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Bridges A, Grierson H

The use of internet technologies in delivering architectural CPD

Abstract: "This paper is based on a Royal Institute of British Architects funded project carried out with the co-operation of the Royal Incorporation of Architects in Scotland. It was recognised that the architectural profession in Scotland, outside of the Glasgow – Edinburgh central belt, consisted predominantly of small (less than six people) offices. Many of these were single practitioner practices operating in geographically remote locations; attendance at organised CPD meetings may well entail a days travel to reach the meeting, meaning that the practice is left unattended for up to three days. The study reports on: ·detailed surveys of the IT equipment and skill levels in these small practices ·the possible uses of simple Internet technologies to provide back-up to these small practices ·modes of delivery for various levels of CPD ·the use of “Web diaries” for logging learning objectives and achievements Detailed proposals are made regarding the strategies to be adopted by the professional institutes with regard to both new technologies and supporting a widely dispersed membership."

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Full text: content.pdf (203,527 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.collaboration (0.024957) class.strategies (0.020327) class.deployment (0.020198)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Carl P. L. Schultz, Robert Amor, Hans W. Guesgen, Brenda Lobb

A decision support software tool for reasoning about the subjective impressions of a lighting installation

Abstract: The discipline of architecture is concerned with finding a balance between both the functional and the subjective aspects of a building environment. This involves managing contradictory requirements that are often difficult to resolve through purely numerical analysis; an example of this is an electrical lighting installation designed to evoke a desired subjective impression or ‘atmosphere’, which may conflict with the visual requirements for accurate or safe task performance. Despite this, few software tools exist that directly support an architect when dealing with information relating to the non-visual effects of lighting. A fundamental limitation in standard software tools is the reliance on nu-merical approaches for representing and reasoning about lighting and construction related information. In particular, when information is uncertain or completely unavailable, numerical formulae can be awkward or impossible to use in a reliable way. Work in the field of qualitative reasoning has attempted to address these issues, and in this paper we pre-sent a prototype decision support software tool that reports on the subjective impressions of a lighting scheme, based on a qualitative spatial reasoning engine. Research in subjective response to lighting is reviewed and interpreted in the context of qualitative reasoning, and the prototype system is compared to studies on subjective impressions.

Keywords: Building environBenoMdecision support software , BenoMsp

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Full text: content.pdf (248,851 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Carter G, Smith S

IT tool for construction site safety management

Abstract: The UK construction industry kills some 80 employees per year. This corresponds to a fatal accident rate of roughly 4.4 per 100,000 employees. Furthermore, major injury and 3-day injury rates are approximately 400 and 900 per 100,000 employees, respectively. Figures for the rest of Europe are similar, if not worse. It has long been realised that the reduction of hazardous events is fundamental to good construction safety management because these events have the potential to cause accidents, which may result in injuries and fatalities. However, there have been examples within the industry where hazard identification and the subsequent assessment of risk have been carried out by people ill equipped to identify all the hazards, assess their risks and suggest appropriate responses. Our research aim is to develop a knowledge-based system to aid in site safety management. The system will consist of a centralised database containing the combined knowledge and experience of all personnel within the company. This database is accessed via a user interface, which takes the form of a dynamic data-driven website and consists of four main applications that focus on the main areas of site safety management. The first application concerns creating and maintaining a company risk log, which can be used to identify hazards, assess risk, establish adequate hazard responses and report risk reduction performance. The second application is intended to aid in the method statement preparation process. Hazard referencing to tasks within the methodology and assigning significance values to tasks based upon assessed risk are the main features of this application, which should improve the level of hazard identification and enhance safe systems of work on site. Our system relies heavily upon historical data to provide an objective and dynamic evaluation of risk, rather than current subjective and static estimations of risk using the traditional method of risk matrices. Thus the other two applications are concerned mainly with entering data from accident reports and site safety tours into the central database. The other function of these applications will be to perform detailed analysis of accident causes, which will help safety managers to better respond to hazards to prevent future accidents. We are currently at the stage of developing a prototype version of the system. Field trials will be conducted between February and May for validation of the prototype. Validation will take the form of analysing method statements and risk assessments before and after implementation if the system to determine its effect on improving hazard identification, the assessment of risk, hazard response and accident rates. Qualitative evaluation will also be carried out. Questionnaires to, and interviews with, safety managers will give an indication of the usefulness of the system from a management and operational perspective. Doing the same thing with site foremen and operatives will allow us to determine the effectiveness of the outputs of the system, i.e. method statements and risk assessments, in enhancing safe systems of work.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,139,352 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.026762) class.social (0.018951) class.impact (0.007440)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Ciribini A, Rigamonti G

