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André Borrmann, Stefanie Schraufstetter, Christoph van Treeck, Ernst Rank

An octree-based implementation of directional operators in a 3D spatial query language for building information models

Abstract: In a current research project, our group is developing a 3D Spatial Query Language that enables the spa-tial analysis of Building Information Models and the extraction of partial models that fulfil certain spatial constraints. Among other features, the spatial language includes directional operators, i.e. operators that reflect the directional relationships between 3D spatial objects, such as northOf, southOf, eastOf, westOf, above and below. The paper pre-sents in-depth definitions of the semantics of these operators by means of point set theory. It further gives an overview on the possible implementation of directional operators using a new space-partitioning data structure called slot-tree, which is derived from the objects’ octree representation. The slot-tree allows for the application of recursive algorithms that successively increase the discrete resolution of the spatial objects employed and thereby offer the possibility for a trade-off between computational effort and required accuracy.

Keywords: spatial query language, building information modelling, direction, octree

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Full text: content.pdf (1,046,272 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Bloomfield D, Amor R

I-SEEC: an internet gateway to european construction resources

Abstract: For the construction industries to move into the knowledge society and knowledge economy they need to be able to build upon their existing information base. This information base is unique within individual countries (though often with significant overlap between countries, for example, with Eurocodes utilised across Europe) and usually widely dispersed. Drawing together the information resources within nations, and then connecting them with each other to form trans-national resources enables a more effective, informed and intelligent industry. I-SEEC is a collaborative project funded by the European Union with the overall goal of creating an infrastructure to enable and link high quality commercial electronic information services throughout its member countries. This project started in March 2000 and finishes in April 2001. It builds upon a previous EU project - CONNET (CONstruction information service NETwork). This paper provides a description of the final state of the infrastructure, services and business models available through I-SEEC. The countries participating in I-SEEC are Finland, Iceland, Italy, the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and the United Kingdom. CONNET provides access to a range of high quality Internet-based services for the construction industry in Europe. It provides both a European entry point to identify resources and national entry points for localised service delivery. The European CONNET entry point provides a range of technology park services as well as industry-specific services. These services include: · Management of security services, including installation and monitoring of security systems · Help desk, providing a point of contact for potential service providers and for problem resolution · Information broker role, enabling transparent access to information in the CONNET services · Technology observatory service, including leading edge, current and best-practice technologies · Provision of user profiles, allowing personalised delivery of updates in areas of interest · Multi-classification support, permitting handling of national systems used across the EC. · Inter-service communication services, allowing all comparable services to be identified and a query to be passed from one service to another service to answer. · Multi-language support, enabling EC languages to be handled correctly and to provide basic translations between them. The services offered by I-SEEC include a Technical Information Centre, Waste Exchange Centre, Electronic News Service, Calculation and Software Centre, Who's Who in Construction, Specialist Equipment Directory and a Best Practice Information service. The CONNET infrastructure and the I-SEEC information services provide the means to promote effective use of information by construction industry professionals in an efficient and cost-effective way. The ability to pass queries from one high quality service to another in a different country is a substantial contribution to the CIB goal of providing information to achieve performance. This paper draws out lessons learned - both technological and practical - in the course of this multi-country initiative to develop a portal for the construction industry. It also invites participation in this open initiative and describes how existing and developing services across the world can be made interoperable within a CONNET (and any Internet portal) environment.

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Full text: content.pdf (416,345 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.056731) class.deployment (0.046867) class.collaboration (0.041581)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


