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Aaron Costin and Charles Eastman

Requirements for Ontology Development in the AECO Industry

Abstract: This paper presents and discusses the requirements needed for the development of ontologies in the Architecture, Engineering, Construction, and Operation (AECO) Industry. With the increase of information modeling for all aspects of a construction project with a variety of software tools and technologies, there has been a major need of communication and exchange of information. An approach to improve seamless information exchanges is the use of ontologies. One major benefit of using ontologies is that the information and knowledge defined in the ontologies can be shared across domains. However, to do so requires standardized rules and requirements in order to share and promote reuse at the domain level. Significantly, with the increased demand of ontologies in the AECO industry, there needs to be standardization and consensus in the development and use of the ontologies to ensure the seamless transfer of information as well as realizing the full benefits of ontologies.

Keywords: Ontology, Information Exchange, Semantics, Logic, Taxonomy, AECO Industry

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0149

Full text: content.pdf (733,398 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Alekhin V,Khanina A

The conception of making decision support system introduction into building structures design practice

Abstract: The paper discusses introduction of artificial intelligence into structural engineering practice. The necessity of this paper is accelerated by the information base (IB) and decision support systems exigency, as some standards are not completely designed and there is no statistical information on faults, defects and damage to various buildings. The article suggests creating a decision support system for the optimal structural design of buildings that takes into account a risk of a propagating rupture. The article describes possibilities of a decision support system, the stages of its development and structure. Conceptual solution of the proposed decision support system for the analysis of structures is illustrated by designing trade and business centre high-rise building. The system is based on a knowledge base, which is created during its development and can be updated and expanded with the advent of new codes of practice and new structural design recommendations. Expert system will be built on the basis of clear rules and recommendations from foreign and Russian codes of practice, as well as European standards, and international occurrences of buildings accidents. Optimization of structural elements is performed on the basis of a genetic algorithm. The effect of various genetic operators on the performance of the algorithm is investigated. A model of a genetic algorithm for optimization of steel structural elements is developed. The work is the attempt to create a complex approach to the structural design: the user can not only study the normative documentation, get advice, study the examples of calculation, but also take advantage of the proposed programs for the optimization of the design decisions. It is expected that expert’s knowledge on the analysis of buildings incorporated in expert system will improve the quality of the design, and as a consequence, the reliability of structures.

Keywords: decision support systems,expert systems,optimum design,propagating rupture,genetic algorithm

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Full text: content.pdf (1,730,377 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Anastasiya Yurchyshyna, Catherine Faron Zucker, Nhan Le Thanh, Celson Lima, Alain Zarli

Towards an ontology-based approach for conformance checking modeling in construction

Abstract: This paper gives an overview of a formal ontological approach of conformance models for regulations in Construction aiming at answering the research question: “is an IFC-represented building project compliant to a set of construction rules?” The study analyses three key subtasks: (i) transformation of the IFC of the construction project; (ii) regulations formalisation; (iii) conformance checking reasoning. While analysing the IFC model redundancy and/or insufficiency for conformance checking reasoning, we suggest an intermediate RDF-based model, semantically en-riched and regulation-oriented. The regulation formalisation is studied under two viewpoints: the formalisation of pa-per-based regulation texts to be automatically used in reasoning and the development of the representation of ontology-based regulations. The construction rules are represented as a set of rules which premise and conclusion are RDF graphs. The conformance checking starts from the alignment of the construction project ontologies to the prem-ise/conclusion ontologies of the construction rule. Then, the checking in construction is seen as reasoning in terms of the corresponding RDF graphs. The paper concludes with a preliminary conceptual framework based on Semantic Web technologies modeling the conformance checking problem, as well as the technical solutions for its implementation. The respective architecture and future challenges of the work are also discussed.

