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Andrej Tibaut, Danijel Rebolj

TOWARDS METHODOLOGY FOR HARMONIZATION OF SEMANTICALLY DIFFERENT BIM's

Abstract: Research focus of the paper are heterogeneous information systems. Heterogeneity within a set of software applications can be attributed to the fact that their collaboration is hindered due to the conflicts in software architecture, communication protocols and/or data representation. General interconnectivity and emerging interoperability have caused the fall of mainframe-based systems, which in turn led to variety of information systems with local data representations, communication protocols and software architectures. Today these information systems need to collaborate in different engineering projects. Existing approaches, such as common framework, integration with standard scheme and data mediation, try to diminish the undesired effects within heterogeneous systems. The approaches are indeed successful because they eliminate all conflicts at design time. This way collaborating applications have to abandon their local data views. In this paper heterogeneity is regarded as a property of an information system while disharmony of an information system is defined as a state of the system. Further, structural, semantical and functional disharmony is defined as part of overall information systems’s disharmony. As a consequence a new methodology called DRAGOn (Disharmony Resolving with Agents and Ontology) is proposed. The methodology aims to dynamically resolve structural and semantical disharmony by preserving applications’ local data views. Another novelty is the definition of conceptualization for structural and semantical disharmony (Disharmony ontology) and the use of software agents. Disharmony ontology is specified in OWL. The agents use the ontology for resolving of structural and semantical conflicts between applications at runtime. Agents communicate via shared communication space based on Java technology. The mediation is incremental, which means that agents are able to build their local ontologies. The ontologies are used as persistent meta-data repositories of concepts (structure and semantics) that are captured from applications during runtime.Extensive applicability of the DRAGOn methodology is expected in information system clusters with rich and complex data content, namely management of construction projects.

Keywords: Interoperability, building information model, quality of semantic and structure, semantic and structural difference, mediation, ontology

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Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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C Bogen, M Rashid, E W East

A Framework for Building Information Fusion

Abstract: Data reported by supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems is critical for evaluating the as-operated performance of a facility. Typically these systems are designed to support specific control domains, but facility performance analysis requires the fusion of data across these domains. Since a facility may have several disparate, closed-loop SCADA systems, resolution of data interoperability issues (heterogeneities) is a prerequisite to cross-domain data fusion. There are no general methods for resolving these heterogeneities in the context of a nonproprietary core building information model (BIM) format. This article describes how these standard data models are applied to a general framework for the integration of building information models and building sensor telemetry. Given the number of very large corporations, each with its own research agendas and proprietary products, and the large number of installed buildings, each with its own control systems, yet another control scheme or technology will not make an impact on improving this market. The authors propose solutions to these underlying data heterogeneities by adopting existing data standards and introducing new data schemas (only when necessary) based on consensus between industry, government, and academic stakeholders. The Industry Foundation Class (IFC) 2X4 controls domain is the foundation of the authors’ decomposition of SCADA systems as components, assemblies, and connections that relate to other objects in the facility. The Open Building Information eXchange (oBIX) provides the basis for the authors’ representation of raw telemetry streams that map to the underlying IFC model. The system concept described in this article is part of an effort that is expected to produce an Industry Foundation Class Model View Definition (MVD) for building SCADA systems, product type templates for building SCADA products, the architectural design of an integration platform, and the specification of common predictive and analytical functions for deriving usable intelligence from the integration framework.

Keywords: Smart Buildings, Data Fusion, Building Controls and Automation, Building Information Modeling (BIM), Industry Foundation Classes IFC

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Cheung S O, Au-Yeung R F, Wong V W K

A CBR based dispute resolution process selection system

Abstract: In construction, the use of Artificial Intelligence (A.I.) to assist project management in the areas of planning, quantity measurement and quality control have been reported. A.I. can minimize subjectivity which would otherwise predominate in many management decisions, one of which is the selection of a method to resolve disputes. Disputes in construction are common and resolving them has become a daily routine of project managers. Despite its importance, the use of A.I. in dispute resolution has not been extensive. Employing an appropriate resolution process is critical to resolve construction disputes. This is because that having an appropriate resolution process should pave the path to success. In this type of selection exercise, previous experience is invaluable and thus fits nicely with the function of Case-Based Reasoning technique. Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) can systematically select a dispute resolution process to fit the circumstances of a case. This paper describes the development of a CBR based dispute resolution process selection system identified as CDRe. Forty eight cases were used to develop the system which was tested by another 9 independent cases. Seventy seven percent prediction accuracy for the testing set was achieved suggesting that the CDRe is a reasonable decision support tool for project managers.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, construction dispute resolution, case-based reasoning

