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Franklyn Chukwunonso

TECHNOLOGY IN THE INFORMATION AGE: ITS IMPACT ON DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Abstract: The 21st century is on the doorstep, and the Information Revolution is firmly knocking at the door. In the high-technology revolution of the 1990s, computers, television, the Internet, and allied information technologies (IT) are changing our lives, just as steam power, electricity, and the internal combustion engine transformed our lives in the past. Today, the emphasis is on information gathering, processing and distribution. It is expected that the 21st century will be dominated by IT and allied technologies, as Spyros Makidakis predicted.

Keywords: Technology, Information Age, Impact, Developing Countries

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Franklyn Chukwunonso

EVALUATING ICT FOR EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION IN TERTIARY EDUCATION IN NIGERIAN

Abstract: Higher education is approaching the point at which Science and Technology particularly Information and Communication Technology (ICT), plays a part in nearly all phases of the educational process. Every institution of higher learning uses computers in their educational programs. In many institutions, this information technology (IT) revolution has taken place without institutional policies in place. The potential educational uses of the Internet and World Wide Web add urgency to the need for institutional policies that protect the interest of participants while assuring the best educational use of these expensive resources. But one cannot be sure that all the new computers and networks appearing in classrooms will really make a difference for learners. It is still uncertain that the money and time invested in them makes a difference. What criteria to be used and how to measure success are some of the questions that raise additional questions about differences in the way we use technologies. For every success story, there are other stories about problems or unanticipated negative effects. It is so often observed that new technologies remain underused or misused. These are some of the issues this paper will consider with respect to information technology and technological values, virtues and developments in tertiary education in Nigeria.

Keywords: ICT, Information and Communication Technology, Information Technology, IT, Evaluating ICT, Effective Implementation of ICt, Nigeria, Nigerian Tertiary Institutions, Nigerian Universities, Nigerian Education, Tertiary Institutions, Tertiary Education, Universities

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Franklyn Chukwunonso

EVALUATING ICT FOR EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION IN TERTIARY EDUCATION IN NIGERIAN

Abstract: Higher education is approaching the point at which Science and Technology particularly Information and Communication Technology (ICT), plays a part in nearly all phases of the educational process. Every institution of higher learning uses computers in their educational programs. In many institutions, this information technology (IT) revolution has taken place without institutional policies in place. The potential educational uses of the Internet and World Wide Web add urgency to the need for institutional policies that protect the interest of participants while assuring the best educational use of these expensive resources. But one cannot be sure that all the new computers and networks appearing in classrooms will really make a difference for learners. It is still uncertain that the money and time invested in them makes a difference. What criteria to be used and how to measure success are some of the questions that raise additional questions about differences in the way we use technologies. For every success story, there are other stories about problems or unanticipated negative effects. It is so often observed that new technologies remain underused or misused. These are some of the issues this paper will consider with respect to information technology and technological values, virtues and developments in tertiary education in Nigeria.

Keywords: Internet, WWW, Evaluating, ICT, Information Technology, Nigeria, Tertiary, Education, Implementation

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Franklyn Chukwunonso

AFRICA IN THE CYBER REVOLUTION

Abstract: The Internet has changed the world. Ask ten people what they love about the Internet and you will get ten different answers: e-mail, web-surging, entertainment, education, shopping, music, T.V, travel, online banking, and chat. The list is endless. But terms like modem, browser and portal can be daunting. There may be an estimated 800 million people using the Internet today, but that still leaves the vast majority of the world’s population unaware of the joys of cyberspace. This paper attempts to provide some of the answers to questions like what the Internet is, how it works, and what promise it holds for the future.

Keywords: Internet, Cyberspace, e-mail, web-surging, entertainment, education, shopping, music, T.V, travel, online banking, chat, modem, web browser, web portal, ICT, Information and Communication Technology, Information Technology, IT, Evaluating ICT, Effective Implementation of ICt, Nigeria, Nigerian Tertiary Institutions, Nigerian Universities, Nigerian Education, Tertiary Institutions, Tertiary Education, Universities, Role of ICT, Development of ICT, Implementation of ICT

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Franklyn Chukwunonso

THE ROLE OF ICT POLICY IN DEVELOPMENT, IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION OF ICT IN NIGERIAN TERTIARY INSTITUTION

Abstract: Nigerian tertiary education is approaching the point at which Information and Communication Technology (ICT) plays a part in nearly all phases of the educational process. In many institutions, this IT revolution has taken place without institutional policies in place and even where they exist, they have been inconsistently developed or have been unevenly implemented regarding the use of ICT in educational programs. Even as institutions help faculty members develop educational and research programs, they have not developed policies to address fundamental and relevant ICT usage and application in these programs. Faculty efforts to bring ICT into their teaching and scholarly activities are rarely considered in formal faculty review and evaluation of teaching curriculum. In the long run, the effectiveness of these new digital tools will be dependant on the way in which these ICT policies are adopted and implemented. This paper discusses the vital role policies can play in the development, implementation and evaluation of ICT in Nigerian tertiary institutions.

