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Anadol Z, Akin O

Determining the impact of CADrafting tools on the building delivery process

Abstract: Computer aided design (CAD) is intended to change the way design and construction are carried out. At a minimum, this implies savings realized in terms of time spent and improvement of the quality of designs produced. To test this idea, we hypothesized that computer aided drafting and design operations may be instrumental in reducing the number of change orders issued and help control cost overruns by improving the accuracy of construction documents. We compared change orders in projects designed in the conventional media against ones developed with computers. We found that there is evidence supporting our hypothesis. Furthermore, in the process of investigating this question, we found that computer applications to improve the management of existing building information (as-built drawings, building system related information, and the like) represent even more critical needs than those that can reduce change orders through more accurate design drawings.

Keywords: drawing accuracy; change orders; design errors; as-built drawings; scope changes

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Series: w78:1993 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Anastasiya Yurchyshyna, Catherine Faron Zucker, Nhan Le Thanh, Celson Lima, Alain Zarli

Towards an ontology-based approach for conformance checking modeling in construction

Abstract: This paper gives an overview of a formal ontological approach of conformance models for regulations in Construction aiming at answering the research question: “is an IFC-represented building project compliant to a set of construction rules?” The study analyses three key subtasks: (i) transformation of the IFC of the construction project; (ii) regulations formalisation; (iii) conformance checking reasoning. While analysing the IFC model redundancy and/or insufficiency for conformance checking reasoning, we suggest an intermediate RDF-based model, semantically en-riched and regulation-oriented. The regulation formalisation is studied under two viewpoints: the formalisation of pa-per-based regulation texts to be automatically used in reasoning and the development of the representation of ontology-based regulations. The construction rules are represented as a set of rules which premise and conclusion are RDF graphs. The conformance checking starts from the alignment of the construction project ontologies to the prem-ise/conclusion ontologies of the construction rule. Then, the checking in construction is seen as reasoning in terms of the corresponding RDF graphs. The paper concludes with a preliminary conceptual framework based on Semantic Web technologies modeling the conformance checking problem, as well as the technical solutions for its implementation. The respective architecture and future challenges of the work are also discussed.

Keywords: conformance checking, ontologies in construction, e-regulations, construction project conformance to regulations, semantic web in construction

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Arlani A

Application of information technology in the building regulatory environment

Abstract: The Building Code and its associated regulations, standards, interpretations, rulings and explanatory support documents form a body ofmaterial which, like any law and its regulations, are complex and, attimes, esoteric. It is comprised of a series of concepts and their relationships, rules, exceptions to rules and examples. It essentially defines prescriptive states, conditions and actions for the builder/designer or identifies performance requirements for materials or systems.There is seldom rationale for the rules that could easily be understood and thus few answers to the question, "Why?". This makes building regulations difficult to develop, to use and to enforce. In this paper some applications of computers used in the Code Development process, as a user tool and as an instructional tool will be discussed.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,153,113 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1992 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.legal (0.171184) class.synthesis (0.033042) class.analysis (0.021869)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editor, Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Bakkeren W, Willems P

Capturing and structuring the meaning of communication in the building and construction industry

Abstract: Integration of the computer applications used in the building industry requires information systems that support the communication between these applications. Cyrently this communication is realised via human interpretation and understanding. An important question in this context is: "what makes communication meaningful?". The meaning of communication has two aspects: (1) the intention: the general idea behind the communication, and (2) the extension: the set of things to which the communication applies. This paper describes these aspects of meaning and mechanisms used by human beings to define meaning. To enable information systems to support communication the intention and the extension must be represented in a computer interpretable form. The representations should be manageable, reusable and extendable. This requires structuring of the representations, which can be achieved by modular modelling and layering, This paper describes these stucturing mechanisms.

Keywords: meaning of communication; representation of meaning; structuring representations; modularity; layering

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Series: w78:1993 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Bandic M, Izetbegovic J

A framework for research of IT application in Croatian construction companies

Abstract: Croatian construction companies are passing dramatically changes by privatisation and restructuring according to the market needs of today and especially during future huge reconstruction and development of Croatian (as well Bosnia and Herzegovina) economy. The market conditions in these Republics are for now: scarcity of financial means, scarcity of personal educated and trained in modern management methods, scarcity of some profiles of skilled people in construction, very strong competition of foreign companies, since Croatian (and B and H) market is now open for foreign companies. The specific after war conditions include also new legal and business structure (completely new legislative based on the practice of developed western democratic states) new financial structure and institutions (also based on the financial structure of the developed countries). In the chaining of the subsystems: [ ownership - undertaking - management - transformed ownership] , information technology is fundamental but not sufficient enabler for quality decision making and efficiently management of the construction processes. Based on the IT application, there are necessary educated and trained management people, adequate decisions, and realisation. By adequate IT application design and construction processes are probably rationalised and accelerated, by satisfaction of the high quality standards, so that construction companies could easier adapt to market needs. What are necessary prerequisites (organization, IT, personnel, other) for making and carrying out of the quality decisions? In which degree IT application (modern information technologies, expert systems, CAD/CAM, GIS, CASE) influence on decision quality? What are other factors are influencing (knowledge degree, psychological state, environment, market)? On such question have been proposed and accepted research program under the name "Development of IT application in Croatian construction companies" by Croatian Ministry for science and technology. The goals: * Continually research of development of IT application in companies that are active in design, construction and maintenance of construction objects. * Comparative overview of IT application state to different criteria * Proposition of strategy development of IT application in construction * Creation of IT data base for information and experience exchange between the foreign and domestic construction companies * Proposition of education programme of IT application in construction * The questionnaire is now in distribution, and research will be carried out in the next three years. * The paper will explain the research approach, and eventually the first results.