C Bogen, M Rashid, E W East

A Framework for Building Information Fusion

Abstract: Data reported by supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems is critical for evaluating the as-operated performance of a facility. Typically these systems are designed to support specific control domains, but facility performance analysis requires the fusion of data across these domains. Since a facility may have several disparate, closed-loop SCADA systems, resolution of data interoperability issues (heterogeneities) is a prerequisite to cross-domain data fusion. There are no general methods for resolving these heterogeneities in the context of a nonproprietary core building information model (BIM) format. This article describes how these standard data models are applied to a general framework for the integration of building information models and building sensor telemetry. Given the number of very large corporations, each with its own research agendas and proprietary products, and the large number of installed buildings, each with its own control systems, yet another control scheme or technology will not make an impact on improving this market. The authors propose solutions to these underlying data heterogeneities by adopting existing data standards and introducing new data schemas (only when necessary) based on consensus between industry, government, and academic stakeholders. The Industry Foundation Class (IFC) 2X4 controls domain is the foundation of the authors’ decomposition of SCADA systems as components, assemblies, and connections that relate to other objects in the facility. The Open Building Information eXchange (oBIX) provides the basis for the authors’ representation of raw telemetry streams that map to the underlying IFC model. The system concept described in this article is part of an effort that is expected to produce an Industry Foundation Class Model View Definition (MVD) for building SCADA systems, product type templates for building SCADA products, the architectural design of an integration platform, and the specification of common predictive and analytical functions for deriving usable intelligence from the integration framework.

Keywords: Smart Buildings, Data Fusion, Building Controls and Automation, Building Information Modeling (BIM), Industry Foundation Classes IFC

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Full text: content.pdf (216,249 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Chan P

The use of web-based tools to support a contractual claim in arbitration or litigation

Abstract: Most standard forms of building contracts provide for the use of arbitration as a means of dispute resolution, failing which, the parties have to settle their disputes in court. Each dispute is resolved by examining whether the party who makes a contractual claim is able to discharge his burden of proof in both the liability issue and the quantum issue. The scope of proof is usually prescribed by the building contract. Evidence of information, facts and opinions may be adduced in support of a claim. Most project information may be stored in a web-based information management system. In existence are also some IT applications which may assist in providing facts and opinions that may support a claim. 4D Modelling may be used to simulate critical paths for the evaluation of an extension of time claim. GPS may provide the tracking of the use of resources to help attribute the cost of their use to the basis of a claim. The latest technology of LADAR may assist by recording through time, the as-built status of the project at any one time thereby determining the real-time progress of work. The use of computer-generated evidence is provided for by legislation and case law. This paves the way to use web-based tools to support a contractual claim in arbitration or litigation by linking the whole system to a claims service that monitors the situations where a claim may be made and trigger off a warning so that the procedure of claim may be pursued by a party if he chooses to do so. The claims service should then extract the necessary data from the other services in the project web to build up a claim.

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Full text: content.pdf (163,938 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2003 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


Cheung S O, Au-Yeung R F, Wong V W K

A CBR based dispute resolution process selection system

Abstract: In construction, the use of Artificial Intelligence (A.I.) to assist project management in the areas of planning, quantity measurement and quality control have been reported. A.I. can minimize subjectivity which would otherwise predominate in many management decisions, one of which is the selection of a method to resolve disputes. Disputes in construction are common and resolving them has become a daily routine of project managers. Despite its importance, the use of A.I. in dispute resolution has not been extensive. Employing an appropriate resolution process is critical to resolve construction disputes. This is because that having an appropriate resolution process should pave the path to success. In this type of selection exercise, previous experience is invaluable and thus fits nicely with the function of Case-Based Reasoning technique. Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) can systematically select a dispute resolution process to fit the circumstances of a case. This paper describes the development of a CBR based dispute resolution process selection system identified as CDRe. Forty eight cases were used to develop the system which was tested by another 9 independent cases. Seventy seven percent prediction accuracy for the testing set was achieved suggesting that the CDRe is a reasonable decision support tool for project managers.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, construction dispute resolution, case-based reasoning

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Full text: content.pdf (1,950,478 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: itaec:2004 (browse)
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Côté S,Trudel P,Desbiens M-A,Giguère M,Snyder R

Live mobile panoramic high accuracy augmented reality for engineering and construction

Abstract: Augmented reality finds many potential uses in the infrastructure world. However, the work done by architects and engineers has potential impacts on people’s lives. Therefore, the data they base their decisions upon must be accurate and reliable. Unfortunately, so far augmented reality has failed to provide the level of accuracy and robustness that would be required for engineering and construction work using a portable setup. Recent work has shown that panorama based augmentation can provide a level of accuracy that is higher than standard video-based augmentation methods, because of its wider field of view. In this paper, we present a live mobile augmentation method based on panoramic video. The environment is captured live using a high resolution panoramic video camera installed on top of a tripod, and positioned in the area to be augmented. The system is first initialized by the user, who aligns the 3D model of the environment with the panoramic stream. The live scene is then augmented with a 3D CAD model, the augmenting elements being properly occluded by live moving objects in the scene. To augment the scene from a different vantage point, the user grabs the tripod and carries it to the new location. During that time, the system calculates the camera position by tracking optical features identified on the panoramic video stream. When the user places the tripod back on the ground, the system automatically resumes augmentation from the new position. The system was tested in indoor and outdoor conditions. Results demonstrate high tracking accuracy, jitter free augmentation, and that the setup is sufficiently portable to be used on site.

