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A. Guerriero, L. Johannsen & S. Kubicki

Designing IT services for the Construction Industry. Lessons learnt for Selection of Validation Techniques

Abstract: Setting up collaborative working practices is a major stake in construction projects because each project is specific in terms of actors involved, documents produced and building elements designed. In such contexts the use of IT groupware tools to improve collaboration and their efficient appropriation by AEC practitioners is really a challenge. Designing such innovative collaboration-support services is an issue largely addressed in the scientific community especially to identify the factors of success/failure of the tools, but also to identify the scientific experimental approaches underlying it. This article describes five case studies of cooperation-support IT developments and for each of them the validation techniques used. It suggests an analytic framework distinguishing between 1) research project aims, 2) working practices and 3) IT developments types. Finally it introduces three experimental levels to be achieved in various research projects types and describes their related experimental properties.

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Full text: content.pdf (274,910 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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Costa F

The S:ITEC model: An integrated system of treatment of data and knowledge in construction

Abstract: Recently, in the field of Computer Aided Design (CAD), notable efforts have been made with theoretical results largely unproven due mainly to the difficulties of the large scale production required. On the other hand, other applications of an excessively practical nature have been developed which, however, present a high degree of difficulty in bringing about their integration. In the first case we would include, for example, representational Models and Classification Systems andin the second case the various CAD systems as well as the partial integration work carried out although often at a high level of specialization. This work means that, although each time we get nearer to reaching the goal where all these efforts would coincide, no concrete systemadaptable to the majority of models proposed has really yet been put forward or used for the various applications developed. A system whichwould meet these needs must do so in a single, integral manner (whicheven could be standardized in the most universal way possible) so that finally-the user could at any moment control in real time each and every one of the various decisions which must be taken along the difficult design path, understood as the process of conception. In order to achieve these objectives, what becomes fundamental is the adequate treatment of the various methods and elements on which we depend, in order to carry out our task so that, in some way or other, we can simplifyand reduce them to two single elements: Data and Knowledge. While it is certain that in the first case there is almost complete coincidenceamong most of the existing proposals in various parts of the world, in the second case there exists a wide range of approaches as well as arelative lack of concretion. The SITEC model (Integrated System for Treatment of Construction Elements), a research project being developedby the Catalan Institute of Construction Technology, is shown to be capable of providing the necessary integrat

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Full text: content.pdf (1,001,313 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1992 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.028882) class.impact (0.010540) class.analysis (0.008722)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editor, Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Franklyn Chukwunonso

EVALUATING ICT FOR EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION IN TERTIARY EDUCATION IN NIGERIAN

Abstract: Higher education is approaching the point at which Science and Technology particularly Information and Communication Technology (ICT), plays a part in nearly all phases of the educational process. Every institution of higher learning uses computers in their educational programs. In many institutions, this information technology (IT) revolution has taken place without institutional policies in place. The potential educational uses of the Internet and World Wide Web add urgency to the need for institutional policies that protect the interest of participants while assuring the best educational use of these expensive resources. But one cannot be sure that all the new computers and networks appearing in classrooms will really make a difference for learners. It is still uncertain that the money and time invested in them makes a difference. What criteria to be used and how to measure success are some of the questions that raise additional questions about differences in the way we use technologies. For every success story, there are other stories about problems or unanticipated negative effects. It is so often observed that new technologies remain underused or misused. These are some of the issues this paper will consider with respect to information technology and technological values, virtues and developments in tertiary education in Nigeria.

Keywords: ICT, Information and Communication Technology, Information Technology, IT, Evaluating ICT, Effective Implementation of ICt, Nigeria, Nigerian Tertiary Institutions, Nigerian Universities, Nigerian Education, Tertiary Institutions, Tertiary Education, Universities

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Full text: content.doc (76,288 bytes) (available to registered users only)

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Franklyn Chukwunonso

EVALUATING ICT FOR EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION IN TERTIARY EDUCATION IN NIGERIAN

Abstract: Higher education is approaching the point at which Science and Technology particularly Information and Communication Technology (ICT), plays a part in nearly all phases of the educational process. Every institution of higher learning uses computers in their educational programs. In many institutions, this information technology (IT) revolution has taken place without institutional policies in place. The potential educational uses of the Internet and World Wide Web add urgency to the need for institutional policies that protect the interest of participants while assuring the best educational use of these expensive resources. But one cannot be sure that all the new computers and networks appearing in classrooms will really make a difference for learners. It is still uncertain that the money and time invested in them makes a difference. What criteria to be used and how to measure success are some of the questions that raise additional questions about differences in the way we use technologies. For every success story, there are other stories about problems or unanticipated negative effects. It is so often observed that new technologies remain underused or misused. These are some of the issues this paper will consider with respect to information technology and technological values, virtues and developments in tertiary education in Nigeria.

