERVER.Org – An Open Source IFC Model Server

Abstract: In this paper we introduce the ongoing development of a free and open model server to persist, maintain and manage instance models of the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) format. By using open standards, robust existing software frameworks, best practices and workflows accepted in the broader software engineering world as the basis of our framework, we hope to gain traction within the research and development community by creating a completely open reference implementation that is free to use and extend within individual research projects and commercial applications. By providing an open and extendable architecture around a robust and performant kernel we hope to be able to encourage the integration of many earlier and current efforts that have been undertaken in the field of IFC-based model processing.We describe the set of features implemented so far and give an outline of a roadmap for future developments. Some of these implemented features include: User management, up- and downloads of models, a check-out and check-in mechanism and versioning. As part of this versioning mechanism we show a tree comparison algorithm that allows the creation of version-deltas we refer to as change sets. These change sets are used to minimize the amount of traffic to and from the central repository by only communicating its differences. All server-side functionality described here is exposed through a web-service API which has been used to implement web-based and standalone client applications. A filtering mechanism allows the extraction of sub-models such as specific element types. We show how we transform original STEP part 11 EXPRESS schemas into a Meta-Object-Facility (MOF), and store them in XMI/EMF models. Furthermore, we describe how our framework provides a mapping to a BerkeleyDB database facilitating its rich set of features. We demonstrate how we use a suite of more than 1600 IFC models from various sources to test the integrity of the framework. To demonstrate that our framework works efficiently enough for real-world building model scenarios, we provide some performance indicators using this extensive suite of test models.We finish our report by laying out some of the ideas and plans for the future development of the server which include query languages (for the definition of IDMs etc.), a viewer (e.g. for the visualization of differences between model versions) and the integration of other model schemas such as the ISO 12006-3.

Keywords: IFC, model server, BIM, CAD, collaboration

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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