Keywords: Live augmented reality,accuracy,panorama,video,construction,3D model

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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D Ilter

A SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS (SOS) APPROACH TO DISPUTE

Abstract: There has been an increasing attention towards more effective dispute avoidance and resolution in the construction industry due to the significance of the costs associated with disputes. Many researchers have attempted to develop systems that aim to manage disputes by providing dispute evaluation, negotiation support, litigation prediction and decision support through the use of various tools. Although these systems have been developed separately, a careful consideration shows that they can be incorporated into a meta-system that pools their resources and capacities to obtain more functionality and performance. This aim fits well with the System of Systems (SoS) approach, which includes incorporating a collection of independent and task-oriented systems into a new, more complex system offering more utility than the sum of the constituent systems. After analysing current dispute management systems in the literature, a framework has been developed for the integration of these systems by SoS approach. The primary objective of developing a SoS framework is modelling the opportunities of cooperation while maintaining independence of the constituent systems, and exploring new systems required in an evolving perspective for a holistic management of disputes in the construction domain. The findings reveal that SoS represents a structured and comprehensive approach to modelling dispute management systems as a networked meta-system. SoS approach provides mechanisms to analysing and classifying existing systems, modelling the opportunities of cooperation between the constituent systems, adding or subtracting systems to and from the system in evolution, and maintaining the same amount of management and resources as before with more precise results from each system. As a result, the effectiveness of the constituent systems is expected to increase due to interoperability and resource sharing in the SoS framework.

Keywords: Dispute resolution, Dispute management systems, System of systems (SoS) approach.

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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D. Ilter & A. Dikbas

A review of the artificial intelligence applications in construction dispute resolution

Abstract: It is generally acknowledged that construction disputes are inevitable, highly complicated and may become destructive in construction projects. Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications have been developed recently with the aim of facilitating dispute resolution processes in construction as AI have become more specialized. In this paper, contemporary AI applications in construction dispute resolution field are analyzed and categorized into three groups as settlement oriented systems, method selection oriented systems and dispute evaluation oriented systems, reviewing the tools used in each category so far. This analysis is expected to contribute to the further development of the subject, by providing a holistic perspective and determining the trends and neglected areas in the field.

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Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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Griffith E D, Hicks D K, McGraw K D, Case M P

Towards model based design - a case study: the modular design system

Abstract: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has developed a tool called the Modular Design System (MDS) to assist design professionals in the processes of planning, design, and construction document preparation for repetitive facility types. The use of early versions of MDS has demonstrated a reduction in time by nearly two-thirds typically required to design and award a construction contract. Initially developed to support Army Reserve Training Centers, the USArmy Corps plans to expand its use over a wider range of repetitive facility types. The current implementation is a hybrid document/model approach consisting of electronic drawings linked by an external database. Data consistency issues associated with this architecture limit its scalability. To meet expanded requirements, the USArmy Corps is developing a model based information approach utilizing emerging commercially available object based CAD systems. This redesigned information infrastructure marks a fundamental change from an implicit to an explicit model-based representation. Three key capabilities make MDS a powerful tool. First, the ability to capture and reuse corporate design criteria at the architectural function level. Second, it provides an integration framework for engineering analysis. Third, it manages and integrates the contract document production.The underlying MDS information infrastructure will move towards a model based approach. Future work will focus on collaborative processes such as conflict resolution and design review. Additionally, MDS offers the opportunity to transfer an information rich model downstream to operations and maintenance.

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Full text: content.pdf (98,970 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.023318) class.bestPractise (0.016810) class.store (0.013255)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


M B Jelodar, T W Yiu, S Wilkinson

A Multi-Objective Decision Support System for Selecting Dispute Resolution Methods in the Construction Industry

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Full text: content.pdf (142,086 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2014 (browse)
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