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Series: itaec:2004 (browse)
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Kaneta T, Furusaka S

Metagame analysis for determining construction methods

Abstract: This paper deals with the use of metagame analysis to help resolve conflicting factors affecting the choice of a reinforced concrete structural system. The most suitable construction method in a project varies in accordance with several factors, but may be limited to: overall construction cost, construction duration, quality of construction and effect of environmental issues. A computer program was developed as a tool to analyse the decision making process using an Analytical Hierarchy Process and is used to decipher different preferences based on prioritised objectives. The specific focus in this paper is resolving to choose pre-cast concrete in comparison to cast-in-place technology in a project operated by a firm including an owner, an architect and a construction manager. The results derived from the metagame analysis shows that the priority afforded to the various factors affecting a particular choice of building system is dependent upon the preference given to these factors and this necessarily will have an effect the manner in which the conflicting objectives are resolved.

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Full text: content.pdf (71,258 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.impact (0.012728) class.analysis (0.011531) class.economic (0.009055)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Kun-Tai Kao, Teng-Wen Chang & Ih-Cheng Lai

Learning Construction Decision Making with Arbitrator - Competing and Evolving in Dynamic Role Interplay

Abstract: Among construction process, decision making is often depended on different construction methods invoked within different events occurred. The re-action sequence is hard to predicate and hard to reproduce in different situations, also. For resolving this problem, we adopt a model called Dynamic Role Interplay Process (DRI). Based on the mechanism of DIM (Dynamic Idea Map) (Lai and Chang 2005), competing learning and evolving learning between different roles, and then the knowledge within roles will involve evolving learning. We adopt learning metaphors in design sequence generations. Competing among design events and concepts are treated as the agents who are competing for surviving in the sense of genetic programming. And Roles start to evolve to different knowledge or preserving the core ontology of design for the evolving learning concept. Each process follows the metaphor of natural selection and design problem solving paradigms in design domain. A simulation agent-based system is implemented in CELA.

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Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Leinonen J, Huovila P

Requirements management tool as a catalyst for communication

Abstract: Construction is a hands-on business. The communication between stakeholders mainly occurs onlyfor resolving unexpectedly appeared problems. Nominal interaction and ineffective informationexchange between construction project parties' causes major problems in the concurrentconstruction projects. This paper describes how improved requirements management andperformance approach can help to resolve these problems. The authors have earlier developed atool, EcoProP, to provide assistance in the project definition phase to develop the design brief. Towork as a single entry for project requirement information where the stakeholders can add theirrequirements and edit dated information, the next generation version will be a web-based tool. Thiswill help to improve the interaction in the construction process by creating a common ground forcommunication.

Keywords: performance approach, requirements management, construction, communication

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Full text: content.pdf (173,251 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: ecce:2001 (browse)
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R. P. West, A. V. Hore

CITAX: defining XML standards for data exchange in the construction industry supply chain

Abstract: The current methods of ordering, delivering and invoicing of products in the construction industry is enormously inefficient, with vast quantities of paperwork, duplication of effort, scanning, re-keying and resolving mis-matches between invoices, delivery dockets and purchase orders. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the Con-struction IT Alliance eXchange (CITAX) project and, in particular, to outline the work carried out-to-date by a special interest group within the project. They are seeking to define a universal set of eXtensible Mark-Up Language (XML) message standards that will allow suppliers and contractors to exchange information with each other in supply chain activity. While the group cannot ensure that suppliers and contractors use the standard, the ultimate goal of the project is not only to have the standard in place, but also to provide the impetus to ensure that as many stakeholders as possi-ble use them. How this might be achieved is also part of the project and its success will be judged by the extent of the adoption of the standard by the industry.

Keywords: e-procurement, standards, trading, XML

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Full text: content.pdf (224,010 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Rischmoller L, Fischer M, Fox R, Alarcon L

4D planning and scheduling (4D-ps): grounding construction it research in industry practice

