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Toms P

Unifying product definition and standards represeatation with a specification-orientated organisation of design information

Abstract: This paper considers two apparently disparate problems to have the same conceptual issue at root. Firstly , the constitution of a model for building design standards and codes, from which different computer representations can be derived. Secondly, the content of a Generic Product Data Model, as a neutral representation on which to base the implementation of any data exchange technique. A specification-orientated organisation of design information is proposed as a basis for a unified approach to these models. The meaning of the concept of specification is considered in terms of representation as well. as content , and the concept of a product in relation to specification . The extent to which computer object- orientated database and programming techniques can model specification-orientated information handling in design is considered. The scope of STEP is discussed in this context . Some features of a standard for the creation and use of specifications are outlined as computer database requirements for hand1ing design information.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,873,823 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software development (0.036340) class.represent (0.027809) class.synthesis (0.019619)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Tucker S N, Ambrose M D, Johnston D R, Newton P W, Seo S, Jones D G

LCAdesign: an integrated approach to automatic eco-efficiency assessment of commercial buildings

Abstract: Buildings consume resources and energy, contribute to pollution of our air, water and soil, impact the health and well-being of populations and constitute an important part of the built environment in which we live. The ability to assess their design with a view to reducing that impact automatically from their 3D CAD representations enables building design professionals to make informed decisions on the environmental impact of building structures. Contemporary 3D object-oriented CAD files contain a wealth of building information. LCADesign has been designed as a fully integrated approach for automated eco-efficiency assessment of commercial buildings direct from 3D CAD. LCADesign accesses the 3D CAD detail through Industry Foundation Classes (IFCs) - the international standard file format for defining architectural and constructional CAD graphic data as 3D real-world objects - to permit construction professionals to interrogate these intelligent drawing objects for analysis of the performance of a design. The automated take-off provides quantities of all building components whose specific production processes, logistics and raw material inputs, where necessary, are identified to calculate a complete list of quantities for all products such as concrete, steel, timber, plastic etc and combines this information with the life cycle inventory database, to estimate key internationally recognised environmental indicators such as CML, EPS and Eco-indicator 99. This paper outlines the key modules of LCADesign and their role in delivering an automated eco-efficiency assessment for commercial buildings.

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Series: w78:2003 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


U Gökçe, H U Gökçe, R J Scherer

The Construction Management Phases for Software Interoperability

Abstract: Interoperability of the heterogeneous applications used in the domain of construction management can be best achieved by using generalized and standardized representations of the required data, thereby enabling faster and better management and decision-making in the construction process. This can be achieved by merging the organizational context and the information involved. The developed Construction Management Phases namely (1) Design, (2) Bidding Preparation, (3) Planning & Construction, (4) Projects Payments, (5) Evaluation of the Outcome and Feedback in this paper represents software integration with regard to design, resource planning and scheduling in the Construction General Life Cycle Model Phases, and is dedicated to the Construction Company view. This new approach composed of five integrated phases is named as “Construction Management Phases for Software Interoperability” (CMPSI). The phase representations are provided in IDEFŘ modelling method. This representation facilitates the revelation of Construction Management Resources that are used for the implementation of IFC Views. The CMPSI is developed as a framework model that is capable of representing diverse targets of different software involved in the integration process. Therefore, a mechanism, by which the systematic and consistent interfacing of the envisaged systems supported, is obtained. The generalisation within the structure allows flexible application. This is achieved at a variety of strategic levels across a variety of projects using combinations of software in an interoperable structure.

Keywords: Construction Management Phases, Construction Management Processes, Software Interoperability, Concurrent Engineering, Industry Foundation Classes (IFC)

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Full text: content.pdf (164,384 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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V Semanov, OTarlapan, S Morozov,K Kazakov, V Zolotov

Global path planning in large-scale environments using metric and topological schemes

Abstract: Global path planning is a challenging problem arisen in many fields of research. It is of particular interest to construction planning community facing the requirements of trustworthiness and feasibility of project schedules. Correct schedules must avoid any conflicting situations at project sites and assure the existence of collision-free paths for installed construction elements and deployed equipment. To validate schedules against potential spatio-temporal conflicts, emerging 4D modeling technologies, collision detection and motion planning methods can be applied. Ultimately it would enable detecting and anticipating problems at earlier planning phases and reducing risks and waste at the final construction phases.Unfortunately, path planning algorithms have relatively high complexity that extremely grows with the input data volume. Most reports have concluded that the algorithms work well in simple 2D environments, but require much larger computation resources in large-scale dynamic 3D environments that makes the stated validation problem highly intractable for construction applications. Being oriented on exact or approximate metric representations, traditional local path planning methods have significant limitations in the case of large-scale environments. Their inability to use overall a priory information on the whole environment creates another shortcoming in global planning. Topological schemas try to overcome these drawbacks by representing the original environment by means of route graphs. Topological schemas scale better than metric ones, but being resistant to geometric representation errors may yield incorrect or suboptimal solutions.In the paper we propose an effective method leveraging global and local path planning strategies and combining metric and topological schemas. Due to original criteria for extracting a topology from metric information, the method is applicable to complex indoor/outdoor environments and can be used for spatio-temporal validation of construction project schedules. Conducted experiments proved the feasibility and effectiveness of the method presented.