Computer network-based models and construction management: a critical analysis in the italian construction industry

Abstract: The paper describes the results of a survey performed by the authors about misunderstandings and pittfalls occurred to building contractors when using softwares for planning and scheduling wollcs. A different approach is suggested by the researchers; a simpler way to learn and exploit such tools is needed. Moreover, the paper reports some examples of improvement and enhancement in computer- aided network techniques.

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Full text: content.pdf ( bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: ecce:1997 (browse)
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D Greenwood, S Lockley, O Jones, P Jones

THE EFFICACY OF REALISTIC VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS IN CAPTURING USER EXPERIENCE OF BUILDINGS

Abstract: Virtual models can offer early and inexpensive proxies of how the real environment will be experienced by its users. However, until relatively recently, the usefulness of virtual models has been constrained by the technological limitations of the software and hardware. Games engines now offer the industry a way to import multiple 3d formats to streamline workflow, with far greater realism and complex interactions with the created virtual environment. In order to be accepted as a reliable tool for design development and problem solving in architecture, engineering and construction, these virtual experiences must be capable of producing user-feedback that is credible. The assumption that a model of human experience from a virtual environment can be a dependable representation of how the real environment will be experienced needs to be tested. Such tests have hitherto offered inconclusive results and the paper reports on the early stages of a current project that aims to redress this. The use of equipment familiar to cognitive psychologists, such as lightweight head-mounted eye tracking systems, should enable comparisons to be made between user-experiences of real environments and their realistic virtual counterparts. Should the virtual environments be shown to communicate similar physiological responses from the participants and deliver similar experiential qualities when compared to the real environment, then it can be argued that they offer realistic visual representations and accurate representations of experience.

Keywords: Architectural design, Games, User experience, Virtual environments

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Full text: content.pdf (84,185 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Dado E, Tolman F

Support of site construction processes by product data technology

Abstract: In the last decade or so design/engineering of building and construction projects is gradually incorporating advanced information technologies, like Product Data Technology. The main drive for this development comes from the demand for meaningful electronic communication between CAxx systems of various disciplines. Getting rid of the islands of automation and information improves both the design processes and the design results. However islands of automation and information not only exist in design/engineering, but also in the construction phase. Moreover the design/engineering and the construction faces as a whole, are still very much isolated. Now that in the foreseeable future main contractors will receive a complete project description, a product model, in electronic format, the question becomes important how PDT can support site construction. In recent studies, researchers in the field of planning, scheduling and cost-estimating of construction projects, discerned the importance of the ability to deal with explicit information about construction methods and technologies is an important capability for future support systems. The main idea is that experiences and knowledge from earlier construction projects are stored in construction methods. By representing these construction methods in a standardized electronic form (i.e. databases, objects), an organization, such as a main contractor, is able to exchange information with other organizations and allows an organization to assemble a repository of techniques which they are familiar with. These computer-interpretable models for the representation of construction methods can be used to support the automated generation of plans, schedules and cost-estimations. This paper reports about a study into the question how to generate plans, schedules and cost-estimations given (1) a standardized product model and (2) a library of standardized process objects implementing information about construction methods. Initial results of a system that supports the translation of the product oriented design/engineering view into the process oriented main contractor view will be shown and discussed.

