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C Gouy-Pailler, H Najmeddine, A Mouraud, F Suard, C Spitz, A Jay, P Maréchal

DISTANCE AND SIMILARITY MEASURES FOR SENSORSSELECTION IN HEAVILY INSTRUMENTED BUILDINGS:APPLICATION TO THE INCAS PLATFORM

Abstract: Energy management in residential buildings is taking an increasing role in the construction workflows.It entails understanding thermal processes at stake in the buildings and quantifying energyconsumption, which meets inhabitants comfort requirements. Experimental platforms such as INCASaim at providing experts with a practical way to study such problems in real conditions. These heavilyequipped buildings yield huge amounts of real-time data (sampling rates, number and types of sensors)for which new automatic approaches could be useful to thermal experts. Generic similarity measuresfrom data-mining could therefore provide comprehensive analysis tools to thermal experts. This paper focuses on the ability of some distance and similarity measures to organize millions ofdata from homogeneous and heterogeneous sensors into coherent clusters. Simplifying datainterpretations to thermal experts in highly equipped buildings, this approach could also stand as abasis for studying smart grids of less equipped domestic houses studies. Two types of similarity measures are explored. The first one consists of a set of three distances,and accounts for differences in terms of amplitude scaling and shifting between pairs ofmeasurements. It relies on the comparison of homogeneous sensors by quantifying the relativeproximity of their amplitude in terms of mean value, variance and time shift. The second type ofsimilarity measure employs a pre-processing step transforming continuous signals into binary events.The resulting spike trains are then compared by quantifying the amount of unitary transformations(events moves or events deletions/additions) needed to align pairs of events sequences. These proximity measures are computed on real data from experimental buildings of the INCASplatform. It comprises three experimental buildings (with different construction types) dedicated totesting various approaches regarding systems, control and energy-saving policies. These geometricallyidentical buildings are equipped with hundreds of sensors measuring temperature, humidity,differential pressure, and others data at various positions of the structures with sampling rates of onemeasurement per minute. Simulation-based temperatures are integrated in the sensors set providing acomparison between real and simulated data. Results illustrate the contribution of the applied methods when dealing with large amounts ofmeasurements related to instrumented buildings behaviors. Actually results show that coherent clustersregarding distinct signal properties are automatically generated. These clusters can be used fordimensionality reduction (clusters of sensors could be summarized by a single virtual measurement),or relative comparisons between sensors or between real and simulated datasets.

Keywords: INCAS, low-energy consumption, sensor selection, multivariate data mining

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Dalibor Vytlacil and Ondrej Povıšil

Decision Support System For Evaluation Of Energy Saving Investments In Buildings

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Series: w78:2006 (browse)
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E Petrinja, V Stankovski & Ž Turk

Provenance Metadata for Shared Product Model Databases

Abstract: The process of saving metadata committed to track all changes to some data, is known as ""provenance"". In the AEC/FM sector provenance data can be exploited for tracking all interactions of different users between each other and with parts of data. For a particular application, we need to consider which metadata are essential for future queries and who is going to use these. The IFC standard already contains some provenance concepts in its entity structure. We have considered these provenance concepts to build a provenance tracking software. The provenance ontology server was developed by using the OWL ontology language, already available IFC concepts and some complementary concepts that we had to include for the sake of generality of our implementation. The developed prototype allows us to upload an IFC file to a web enabled service that parses it and saves instances of retrieved concepts for later queries, according to the ontology we have defined.""

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Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


H. Yin, M. Otreba, L. Allan, K. Menzel

A Concept for IT-Supported Carbon Neutral Renovation

Abstract: Building renovation supports excellent opportunities to reduce energy consumption in buildings or reduce their CO2 emissions by making smart energy-saving choices to achieve carbon neutrality of buildings. The challenge is to achieve 'zero energy' and carbon neutral buildings by focusing not only on new designs but also primarily on old structures. However, to achieve effective carbon-neutral building renovation substantial financial investments are required. Therefore, it is important to provide a detailed decision support which informs the selection process which building elements should be considered in the renovation process. In this paper we present a simple energy simulation model used for the analysis of energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. The model was used to produce an energy consumption report to assist us in the initial phases of a renovation project to evaluate the impact of design alternatives on energy conservation, investment, running costs, reduced CO2 emissions and further environmental impacts.