Keywords: 4D modeling, Planning and scheduling, Collision detection, Project validation, Path planning.

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Vladimir Bazjanac

Space Boundary Requirements for Modeling of Building Geometry for Energy and Other Performance Simulation

Abstract: CAD models of buildings represent architects’ views of buildings. Data definitions that represent a given building conform to the internal data structure of the CAD software that is used to define the building and typically include data which facilitate the representation of the building in CAD, but do not necessarily by themselves define anything about the building. CAD representations of buildings are based on detailed definitions of building geometry; those definitions thus contain significant amounts of information needed by CAD tools but not used by other types of tools – those tools need only rudimentary definitions of building geometry to operate.Building energy performance simulation tools, as well as many other types of simulation and analysis tools (like acoustics and fire propagation simulation tools) have their own internal data models of building geometry. Such internal data models represent views of building geometry typically used by the disciplines served by these simulation and analysis tools, and are usually much simpler than the geometry data models of CAD tools. Consequently, CAD building geometry representations must be “simplified” and “reduced” before they can be directly used by other (non-CAD) tools.Most simulation and analysis tools define building geometry as systems of surfaces (i.e. surfaces that delineate walls, slabs, roofs, columns, beams, windows and doors) which are all part of the definition of spaces identified in the model of the building. Such surfaces are called “space boundaries” and are the critical part of the building geometry definitions for non-CAD tools. This paper clarifies and systematizes what a “simplified” building geometry for building energy performance and similar simulation and analysis tools must contain, and should help prevent misunderstandings and misrepresentations often encountered in the AECOO industry today. It describes the five “levels” of space boundaries, why and how they are defined, and how they are used by simulation and analysis tools. The paper discusses the 55 test cases pertinent to semi-automated modeling of building geometry for energy performance simulation that were developed to test space boundaries defined and exported in IFC format by model based CAD tools. It also discusses the process and tools that check instances of IFC definitions of building geometry exported by CAD tools.

Keywords: space boundaries, building geometry, IFC, performance simulation, testing and verification

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Full text: content.pdf (916,247 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Willems P

A meta-topology for product modeling

Abstract: A major issue in product modeling is the integration of two essentially different modeling approaches: the top-down functional-oriented approach, and the bottom-up technical-oriented approach. The ISO-STEP General AEC Reference Model (GARM) supports this dual design principle around the kernel entities Functional Unit and Technical Solution. During the development of GARM a number of topology related issues were encountered. To mention two main issues: - How to structure a functional network to be consistent over several decomposition/aggregation levels, as well as over the branches of the hierarchical tree? - How to relate this network and the multiple coexisting representations which share this same kernel? Both issues can be addressed, in principle, using a pure topology independent network and an intermediate layer to relate the dependent representations. This intermediate layer is called: Meta-Topology.

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Full text: content.pdf (2,056,219 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1988 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.018966) class.software development (0.013084) class.analysis (0.011219)
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Permission to reproduce these documents has been graciously provided by the Lund University and the Swedish Building Centre. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Per Christiansson and Prof. Henry Karlsson, is gratefully appreciated.


Woodbury R, Burrow A, Drogemuller R, Datta S

An introduction to representation comparison

Abstract: "Introduction In current computational building design theory and practice, representations schemes depend upon a set of formal operations for creating, changing and querying a representation. With a few notable exceptions, these operations do not provide ways of comparing representations to determine how representations are alike and how they are different. We have developed a theory for and a formal representation scheme which supports representation comparison. This theory opens new approaches to unsolved problems in computational building design, notably the long-standing issue of automated building code checking.

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Full text: content.pdf (233,096 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.028384) class.represent (0.014090)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Yu Zhang, Alan Kwan, John Miles

Using generative representations for structural design

Abstract: Work in recent years has shown that topological reasoning with search algorithms using traditional rep-resentations such as parameters, ground structures, voxels, etc is very limiting. Each type of representation is only to be suitable for a limited number of topologies. This is restrictive because there are many problems where the topology of the solution is unknown except in the most general terms or there are competing topologies which are suitable for solv-ing a given problem. Hence, at best, choosing a representation technique can be difficult and at worst it can restrict the search so that a full examination of the problem is not possible. Also, as the available computational power increases and the technology of search algorithms is enhanced, the topologies being reasoned about become ever more complex and so the representations within the algorithms can become cumbersome. A possible solution to these difficulties is the use of generative geometries where the object is represented by a set of rules which describe how to create the object. These can, when correctly implemented, give a compact representation and one which can be handled within typical search algorithms like for example genetic algorithms. This paper looks at the use of L-systems. They are being applied to beam design problems although this paper focuses on the representation. As will be shown in the paper, although the representation has some attractions, there are also some difficulties with the implementation and especially with en-forcing constraints. The paper describes work which is in progress rather than a completed project.

Keywords: generative representation, evolutionary computation, structures, search algorithms

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Full text: content.pdf (333,992 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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