Abstract: Several authors have lamented that research efforts in construction IT have not embraced the issues associated with implementation and industry practice (Betts, 2000) and that the rhetoric and visions associated with construction IT are sometimes distant from the reality of construction usage (Koskela, 2000). This paper discusses the observation-participation method (Yin, 1994) as a way to ground construction IT research in industry practice. This research methodology considers the industry as a point of departure, followed by examination of a case study using the observation participation method (Yin, 1994). In this methodology, the researcher is not merely a passive observer, but assumes a variety of roles within the case study and participates in the studied activities. The observation-participation method application to the case study offers the opportunity to see what others have not yet seen (Stake, 1998) and allows gaining access to events and groups, which, in other ways, are inaccessible to scientific research. The researcher perceives reality from the point of view of someone “in” the case study instead of someone “external” to it. The research goal was to test 4D Planning and Scheduling (4D-PS) to demonstrate its benefits as a CAVT (Computer Advanced Visualization Tool) applied to the case study. The objective was to find out how 4D model reviews can help generate more constructible projects by assisting construction planners in optimizing construction sequences, identifying and resolving schedule conflicts and providing feedback from construction teams to design teams. To get tangible results, 4D-PS needed to be researched in a real life context. Hence, the observation participation method was the most suitable research methodology to accomplish this task. This paper presents our experience with the observation-participation approach on a large construction project. It details some of the organizational and business challenges of creating synergies between a business and a research focus. 4D-PS uses 4D models to accomplish construction planning and scheduling tasks. It was applied on the case study project by the first author in collaboration with other project construction Planning team members. The result was an optimized, detailed, construction schedule for 100,000 cubic meters of concrete that was verified and visualized by using the 4D-PS methods developed by the team. Opportunities for improving the schedule were detected through 4D simulations, and the sequence of activities was quickly adjusted in response to feedback from the project planners. The corrected sequence was then again verified using the 4D method. 4D-PS lets planners formulate tighter, more finely tuned construction plans, and it also helps to develop contingency plans to handle delays in material deliveries or unavailability of resources. Important decisions concerning deadlines, sequences, and resource utilization, which ordinarily would have been made later at the job site, were better made ahead of time to avoid rework in the case study project, and the construction team became convinced of the value of improving the construction plan through the use of 4D-PS.

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Full text: content.pdf (196,383 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.023958) class.roadmaps (0.013642) class.impact (0.013278)
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Stouffs R

Resolving issues of information and communication in a building project

Abstract: An information and communication environment to support the building process was developed in collaboration with various partners from the Swiss building industry. The design of the environment was primarily guided by issues of information exchange in collaborative building projects raised by these partners. This paper aims to provide an in-depth discussion of these issues and present the way or ways the environment was developed to deal with them.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,710,403 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.126277) class.environment (0.035353) class.collaboration (0.021501)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Sun M, Aouad G, Bakis N, Swan W

Integrated design system to support partnering practice in the water industry

Abstract: "CONTEXT The Egan report on the UK construction has identified the traditional competitive tendering as one of the main causes for the poor performance of the industry. It recommends the use of supply chain Partnering to deliver valuable performance improvements. Partnering involves two or more organisations working together to improve performance through agreeing mutual objectives, devising a way for resolving any disputes and committing themselves to continuous improvement, measuring progress and sharing the gains. To realise the full potential of partnering it is necessary to implement an effective and reliable information infrastructure in support of integrated information management and exchange in the project process. This paper describes an on-going research project, GALLICON, funded by the Department of Environment, Transport and Regions (DETR) and a consortium of companies who are involved in the design and construction of water treatment plants in the UK. Its main aim is to develop an integrated design system which facilitates the collaboration and information sharing between partnering organisations during the design of water treatment plants. OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY The challenge for this study is not only to develop new technical solutions but also to ensure the solutions can bring immediate benefits to water treatment projects in practice. To achieve the research aim, works are being carried out in the following areas: Business process analysis. Case studies are used to analyse the business process of the design of water treatment plants. The IDEF0 formalism is adopted to decompose the sub-processes and their inter-dependence. The analysis also identified the functional requirements of the targeted integrated design system to support the main activities of layout design, specification, cost estimation and project planning. Prototype development. A rapid prototype approach is used to implement an integrated design system prototype for water treatment plants. The prototype has the capability of supporting interdisciplinary information exchange and distributed collaboration. Benchmarking benefits. To ascertain the business benefits of the developed system, a benchmarking case study will be conducted in which the design practice will be compared using the new system and the traditional systems. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS GALLICON is an on-going research project. At present, an initial prototype has been developed which consists of an integrated project database, a Process Manager and interfaces to four third party AEC software packages of CAD, Cost Estimating, Project Planning and VRML browser. The database provides a central consistent repository for project information. The included AEC applications communicate with the database through purpose-built data mapping interfaces. The operation of the system is controlled by the Process Manager implemented on the basis of business process models developed through the business process analysis task. GALLICON is an attempt to apply integrated project database to water treatment projects. This paper described the prototyping experience of GALLICON, including product and process modelling, implementation of the integrated project database, and benefits benchmarking of such a system."

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Full text: content.pdf (319,545 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.035471) class.commerce (0.020043) class.strategies (0.015873)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


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