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Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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H.U. Gökçe, K.U. Gökçe, Donal Browne, Karsten Menzel

Dynamic System Architecture for Energy Efficient Building Operation: A Case Study of Kiptas Residential Building

Abstract: Buildings account for almost 40 percent of total energy in Europe. Holistic monitoring and analysis methodologies can reduce this by up to 30%. However, the adoption of monitoring and control systems for building management and control applications is hampered by the unavailability of appropriate tool environments. In this paper an integrated model-driven approach that automates the design from component to application level will be presented to provide optimized building operations. The aim is to create a holistic environment for wireless embedded monitoring and control systems to increase the efficiency of the overall system development process and to exploit their potential for reduction of building energy consumption. To reach this objective, new methods, tools and equipments were researched and integration methods covering integrated design, energy simulation models and data warehouse technologies were developed. The findings were applied to a residential building of Kiptas in Istanbul, Turkey and possible energy saving improvements were suggested.

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Hamouda M J

Developing structural programs using spread sheet based software

Abstract: During last decade, computer processing has been exceedingly replacing manual calculations in performing structural analysis and design. Proprietary software gained great popularity because of their reliability and the saving they achieve and has covered a large area in designlanalysis work requirement. Yet, a number of structural tasks is still uncovered and requires customized software that should be developed to the specific requirement of users who are - in majority - structural engineers (not necessarily specialized in computer programming). For those users who need to develop customized programs to address the areas uncovered by readily available proprietary software, SPREAD SHEET BASED SOFTWARE offers a suitable base. In this paper, the term SSBS will mean a proprietary software based on spread sheet format which can be used as a media to develop customized programs to serve specific engineering requirements. As examples to that are the LOTUS 1-2-3 and the MS EXCEL.

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Series: ecce:1997 (browse)
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Kazakeviciute G,

The computer aided modelling and energy analysis of the spatial andstructural components of building

Abstract: The article concerns the modelling and energy analysis problem of the spatial and structuralsolutions of newly designed buildings or those under renovation. The results of that task serve as abase for defining of thermal indices of the project on different design stages.The core of the developed automated system is formed of integrated graphical digital spatial modelsof the parts of buildings. These models include different kind of structured geometric and nongeometric(physical, economical) information about the object.The proposed method could be used by interested experts as a tool for control of thermal and energyindices at various design stages, searching for rational architectural forms and structural solutions. Ittakes into account the latest requirements of Lithuanian building regulations concerning heatingenergy saving.

Keywords: Computer aided design, buildings, 3D models, energy analysis.

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Series: ecce:2001 (browse)
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Leung A W T, Tam C M

Scheduling for high-rise building construction using simulation techniques

Abstract: High-rise buildings are commonly built in densely populated countries or urban areas. A balanced floor construction cycle is critical for construction of the frame structures. The objectives in scheduling the floor cycle are to ensure smooth flows of resources and to optimise the use of formwork and other materials. The floor area is usually divided into zones to allow the labour force and formwork materials moving between zones. The preparation of the floor construction cycle would therefore be a resources allocation exercise. However, the process is complex and difficult when it is done manually. Floats are created deliberately in the schedule to ensure the balance in resources and to provide buffers. Simulation that can demonstrate the real world operations is an effective tool in handling this scheduling problem. This paper examines the constraints in planning the floor cycle and the effects of working period on the overall schedule. Network based simulation model is used to investigate the problems. It is noted that variations in working periods have significant impacts on the time schedule. A saving of 37.2% in time could be achieved when the working period is extended by 20%. The findings indicate that simulation can be used to assist planners to improve their decisions and decide the strategies in scheduling and reviewing the floor construction schedule.

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Full text: content.pdf (132,534 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2003 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


Maydl P, Nausner A, Rysavy E

Organizing the information flow within a planning team: experiences, problems and solutions from a practically-oriented R&D-project

Abstract: Within the scope of the research project "Virtual Technology Park - Resource Saving inConstruction" a new approach was developed to reduce resource consumption (materials, energy,money) over the lifetime of a building. Furthermore, flexibility in planning should increase byimplementing combined organizational and technical measures to improve information flow duringthe planning process.To reach this goal, appropriate tools are needed: content-related, on the organizational level, andsupported by an "enabling infrastructure". The respective project results are a computational modelto assess the resource consumption for a building over its lifetime, an Information DependencyMatrix to improve project manageability, and employment of a document management system tofacilitate data exchange and co-ordination between project members.

Keywords: Virtual Technology Park, Virtual Enterprise, information requirements, informationdependency, document management, data management, resources, communication

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