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Anastasiya Yurchyshyna, Catherine Faron Zucker, Nhan Le Thanh, Celson Lima, Alain Zarli

Towards an ontology-based approach for conformance checking modeling in construction

Abstract: This paper gives an overview of a formal ontological approach of conformance models for regulations in Construction aiming at answering the research question: “is an IFC-represented building project compliant to a set of construction rules?” The study analyses three key subtasks: (i) transformation of the IFC of the construction project; (ii) regulations formalisation; (iii) conformance checking reasoning. While analysing the IFC model redundancy and/or insufficiency for conformance checking reasoning, we suggest an intermediate RDF-based model, semantically en-riched and regulation-oriented. The regulation formalisation is studied under two viewpoints: the formalisation of pa-per-based regulation texts to be automatically used in reasoning and the development of the representation of ontology-based regulations. The construction rules are represented as a set of rules which premise and conclusion are RDF graphs. The conformance checking starts from the alignment of the construction project ontologies to the prem-ise/conclusion ontologies of the construction rule. Then, the checking in construction is seen as reasoning in terms of the corresponding RDF graphs. The paper concludes with a preliminary conceptual framework based on Semantic Web technologies modeling the conformance checking problem, as well as the technical solutions for its implementation. The respective architecture and future challenges of the work are also discussed.

Keywords: conformance checking, ontologies in construction, e-regulations, construction project conformance to regulations, semantic web in construction

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Full text: content.pdf (428,706 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Blackmore J M

Computer aided development of knowledge in the construction process

Abstract: Modern regulations control the performance of our built environment rather than the methods and materials of construction. The designer has freedom to fulfil specified objectives any way he chooses, but he must show that he is fulfilling the regulatory intention, and fulfilling it well enough. How does he convince the building surveyor that his building will provide an acceptable level of compliance? Where does he find the information to justify his choice of solutions to the regulatory problems? And where does the regulator find the information needed to determine whether or not a proposed solution is acceptable? The answers lie in the sea of regulatory information and research that is the source of all building reedation. Required levels of compliance are implicit in ixaditional, prescriptive regulations. Background research data, legal rulings, records of committee decisions, articles, advisory notes, commentaries, accreditation reports, cornon practice - all give an indication of the level of compliance that society and the regulators are willing to accept and help the designer and the regulator establish criteria of acceptance. This vast array of knowledge helps the regulator determine the intentions of existing regulations and write realistic rules for the performance of buildings. But where does the search fgr knowledge begin? Information technology can structure the search and help find a way through the jungle of data, macheteing obstructions to the introduction of innovative solutions. A structured, selective search can give the regulator access to all the data he needs to support his arguments, allowing the full realisation of the benefits of performance regulation. Linked to a powerful expert system that assists and checks his passage through the regulations, CSBO is creating an IT system to facilitate these benefits.

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Full text: content.pdf (2,214,097 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.legal (0.085813) class.analysis (0.024178) class.synthesis (0.023322)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Blackmore J, Leong F, Sharpe R, Williams P

CSIRO - Building the future down under

Abstract: Australia has recently unified technical building regulations throughout its eight states and territories. As technical adviser to theAustralian Building Regulations Co-ordinating Council (AUBRCC), CSIRODivision of Building, Construction and Engineering is heavily involved in the development of many aspects of building regulation. It offersadvice on the technical content, format and drafting of regulation, administers a national accreditation scheme and has developed commercially available interactive software to support the regulations. It is now developing a data base to access the background information used inall its regulation-related activities.

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Full text: content.pdf (995,244 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1992 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.legal (0.086581) class.man-software (0.018202) class.synthesis (0.017892)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editor, Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Brisson E, Debras Ph, Poyet P

A first step towards an intelligent integrated design system in the building field

Abstract: This article presents the work the Knowledge Base Group is achieving towards the integration of Artificial Intelligence based facilities in the Building design process. After an overview of the current state of the integrated design process, we describe the context and the technical guidelines to realize computer integrated software in the building design field. Then some tools are presented to model the knowledge (the HBDS method) and t o implement such model in our Mips home-made knowledge modeling software platform (including object-oriented database management facilities, expert system reasoning facilities, hypertext edition facilities, 3D-design and 3D-view modules .. .). Finally we describe the Quakes application devoted t o assess detached house anti-seismic capabilities during the design process. A deep conceptual model takes in charge all the semantic entities (columns, resistant panels, openings, ...) involved in the anti-seismic expertise. Using both this conceptual model description of a detached house and the 3D design tool, we input the project. Then the seismic expertise is driven in a divide and conquer approach and records the alleged configuration recognized automatically linked to the corresponding section of the building regulation.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,124,986 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1991 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.legal (0.034298) class.analysis (0.022648) class.synthesis (0.019006)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Eindhoven University of Technology.