Keywords: conformance checking, ontologies in construction, e-regulations, construction project conformance to regulations, semantic web in construction

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Full text: content.pdf (428,706 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Arlani A

Application of information technology in the building regulatory environment

Abstract: The Building Code and its associated regulations, standards, interpretations, rulings and explanatory support documents form a body ofmaterial which, like any law and its regulations, are complex and, attimes, esoteric. It is comprised of a series of concepts and their relationships, rules, exceptions to rules and examples. It essentially defines prescriptive states, conditions and actions for the builder/designer or identifies performance requirements for materials or systems.There is seldom rationale for the rules that could easily be understood and thus few answers to the question, "Why?". This makes building regulations difficult to develop, to use and to enforce. In this paper some applications of computers used in the Code Development process, as a user tool and as an instructional tool will be discussed.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,153,113 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1992 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.legal (0.171184) class.synthesis (0.033042) class.analysis (0.021869)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editor, Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


B Vladimir, T Maile, J T. O’Donnell, C M Rose, N Mrazovi_

DATA ENVIRONMENTS AND PROCESSING IN SEMI-AUTOMATED SIMULATION WITH ENERGYPLUS

Abstract: Building energy performance (BEP) simulation is increasingly used worldwide to quantitatively justify building design decisions and building operations strategies. It is becoming increasingly obvious that the results of such simulation are often questionable, cannot be trusted, and may lead to wrong decisions. Poor simulation model definition and the use of inappropriately acquired and transformed data are two of the most common causes of this. The use of LBNL methodology for semi-automated BEP simulation data input automates data acquisition and transformation, which removes human decision making from the simulation input data definition process. The first of the three major software components (the Geometry Simplification Tool or GST) is already in use. Work on the second component (an interoperable HVAC graphic user interface for EnergyPlus) is under development. The third component (an internal loads generation tool) will be developed in the near future. The original HVAC GUI for EnergyPlus component has evolved into a BEP simulation platform code-named Mojito. A new internal data model which defines all object/attribute/ relationship sets used in BEP simulation, called SimModel, is the central feature of Mojito. Modeling imprecision is very characteristic of geometry representation in building models submitted by the Architecture-Engineering-Construction-Owners-Operator (AECOO) industry. This, and the lagging and very slow development of CAD utilities that can generate higher-level space boundaries needed in BEP simulation, has forced the development of a new tool (SBT) that calculates higher-level space boundaries from IFC-compliant definition of basic building geometry from any model-based CAD tool. It has also forced the addition of new data transformation rules in GST. This paper describes the principles and high-level views of SimModel, SBT and GST internal architectures, and discusses some of the model and tool functionalities. It also provides a brief summary of quality assessment characteristic of building models generated in the AECOO industry.

Keywords: Building data, semi-automated simulation, simulation software, energy simulation data model, data transformation.

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Barlow R P G, Amirudin R

Structural steelwork planning and design evaluation - a knowledge based approach

Abstract: This paper discusses the application of design-for-manufacture and design-for-construction methodologies to the building industry through the use of electronic prototypes developed by using knowledge based engineering (KBE). A working group representing British Steel divisions and consulting engineers agreed key processes and rules affecting initial structural steelwork solutions. The pilot scheme now in progress will allow the structural designer to use concurrent engineering techniques to work with other members of the design team, to investigate the functionality of the design, agree design parameters across design disciplines and freeze the design at an earlier stage than was previously possible. The result should produce design solutions which are both functionally and financially viable.

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Full text: content.pdf (55,004 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1996 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.030568) class.impact (0.015619) class.environment (0.010120)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Ljubljana. The assistance of the editor, Prof. Ziga Turk, is gratefully appreciated.


Blackmore J M

Computer aided development of knowledge in the construction process

Abstract: Modern regulations control the performance of our built environment rather than the methods and materials of construction. The designer has freedom to fulfil specified objectives any way he chooses, but he must show that he is fulfilling the regulatory intention, and fulfilling it well enough. How does he convince the building surveyor that his building will provide an acceptable level of compliance? Where does he find the information to justify his choice of solutions to the regulatory problems? And where does the regulator find the information needed to determine whether or not a proposed solution is acceptable? The answers lie in the sea of regulatory information and research that is the source of all building reedation. Required levels of compliance are implicit in ixaditional, prescriptive regulations. Background research data, legal rulings, records of committee decisions, articles, advisory notes, commentaries, accreditation reports, cornon practice - all give an indication of the level of compliance that society and the regulators are willing to accept and help the designer and the regulator establish criteria of acceptance. This vast array of knowledge helps the regulator determine the intentions of existing regulations and write realistic rules for the performance of buildings. But where does the search fgr knowledge begin? Information technology can structure the search and help find a way through the jungle of data, macheteing obstructions to the introduction of innovative solutions. A structured, selective search can give the regulator access to all the data he needs to support his arguments, allowing the full realisation of the benefits of performance regulation. Linked to a powerful expert system that assists and checks his passage through the regulations, CSBO is creating an IT system to facilitate these benefits.