Keywords: Internet, WWW, Evaluating, ICT, Information Technology, Nigeria, Tertiary, Education, Implementation

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Hinz O

Using mechanical models as services within object-oriented distributed systems

Abstract: Components are stand-alone software modules which can be used by other components, independent of their programming language and process borders. Components offer their functions through a public interface, called service. The communication between components is controlled by an object request broker (ORB). One of the most common ORBs is ActiveX from Microsoft Co. For software in civil and structural engineering there are no really components available yet. The problem with components is that they should be designed for a big number of reusing cases. This paper shows how mechanical models can be used to define engineering components and they can be used in several concepts of distributed software environments (intra- and internet).

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Series: ecce:1997 (browse)
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J Abel & K Lennerts

Where does CAFM really help? Current fields of application and future trends according to system users

Abstract: The possibilities of CAFM systems are multifarious and the system manufacturers are constantly drawing attention to these. The question is, however, what do customers actually need and which functions are being used. Karlsruhe University (TH) has therefore conducted a survey in order to determine the current situation regarding CAFM installations and the future needs of users. A mail survey was chosen as the means of data acquisition. A sample group of more than 100 CAFM users were asked to complete a standardized questionnaire. This questionnaire comprises approximately 50 questions, including questions of a factual nature, questions relating to specific knowledge and appraisal questions. The results of the survey give an overview of the current fields of application for CAFM systems and a trend for future fields of application in terms of user needs. It also shows whether CAFM is primarily used by building owners, occupants or operators. The reasons for introducing CAFM systems become evident, as well as the extent to which these needs have been fulfilled. An overall evaluation of the systems draws attention to the deficits and strengths of CAFM systems.

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Full text: content.pdf (252,552 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Karlsson H

Classification and coding, a necessary tool for the improving the information flow in the building process. Developments in Sweden and within CIB w4

Abstract: During the 20 minutes I have got at my disposal I will describe how we in Sweden today regard the need for tools for an improved information flow in the building process and how we try to solve our problems, I will also touch upon the relation of this work to international development work. The name of this session is ' Classification ' . We have got some critisism for that as it hints at a more restricted subject than really intended. The aim of the work described during the session is to improve the information flow in the building process. Classification and coding are important tools for the realization of that goal but only tools , not ends . The title 'Classification ' was chosen for brevity . Improving the information flow is something very practical and the consequences may even be described in dollars or pounds or whatever currency you choose. Also the way we try t o achieve our goals is down t o earth. You must during the whole development work have a close relation to the users of our results .

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Full text: content.pdf (2,530,117 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1988 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.social (0.023430) class.impact (0.022812) class.retrieve (0.015304)
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Permission to reproduce these documents has been graciously provided by the Lund University and the Swedish Building Centre. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Per Christiansson and Prof. Henry Karlsson, is gratefully appreciated.


Oostra M

Stimulating innovation by making project-related information available on internet

Abstract: Nonaka and Takeuchi state in their book 'The knowledge-creating company' that product development is the very process in an organisation to generate new knowledge. This makes product development an important motor for acquiring new knowledge in a line of business like the building industry. Product innovations in our industry are due to initiatives by a range of parties. These parties start from an assumption of what should be technically feasible when initiating innovation. Of these parties, manufacturers are generally regarded as the ultimate product developers. Innovation in the form of new products contributes much to safeguard the continuity of the firm. Since their interest is survival and they focus on certain production techniques, most manufacturers are well aware of technical developments within their field. Manufacturers have a great interest in making the new product known to the world. They therefore diffuse selected information of their products to the industry. Manufacturers are, however, not the only actors initiating development of building products, architects play an important role as well: they can initiate project-related product development. Since architects operate as generalists within the industry, combining different products and techniques to realise their buildings, they can not be completely informed on the latest technological developments. In order to realise products, which are tailor made to the project, they therefore need the expertise of others; manufacturers, contractors and/or different advisors. It is here where the availability of information on expertise and interest becomes important to the architects. On the other hand, nobody really has a specific interest in promoting project-related products. This means that this type of information is only passed along accidentally and not intentionally. As a result, knowledge related to these specially developed products diffuses very slow compared to knowledge related to standard products, or in the worst case the information disappears altogether. Dissemination of information or technology transfer is an important condition for achieving innovation, as shown by Rogers in his book 'Diffusion of innovations'. To stimulate project-related innovation that is initiated by architects, the information flow within the industry needs to be smoothened. Architects do not want to be disturbed with all this technical and product information when they do not need it. However, a database containing this information that would be accessible via the Internet when it is needed by the architects would be the most optimal solution.