Debras P, Rezgui Y

Software systems for the integration of documentary engineering within a construction project

Abstract: Numerous documents of diverse nature are involved in the construction process. Some of them such as building codes, examples of technical solutions, computation rules, define the legal context of a project. Others like technical specification documents or bills of quantities are generated by the engineering activities and often have a contractual importance. Quality of the laters may be measured by their coherency with the regulation, with the documents previously approved, but also by their coherency with the construction project itself through the absence of errors, omissions or redundancies. Once elaborated, these documents should also prove ability to be used by various actors with specific needs or requests. We describe here our approach to manage the production of these documents in tight connection with the engineering entities describing a construction project. Such a connection is based on a conceptual model of the project through its various systems and entities as proposed within the STEP framework. Such a connection relies also on a formal representation of the documents, practically SGML Document Type Definitions, and on a set of document templates linked to the construction project model and from which the project documents will be derived :from a global set of documentary items, we will only retain the relevant sections towards a given project. Then we present a software platform we develop to operate such an approach. This platform encompasses various modules taking in charge the elaboration of project data models according to the Express-G methodology, supporting the production of SGML DTDs and associated documents templates, providing some frames and facilities to link the project model and the document templates.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,572,450 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.legal (0.045495) class.store (0.018764) class.synthesis (0.017579)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


Debras P

Construction application of a gen-network : uniform access to standards, products and company information

Abstract: "Facing an increasing competitive environment where flexibility and adaptability to change are the obliged route to success, building and construction companies have to continuously renew their working habits while keeping business processes under quality, time and cost control. In the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) domain, the wide diversity in terms of the object built, but also associated to the geographical dispersion of actors and building sites makes such an agility even more crucial. Considering the design and tendering phase of a construction operation, the architects and construction engineers have to efficiently select the manufactured products that will best suit the project while complying to its numerous constraints. Beyond the functionality, performance and cost characteristics, a suitable product has also to conform to the applying regulations and standards, be eventually accompanied with a corresponding technical agreement, offer acceptable delivery solutions on the building site. Moreover, once identified within a manufacturer catalogue, the product has to be integrated into the architect or engineer application desktop, whether it be a CAD, specification writer or quantity take-off application. Addressing these needs, the Global Engineering Networking (GEN) initiative is promoting the reuse of company internal and external engineering knowledge through the emergence of new kind of global market places where actors publish and retrieve on-line a wide range of engineering information and services. In particular, The Construction Pilot in EP 22 284 GENIAL project demonstrates over the AEC domain, the relevance of new generation of Information Technology infrastructures supporting the erection of Value-Added Service Provider (VASP) sites that materialise the GEN vision, i.e. allowing information and services to smoothly be retrieved where required whilst the succeeding company is concentrating on its core competencies. With such an infrastructure, whether it is through material, performances, manufacturer, regulation or price discrimination, the appropriate component, document or service is rapidly and cost effectively brought on the designer desk for the best value of the overall project. On the other side of the communication pipe, the supplying partner gains the opportunity of reaching an enlarged audience as IT now commonly break any geographical distance. In practice, three major information publishers and a building contractor in Europe initiate the GEN network in the AEC domain through the erection of VASP sites offering product, company or document related information. User queries are governed by various standard (EPIC, UNICLASS) or corpus specific (BATIBASE, EDIBATEC) classification systems. Relevance of the overall approach is demonstrated through the presentation of a large variety of such queries for the various information corpuses used : Techcom company and product information, BIC company, product and document, REEF regulation documentary corpus or EDIBATEC product information."

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Full text: content.pdf (748,881 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.legal (0.032376) class.retrieve (0.019963) class.roadmaps (0.012591)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Garrett Jr J H, Fenves S J, Stasiak D

A WWW-based regulation broker

Abstract: There is an ever growing body of regulations covering many aspects of design, operation and disposal of engineered systems, artifacts and products. Constructed facilities are governed by an exceptionally large number of applicable regulations. We have developed a WWW–based broker for providing access and support for using these regulations. In this paper, we describe the underlying representations of the documents and classification systems, the search engine used, and the basic operations conducted by the broker. We also discuss further work we intend to conduct.

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Full text: content.pdf (261,146 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1996 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.legal (0.078175) class.retrieve (0.019790) class.communication (0.010251)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Ljubljana. The assistance of the editor, Prof. Ziga Turk, is gratefully appreciated.