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Full text: content.pdf (2,214,097 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.legal (0.085813) class.analysis (0.024178) class.synthesis (0.023322)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Blain M

Cognitive theory in relation to the ACTof drawing in electronically generated programs

Abstract: "Visual perception processes in sequential samples or fixated forms. Therefore, if we are to achieve unified perceptions there must be an integration of visual input over time. These sensations are not rich enough to mediate perception, we as perceivers must add to them. This elaboration of sensation involves inferential processes, semantic, semiotic and metaphorical associations, utilizing memory, habit, etc. This paper forms a basis for looking at these inputs as abstractions and how this enables a better understanding of: Cognition, visual and computational perception Computational descriptive rules Constructivist machine vision programs uses of Cognitive and visual theories within the mechanics of drawing. This examination expands towards exploring issues of presence and absence and the confusion of boundaries between inside and outside, hybridity, infiltration and dispersion, non-grounds and objects within."

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Full text: content.pdf (199,792 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.036182) class.roadmaps (0.021100) class.software development (0.012792)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Bourdeau M

FARTEC: a project to simplify the access to the technical documents by using modern computer technologies

Abstract: The CENTRE SClENTlFlQUE et TECHNIQUE du BATIMENT has launched a project, named FARTEC, whose objective is to put building technical rules at professionals' disposal by use of modern computerized tools. This project involves several topics : full digitization of the documents, packaging of the information, elaboration of retrieval systems and dialogue with professionals. Experimentation of advanced techniques has been carried out in 1988

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Full text: content.pdf (1,120,309 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1988 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.store (0.012892) class.analysis (0.011012) class.retrieve (0.008427)
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Permission to reproduce these documents has been graciously provided by the Lund University and the Swedish Building Centre. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Per Christiansson and Prof. Henry Karlsson, is gratefully appreciated.


Brien M J O', Baig A

A semantically rich reference model for building design

Abstract: Much effort has been expended by software developers attempting to build databases suitable for use by those working within the construction industry. Various models from the original RATAS relational database model through to sophisticated process models have been proposed, developed and evaluated. It is probably fair to say that these research efforts have only recently begun to effect the practices of professional construction engineers. This, in part, is due to the need for more sophisticated systems. This paper describes a database that is usable throughout the design and construction processes in the construction industry. The method uses the well-established idea of generic components that can be combined to create a large scale artefact. The novelty of the approach described herein allows the components to embody facts and rules that allow design knowledge to be modelled, captured and retrieved. The facts and rules encapsulate not only the interactions of the various products but also the processes involved in their use. In effect, the atomic primitive elements (both components and rules) can be combined to create complex elements which are semantically rich. The basic ideas and fundamental philosophy of this approach have been described elsewhere. This paper is devoted to describing the detailed implementation of this approach. The content is technical and thorough; it describes how a passive relational database management system, Oracle, has been used to create a new metadata structure for the creation, control and management of the components - both simple and complex. In effect, the relational database becomes active. Thus, the database reacts to design decisions by firing rules which then govern the interaction of the components. The paper presents a detailed description of the underlying architecture and the data model which has been developed. The paper is interesting not only to construction engineers but also to software designers in that it shows how existing database models can be extended by using their predefined data types to create new, and more complex, ones. While this is an old, well-established trick, this application to a real-world problem is a good test of its viability. Finally, a brief review puts this particular approach into the context of the other myriad attempts to create product and process reference models with an evaluation of its strengths and weaknesses.

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Full text: content.pdf (90,426 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.047518) class.man-software (0.016724) class.store (0.013661)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


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