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Full text: content.pdf (218,762 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.bestPractise (0.021362) class.education (0.014322) class.collaboration (0.009822)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Patel M B, McCarthy T J, Morris P W, Elhag T M

The role of it in capturing and managing knowledge for organisational learning on construction projects

Abstract: "Knowledge management is becoming increasingly recognised as a critical source of competitive advantage. The way organisations use knowledge and learn is increasingly being recognised as central to performance improvement. Construction is no exception. Many construction companies, and their clients, are recognising that the way they manage knowledge and learn, across the whole supply chain, can make an enormous difference to their performance and the efficiency of the construction process. This paper describes work forming part of the research project: ‘The Role of IT in Capturing and Managing Knowledge for Organisational Learning on Construction Projects’ – known now under the acronym KLICON: Knowledge and Learning In CONstruction. It sets the scene for the detailed research project reviewing the current state of the use if IT in knowledge management and organisational learning in the construction industry. The problem is in many ways particularly difficult and important in construction with its project base, and the large number of often relatively small projects with constantly changing members of the supply chain. Information Technology (IT) offers real opportunities for capturing knowledge and feeding it back into the project organisation. This is important if performance is really to improve. This research will examine how IT can better assist knowledge management and organisational learning in construction projects. The aim of the research is to investigate how Information Technology can facilitate organisational learning and knowledge management in the construction industry. This will be achieved by: · examining how knowledge is captured and managed by firms working on construction projects; · assessing what management and IT tools are used to facilitate this, and their effectiveness. Knowledge needs and the use of IT tools will be investigated within a selected domain. This will be Requirements Capture and Management. In KLICON, knowledge is being taken as the cognitive ability to generate insight based on information and data. Much of the current work in knowledge management focuses on the collection, classification, storage, accessing and communication of information. Important though this is, many organisations are increasingly recognising that the way information is used in order to facilitate continuous improvement is often of more immediate relevance. This, broadly, is the area of organisational learning. Organisational learning is the ability of the organisation to collect and use information so that members exploit it to learn and to improve performance. Learning is something that pervades every individual’s life in one form or another. Organisations may be capable of learning and such organisational learning may in turn impact upon various aspects of an organisation’s performance. The full paper will amplify the topics outlined above and illustrate them with examples from the construction organisations from the KLICON group. It will also include examples of the IT tools that are being used to capture the process functions and the related information requirements. The KLICON industrial partners, Ove Arup and Partners and Kvaerner Construction Ltd, are providing access to project teams for the in-depth research into requirements capture, knowledge transmission and organisational learning."

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Full text: content.pdf (332,916 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.education (0.060951) class.deployment (0.056432) class.environment (0.019154)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


R van Rees, Tolman F, Beheshti R

How BcXML handles construction semantics

Abstract: The paper focuses on the development of a new Communication Technology for the Building-Construction industry, called bcXML. One problem that has to be solved before ICT really will help to increase the BC industry's competitiveness is the way construction semantics should be treated. Over the years several approaches have been researched, but none was able to provide a satisfactory solution. What is needed is a common (neutral) taxonomy with definitions of objects and properties with units and names in different languages and alphabets that can be used to create and translate meaningful XML-based messages, but that is not part of the actual standard. Such an approach would in particular serve the purpose of the fragmented European Building and Construction industry, and is prerequisite for the unification and industrialization of the European Building and Construction industry. The paper describes how eConstruct handled building and construction semantics.

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Full text: content.pdf (191,195 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.standards (0.125208) class.represent (0.022139) class.software-software (0.016472)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


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