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Full text: content.pdf (48,526 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.024035) class.legal (0.021667) class.education (0.019299)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


C Lima

Interoperability among Semantic Resources in Construction: Is it Feasible?

Abstract: This paper discusses the semantic interoperability in the Construction sector, from the viewpoint of the FUNSIEC project. Shortly, FUNSIEC project aimed to answer the following question: is it feasible to establish semantic mappings amongst Semantic Resources (SRs) specifically created for the Construction sector? This quest has been answered positively through the development of the Open Semantic Infrastructure for the European Construction Sector (OSIECS). FUNSIEC work relied in a methodology that supported the development of the OSIECS triad, which is formed by the OSIECS Kernel, the OSIECS meta-model, and the OSIECS model. This paper presents the OSIECS triad, discussing the approach adopted, the challenges faced, the problems overcome, and the results achieved. The work to be done to continue this work is also discussed.

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Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Charles-Edouard Tolmer and Christophe Castaing

Applying System and Requirement Engineering for Information Modeling in Infrastructure Projects

Abstract: The definition of LOD is currently subject of debate: Level Of Detail, Development, Definition, Information, etc. The question of the content of each LOD is generally discussed but much less the question of the real utility of these LOD. We first propose to apply system engineering on the whole project process documentation to identify the BIM uses scope. We then use requirement engineering to validate that modelling information is depending on requirement management. We complete this work with experimentation, applying system and requirement engineering on a specific system, longitudinal drainage system, defining this way a specific BIM use. This experiment complements our conceptual proposal for organizing process requirements related to project information management.

Keywords: System Engineering, Requirement Engineering, Information Management, Infrastructure Project, BIM

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0296

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Dado E, Tolman F

Support of site construction processes by product data technology

Abstract: In the last decade or so design/engineering of building and construction projects is gradually incorporating advanced information technologies, like Product Data Technology. The main drive for this development comes from the demand for meaningful electronic communication between CAxx systems of various disciplines. Getting rid of the islands of automation and information improves both the design processes and the design results. However islands of automation and information not only exist in design/engineering, but also in the construction phase. Moreover the design/engineering and the construction faces as a whole, are still very much isolated. Now that in the foreseeable future main contractors will receive a complete project description, a product model, in electronic format, the question becomes important how PDT can support site construction. In recent studies, researchers in the field of planning, scheduling and cost-estimating of construction projects, discerned the importance of the ability to deal with explicit information about construction methods and technologies is an important capability for future support systems. The main idea is that experiences and knowledge from earlier construction projects are stored in construction methods. By representing these construction methods in a standardized electronic form (i.e. databases, objects), an organization, such as a main contractor, is able to exchange information with other organizations and allows an organization to assemble a repository of techniques which they are familiar with. These computer-interpretable models for the representation of construction methods can be used to support the automated generation of plans, schedules and cost-estimations. This paper reports about a study into the question how to generate plans, schedules and cost-estimations given (1) a standardized product model and (2) a library of standardized process objects implementing information about construction methods. Initial results of a system that supports the translation of the product oriented design/engineering view into the process oriented main contractor view will be shown and discussed.

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Full text: content.pdf (112,343 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.026380) class.communication (0.018471) class.impact (0.016846)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Ekholm A, Fridqvist S

Ob ject-oriented caad' - design object structure, and models for buildings, user organisation and site

Abstract: In the early stages of the building design process not only building and site but also user activities and experiences are fonned. In this project conceptual models of some fundamental characteristics of building, site and user organisation will be developed and implemented in a prototype CAD-programme. The programming work for the prototypes is done with Smalltalk on Macintosh computers. The tests of the prototype includes spatial coordination of the three systems. The models are based on an ontological framework which is also used for organising the basic object structure of the prototype CAD program. In the design process, information about the design object is gradually developed. Starthg from certain desired properties, the whole and its parts are fonned by successive increase of detail. The project investigates how the data structure of the design object can be formed to serve this working method. The project also discusses possible future developments. One important question is how these models maybe used in the development of the brief and in the building management stage.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,439,701 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software development (0.034496) class.analysis (0.018928) class.represent (0.014989)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Guillermo Aranda-Mena, John Crawford, Agustin Chevez, Thomas Froese

BUILDING INFORMATION MODELLING DEMYSTIFIED: DOES IT MAKE BUSINESS SENSE TO ADOPT BIM?

Abstract: Building Information Modeling (BIM) offers a revolutionising way to design, document and procure buildings. BIM promises to become a new international benchmark for building design and documentation across industry on the basis of improved efficiencies and collaboration capabilities. However, BIM requires rethinking current practices and process thus it calls for a paradigm shift in the way we procure, design and operate buildings. There seems no question that BIM methodologies are to become the norm in the long term but more factual evidence is required today to provide guidance to industry. This paper investigates current business drivers for BIM adoption by architecture and building engineering consultants.BIM needs to compete against well-ingrained methods to deliver projects in a fragmented and rather traditional industry. This paper investigates 47 value propositions for the adoption of BIM under a multiple case study investigation carried out in Australia and Hong Kong (Aranda-Mena et. al 2008). The selected case study projects included a range of public (1) and private (4) sector building developments of small and large scale. Findings were coded, interpreted and synthesised in order to identify the challenges and business drivers, and the paper focuses mainly on challenges and benefits for architectural and engineering consultants, contractors and steel fabricators. As a condition for the selection criteria all case studies had to be collaborating by sharing BIM data between two or more consultants / stakeholders. As practices cannot afford to ignore BIM this paper aims to identify those immediate business drivers as to provoke debate amongst the professional and academic community.

Keywords: BIM

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Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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