L McGibbney, B Kumar

THE WOMBRA PROJECT: A WEB-BASED ONTOLOGY-ENHANCED MULTI-PURPOSE BUILDING-REGULATION RETRIEVAL APPLICATION FOR SCOTTISH TECHNICAL STANDARDS

Abstract: An increasing amount of professional work within the domain of sustainable design and construction is becoming dependent on retrieving regulatory and advisory information over the web quickly. A common recognition that advanced search and retrieval technologies enable enormous amounts of information to be accessed has emerged. However, as a result designers and builders are finding it increasingly difficult to identify this information and assimilate them in their activities. Commercial search engines provide a generic and inaccurate method of retrieving relevant information for domain-specific needs in a focussed manner. Therefore, there is a need for developing intelligent domain-specific search and retrieval technologies under a structured information management framework. This paper presents Wombra: a web-based information search and retrieval application which employs domain specific ontology to identify (in particular) relevant energy performance building regulations. The framework builds on our previously established model, incorporating an HTTP SPARQL server, which supports the SPARQL RDF query language allowing additional truths to be inferred from our ontologies. Firstly we introduce the design and development of the customised, domain specific web search platform. Related research in this field accompanies this introduction. A theoretical model justifies the choice of technologies used and the basic construction of the search application itself. Further, we provide the reasoning behind our requirement to establish an ontology library with specific application to Scottish Technical Standards. We conclude this paper with various observations relating to on-going experiments and a discussion on future research areas. The Wombra project is being developed in collaboration with a Scottish City Council’s building control department who are actively validating the value of our approach in their daily activity of checking and approving designs for construction.

Keywords: Search and Information Retrieval, Ontology, Construction, Building Regulations, Scotland

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Full text: content.pdf (244,131 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Lavrencic,Darko

THE INTRACRANIOVERTEBRAL VOLUMES, THE CEREBROSPINAL FLUID FLOW AND THE CEREBROSPINAL FLUID PRESSURE, THEIR HOMEOSTASIS AND ITS PHYSICAL REGULATION

Abstract: Preface. After publication of the presented hypothesis some predictions were verified independently by other authors: (1) Monro-Kellie "four compartments" doctrine, (2) relation between CSF formation and CSF removal in physiological phase as presented with illustrative curves, (3) hypovolemia during intracranial hypotension syndrome, (4) increased CSF proteins in decreased CSF flow and (5) influence of neuro-vegetative system on CSF pressure. The predictions not yet verified: (1) turning points B-low and B-high that represent physiological borders, (2) pathophysiological self-sustaining phases of low and high CSF pressure with corresponding minimal or maximal CSF volume (maximal dural sac collapse or distension) and no CSF transport, (3) compensated and de-compensated conditions. None of the predictions were disproved yet. The purpose of this presentation on the INTERNET is to promote further discussions about unverified predictions and to encourage clinical research and experimenting in this direction. Summary. Physiological and pathophysiological processes in the intracraniovertebral space are specific because of its rigid and constant volume (Monro-Kellie doctrine). The hypothesis presents how the homeostasis of the intracraniovertebral compartments' volumes, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and CSF pressure is physically regulated. The hypothesis takes into account the quantitative and qualitative relations regulating CSF formation and CSF removal on which the homeostasis is based.

Keywords: cerebrospinal,fluid,intracranial,hydrodynamics,formation,production,reabsorption,pressure,hypothesis,flow,homeostasis,physical,CSF,hypotension,hypertension,circulation,dural,sac,sinuses,venous,sinuses,extradural,epidural,chorioideus,plexus,hypovolemia,hydrocephalus,subarachnoidal,space,ventricles,arachnoidal, villi,granulations,cribriform,plate,canalis,centralis

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Full text: content.lavrenč (696,205 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: other (browse)
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Maissa1 S, Frachet J P, Lombardo1 J C, Bourdeau1 M, Soubra1 S

Regulation checking in a virtual building

Abstract: Use of virtual buildings is a good way to get a concrete idea about future projects. It may allow avoiding errors discovered after the construction start and thus expensive to correct. In the near future, virtual environments should allow taking into account the whole constraints linked to the construction project (e.g. architectural, technical, regulations, financial, etc.). This is the purpose of CSTB's Enriched Virtual Environments project (EVE), which aims to offer users the possibility to couple 3D representation of the built environment with physical simulations (thermal, acoustic, etc.) within a Virtual Building. Moreover, EVE integrates a code compliance checking module, which provides users an easy and quick code compliance access. This access to regulation documents enables the user to query in an intuitive way the regulation database that applies to his project, and more particularly according to his interest (fire security, accessibility, etc.). This paper focuses on possible solutions to manage this last issue, which rely on the building data structure and the database containing French building code compliance and documents. The main objective for this work is to conceive a matching to bind these two concepts. Data structure is based on the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), and some tools have been implemented upon these classes, to allow code compliance access. The French regulation database is the CD-REEF one.

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Full text: content.pdf (735,399 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.legal (0.055113) class.represent (0.025817) class.synthesis (0.024690)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


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