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Full text: content.pdf (112,343 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.026380) class.communication (0.018471) class.impact (0.016846)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Dawood N, Sriprasert E, Mallasi Z, Scott D

An industrial evaluation of the virtual construction site (VIRCON) tools

Abstract: Implementation of the emerging information technologies in the construction industry has been relatively slow in comparison with other industries. Many research and development projects conducted by academia have not been tested and implemented successfully in the real practices. Considering this issue, the VIRtual CONstruction site (VIRCON) research project, funded by the UK government, was developed. VIRCON is a strategic decision support system for practical use to manage construction schedules, and in particular space planning. The successful development of the system was based upon the industrial requirements, real-life project data, and finally evaluated by the industrial collaborators. This paper briefly introduces the VIRCON system and thoroughly reports on the industrial user evaluation. The aims of the evaluation were to establish the usefulness and usability of the individual VIRCON tools, and to indicate the potential commercialisation and implementation of VIRCON tools in real practices. Ten collaborators from the construction industry evaluated VIRCON through a real-life case study. The space planning approach and visualisation features developed in this project were found practical and communicative.

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Full text: content.pdf (308,903 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2003 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


E Santos, E Toledo Santos

Design Coordination with Building Information Modelling – BIM: A Case Study

Abstract: Despite some isolated initiatives using 3D CAD or BIM (Building Information Modeling) tools, project processes in the Brazilian AEC industry are still essentially developed using 2D technology, especially in the design development phases. There is evidence in the literature that 2D representations are prone to difficult-to-detect design errors and representation mistakes. BIM is an emerging paradigm based on object oriented, parameterized 3D CAD tools that promises an even better performance in design coordination processes than standard 3D CAD. This work aims to identify the potential for using BIM tools in the design coordination process as a more effective alternative to two-dimensional methods (abstraction and overlaying of drawings for interference checks and clash detection among different design disciplines). The research was based on the execution of a case study involving a complex residential building. Its design was developed as usual, with 2D CAD, as was its coordination process, by professional firms hired by the owner. Afterwards, using the same documents provided to the coordination firm, the first author independently developed the architectural, structural, plumbing, and HVAC BIM models for the standard floor plan of the building, simulating both the Schematic Design (SD) and the Design Development (DD) phases. During and after this process, detected interferences and information errors or omissions were documented in order to be compared with those reported in the traditional process of design coordination. The comparative analysis of both reports in this case study showed that the methodology with BIM detected 75% more design interferences and inconsistencies than the 2D-CAD supported method. This was partly due to the easier visualization of the virtual model, and to the software features for automating interference checks. On the other hand, the analysis of the interferences found in both processes demonstrated that the modeling procedure alone can affect design perception and evaluation, allowing the detection of a greater number of incompatibilities during the process.

Keywords: Design Coordination, BIM, Clash Detection, Case study

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Full text: content.pdf (458,394 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Earl M

Conceptual modeling through a conceptual structure

Abstract: This paper reports on a computer aided design system which I have developed to handle problems of ambiguity in the description of architectural objects during the schematic design phase. The knowledge base underlying this system is referred to as a "conceptual structure'', Within the "conceptual structure", an ambiguous "child" object may inherit attributes from many alternative kinds of "parent" objects. The "conceptual structure'' can also accommodate a design process through which a "child" object such as a "wall" can become less ambiguous over time. The end of this design process is the "disambiguated" specification of the final designed object. This system was first developed as part of my Ph.D. Dissertation at Harvard University (Mark 1993).

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Full text: content.pdf (2,348,456 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.033789) class.software development (0.008893) class.analysis (0.008488)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


Fridqvist S, J van Leeuwen

Feature type recognition - implementation of a recognizing feature manager

Abstract: This paper reports the first phase of a research project to implement and apply Feature Type Recognition (FTR). This technology has many potential areas of application, such as case retrieval, product finding, translating models between schemas, and certain types of analysis. Feature Type Recognition is part of the Internet based design knowledge sharing system developed at the authors' department. The system allows communication of highly abstract concepts as well as concrete data. Additionally, it supports a layered approach to modelling, which will facilitate standardisation efforts. Feature Type Recognition is the process of finding feature types that correspond to a specific feature instance. The paper shows how feature based modelling creates a foundation for feature type recognition. Additionally, it presents and discusses how the Recognizing Feature Manager has been implemented. Application of Feature Type Recognition to building product finding will take place in the second phase of the research project. However, the paper already discusses basic principles of how this can be done.

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Full text: content.pdf (75,147 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.021913) class.collaboration (0.015596) class.represent (0.011016)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


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