Keywords: ICT, Information and Communication Technology, Information Technology, IT, Evaluating ICT, Effective Implementation of ICt, Nigeria, Nigerian Tertiary Institutions, Nigerian Universities, Nigerian Education, Tertiary Institutions, Tertiary Education, Universities, Role of ICT, Development of ICT, Implementation of ICT

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Kiroff L, Ostrowski P

It and E-architecture – a technological breakthrough, a techno knowledge race or a new paradigm in business?

Abstract: The impact of Information Technology on the growth of the knowledge society is profound. In an era when human intellectual creativity is highly valued, IT is a powerful tool enabling the analysis and development of ideas and concepts. Regarding IT as a means to automate business tasks aiming at some labour savings would be an extremely simplistic approach to a more complex concept. Designing systems that augment user capabilities, encourage further exploration and foster creativity will enable users to do what they have not been able to do before. Business environments where collaborative work relationships flourish become highly successful in the intensely competitive global marketplace. The synergy between IT and teams working together to accomplish mutual goals becomes the key to organisational performance. The AEC (Architecture, Engineering and Construction) industry in particular is undergoing dramatic changes due to the pervasive use of networked computers and multimedia equipment. The advent of the first PCs in the architectural profession in the early 1980s gradually started adding a new element of complexity to the architect’s job. The essence of the architectural work is the teamwork environment and IT is able to facilitate the design process and make project collaborations effective. Our research focuses on IT and its impact on architectural team environments. Recent emerging trends that will be analysed include architecture firms’ collaborations on national and international projects (firms experts in particular building types associate with local or regional firms called “architect of record” commissioned for the contract documentation and the contract administration stages of the project). The Royal Sun Alliance Building, Metropolis Apartments, Botany Downs Shopping Centre, DFS Galleria (all in Auckland) are some NZ examples of international collaborations with the design coming from the USA and Australia and Auckland firms commissioned as “architect of record”. Such trends necessitate the use of new technologies like advanced digital communications and hence the unprecedented boom of project extranets, or project WEB sites, and the emergence of the WEB-based architecture. Highly sophisticated architectural environments are built around Intranets, Extranets, the Internet and Video Conferencing systems. This enables the integration of architectural design, business management and team collaborations through computer technology. As a consequence, traditional roles and responsibilities in an office environment will change dramatically with fewer lower level routine tasks being available. Continually updating skills through on-going education becomes a lifetime commitment for the highly qualified industry professionals and for the company as a whole. A large number of computer software applications become indispensable for the highly efficient everyday functioning of an office. Some of the most significant buildings of the 1990s like F. Gehry’s Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain and S. Calatrava’s Extension for the Milwaukees’s Art Museum, Wisconsin, USA couldn’t have been made without CAD. Another interesting trend is the use of IT to define a building through its entire life cycle in a more comprehensive way. This covers not only the traditional design and construction phases of a project but also automated facilities management and even the building’s eventual demolition. Our research methodology encompasses an array of primary and secondary sources of information – literature review, international case studies and projects both pre and post IT revolution, interviews with experienced industry professionals, hands-on experience demonstrating WEB based concepts in practice and individual professional expertise. Research Outcomes and Conclusions: · Although technology has given us numerous new tools to be more productive and innovative creatively, the amount of quality architecture being designed may not necessarily increase. · It is academia that drives innovative uses of technology not industry. Academia has more time and resources to experiment and is not at the mercy of the vendors’ vision or how technology can or should be used. · Computing is in a never-ending flux. This change, for better or worse dynamically drives the way we do business. The entire industry must seek out these changes, create them, challenge them, foster, adopt or discard them to suit. · As object oriented CAD becomes more pervasive, more value will be added to the construction documentation. This value-add needs to be recognised and exploited. · As technology pervades, the design process, regardless, remains relatively the same. · Hierarchical business models and decision-making processes are no longer the norm. This fosters an atmosphere of collaboration and employee empowerment. · Talent is talent. Technology is no substitute for it.

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Full text: content.pdf (170,944 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.044696) class.collaboration (0.038235) class.environment (0.034749)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Murray M, Lai A

The integrated use of information technology in the construction industry

Abstract: Over the last 12 months the use of IT in global business has started to move from the theoretically possible to reality. Large sums of venture capital have been invested, and lost, in e-business with the establishment of business-to-business portals, company web sites for information dissemination and sharing and other initiatives. In the construction industry large construction companies are starting to cooperate in setting up procurement web-sites but the general situation is one of fragmentation: IT is used on a task-specific basis as apposed to in an integrated manner by the various professions within the industry. In this paper the authors will report on IT tools available, and in use, along the design – construction production chain: by surveyors, consulting engineers, quantity surveyors, owners, property developers, contractors and subcontractors. It is argued that, with the development of powerful web sites, it will shortly be possible to integrate available software on a project by project basis, leading to increased time and cost efficiency in the construction cycle. Finally, it is pointed out that since IT is a knowledge-based global activity requiring relatively little capital investment there is no reason why African countries shouldn’t quickly join the construction IT revolution.

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Full text: content.pdf (379,619 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.collaboration (0.057490) class.commerce (0.028674) class.strategies (0.017391)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Oguejiofor E, Kicinger R, Popovici E, Arciszewski T, De Jong K

Intelligent tutoring systems: an ontology-based approach

Abstract: A novel methodology for building tutoring system is proposed. It includes the integration of state of the art computer science methods and tools and the use of an ontology for the core knowledge representation. First, the paper presents the ongoing Information Technology revolution in engineering and the related paradigm changes in education. Next, an overview of the concept of an ontology and its various definitions are provided, along with available ontology development tools. In the following section, an architecture of an ontology-based tutoring system is proposed. As a proof of concept, the proposed architecture was used in building the GMU Educator, an intelligent tutoring system developed in the School of Information Technology and Engineering at George Mason University. A detailed description of the GMU Educator is then presented with examples. Finally, conclusions and plans for further research are provided in the last section of the paper.

Keywords: intelligent tutoring system, ontology, Protégé-2000, GMU educator

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Rischmoller L, Fischer M, Fox R, Alarcon L

Impact of computer advanced visualization tools in AEC industry

Abstract: "This paper presents the results of research about the impact of Computer Advanced Visualization Tools (CAVT) in the AEC project development process, carried out during PhD studies of the first author. CAVT are identified as core IT tools and defined in a broad sense, which involve their main feature of provide the ability to visualize the ends (Product models) and means (Process models) for AEC design and construction project development processes, focused in design and construction stages at the operational level. The impact of CAVT include three main dimensions: 1. The first related with the computational “science” aspect, explores how available comercial hardware and software has reached an adequate level of powerful, affordability and ease of use which will allow for a masive application of these tools in the AEC industry in the nearly future. Future demands in hardware and specially software developments are identified, and ways of lead them to the computer (software) industry are also presented. 2. The second dimension of the impact explores how the evolution of Product and Process modeling has played a key role to support with knowledge for the practical application of commercial CAVT and how these two topics must be revisited when studied from a point of view, coming from CAVT widely application to a real life project. 3. The third dimension is related with the actual organizatonal structures supporting design and construction processes development. Here is first demonstrated that actual organizational structures constitute an obstacle for CAVT efficient application, and a completely new organizational structure is needed is order to realize the real impact and take truly advantage of CAVT. An hipotetical organizational structure with high levels of integration and coordination, is then outlined, which need to be tested with further research in real life projects application. The research has an important therotetical background coming from analysis, study and contact with experts in ITC. This theoretical background has however been complemented with the study of CAVT application to a real life project, which has provided with decisive insights. The project has been designed, by first time in Latin America, completely in 3D using PDS software, a powerful Plant Design System provided by Intergraph, Inc. DesignReview software (also from Intergraph) has provided with powerful capabilties for the visualization of the product PDS 3D model. 4D modeling technology has been applied succesfully to the planning and scheduling tasks of the project to simulate the construction process, and has also provided with some important issues about how to improve the design. The study of the impact of CAVT shows that the ability to visualize the digital reality made up of a product model, and that visualization of the construction process (i.e 4D model), stands for a large reduction of the efforts in simplifications and abstractions, which traditionally has formed part of the basic input-transformation-output model for the AEC project development process. Location of the digital reality out of the boudaries of simplifications and abstractions leads to the conclusion that AEC industry is facing and ontological change without precedents in its history driven by CAVT within the ITC context. This paper will describe a bit more in detail this ontologyc change wich is about to revolution completely the way AEC projects has been developed until now."

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Full text: content.pdf (249,267 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.impact (0.054473) class.environment (0.053118) class.processing (0.045755)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


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