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A Dementjev & K Kabitzsch

Knowledge-Based Services in Building Management: Online Advisory Expert System

Abstract: The results of investigations within the scope of the ""Knowledge Based Services in Building Management"" research project (Wissensintensive Dienstleistungen im Gebäudemanagement -WiDiG) and the concept of an online advisory expert system (consulting module) for building automation are substantiated in this paper. The trends of the further development of control algorithms of such systems are described. The objective of this project is to investigate the possibility and to produce recommendations for unification of the existing building automation systems and building management systems within the framework of a unified concept.""

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Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


A Mediavilla, A Romero, J Pérez,F J Mata

Energy efficiency assessment in urban environments using GIS

Abstract: Energy simulation tools are commonly used in building design processes. Their calculation methods are comprehensive and widely accepted. However, the increasing requirements imposed to comply with low emission urban scenarios demand a wider scope analysis, taking into account not only the building, but also the interactions between urban elements (buildings, green areas, urban lighting…). GIS technology seems suitable for this purpose, but current solutions do not include deep energy demand calculations. On the other hand, building simulation tools do not consider the city environment and terrain influence. To evaluate a district by manually adding single building simulations results is an overwhelming process, prone to errors and very time-consuming.In this scenario, urban planners demand Decision Support Systems that go beyond traditional building-scope simulation engines and consider both building and urban-level variables in order to assess the energy efficiency of the urban design.Aware of this issue, the platform presented in this paper fills this gap between building and city approaches. It consists of an ArcGIS customisation, implementing energy simulation models for radiation, energy demands, consumption, energy costs and CO2 emissions. The results are simulated and visualized at different levels (façades, buildings and city). Thus, it is possible to benchmark the district against a reference scenario and certify the sustainability of a district. It has been validated with a new urban development scenario in northern Spain.The platform seamlessly integrates CAD cartography, GIS geoprocessing and the calculation strength of excel sheets, enhanced with 3D energy mapping outputs which can be seen in Google Earth. It does not require deep technical knowledge, being suited for multicriteria analysis. Its modularity allows extending it with future extensions.

Keywords: GIS, energy efficiency, low carbon cities, urban planning, simulation

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Alfredo F. Serpell, José M. Rueda

Modeling a project scope using a case-based reasoning approach

Abstract: The availability of a good, complete scope definition in the early stages of a project is widely recognized by industry practitioners as a key factor for overall project success. This paper presents a Project Scope Modeling Methodology for computerized decision support during the definition of a new project scope. The methodology is based on the effective reutilization of historical project scope definitions through the application of Case Based Reasoning (CBR), an Artificial Intelligence approach. In CBR, the previous experiences are reused in solving new situations re-ducing the complexities of modeling reasoning processes. By using CBR, the scope modeling methodology helps to find and reuse the most relevant historical information, allowing to easily consult and combine information from multiple scope definitions in a computerized environment. The resulting scope definitions are ready to serve as input information for different planning purposes. The application for conceptual cost estimating is discussed.

Keywords: project, scope, planning, modeling, case-based reasoning, methodology

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Amor R, Betts M, Coetzee G, Sexton M

Information Technology for Construction: Recent Work and Future Directions

Abstract: Advancing the application of information technology in construction is a major international research and innovation endeavour of concern to scientific establishments and industry. A significant focal point for this research, in terms of its dissemination and the derivation of a shared research agenda, has been the working commission concerned with IT for construction within the International Council for Innovation and Research in Construction (CIB). Working commission 78 of CIB has been active for about 20 years in holding annual meetings of leading scholars in the field. These annual meetings have allowed the principal research activities from around the world to be presented to expert fora and documented in a series of annual proceedings. More recently, some of the more complete research projects have been reported in an on-line electronic journal published in association with the working commission. The meetings have typically allowed debates and discussion to take place regarding the state of progress with key research themes, the emergence of new research themes, and a vision of construction activities in the future to which ongoing research could relate. This paper seeks to capture some of the overall experiences from the activities of this working commission by reviewing the key research issues that have been addressed in recently reported work and seeking to elicit a vision of future IT-enabled construction projects that might inform future research. It reports on an overview of the scope, current approaches and future research agenda that has arisen from consideration of the papers presented, and discussion that took place, at its most recent meetings in South Africa in 2001 and Denmark in 2002.

Keywords: Information Technology, Construction, Research Agenda, Vision.

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/2002/16 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:2002 (browse)
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Anadol Z, Akin O

Determining the impact of CADrafting tools on the building delivery process

Abstract: Computer aided design (CAD) is intended to change the way design and construction are carried out. At a minimum, this implies savings realized in terms of time spent and improvement of the quality of designs produced. To test this idea, we hypothesized that computer aided drafting and design operations may be instrumental in reducing the number of change orders issued and help control cost overruns by improving the accuracy of construction documents. We compared change orders in projects designed in the conventional media against ones developed with computers. We found that there is evidence supporting our hypothesis. Furthermore, in the process of investigating this question, we found that computer applications to improve the management of existing building information (as-built drawings, building system related information, and the like) represent even more critical needs than those that can reduce change orders through more accurate design drawings.

Keywords: drawing accuracy; change orders; design errors; as-built drawings; scope changes

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Series: w78:1993 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Bester A, Huhnt W

Tendering process model for application of reliability analysis

Abstract: Construction data is a useful source of information for construction project management. The sources of data for various aspects of construction management is, in addition to the current project information and the engineer’s professional experience, also historical data from previous projects. An example of the use of historical cost data is in the application of the Limit State Cost Function (LSCF) model to perform construction project risk modelling. The LSCF-method was developed for assisting the consulting civil engineer to make a quantifiable judgement in the selection of a project tender. It is based on the reliability of estimating the outcome of the cost for a specific tender in terms of the risks involved in a project, by using construction cost data. The way in which this data have been captured has shown deficiencies which limits the utility of it if the scope of the data captured and the processes of both capturing and applying the results are not carefully planned. The application of the data can therefore not be seen without the process in which it is generated. The process is characterised by the generation and processing of data by the co-operation of several groups of persons at the different stages of the project. These groups of persons execute different tasks, for which appropriate subsets of information at different levels of detail are needed. The paper is focused on the specific requirements that have to be supported to model such processes. Tools are presented to support the specification of the process model. These tools enable the investigation of the model with respect to completeness and correctness. In addition, the tools support the implementation of an information system that is used in the execution of tasks during the tender process.

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Full text: content.pdf (234,503 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.processing (0.052641) class.economic (0.016156) class.impact (0.011672)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Bharat D

Building industry and the agents of change

Abstract: The infornmtion technology and the changes it brings about are recent and evolving phenomena. In the absence of established historical perspectives, many previous studies have focused on the information technology issues that are of only immediate concern to the building industry and thus provide only limited perspectives. In this paper, we suggest that it is an appropriate time to look beyond the technological bottlenecks such as incompatibility of software or hardware, prohibitive resource investments, and others that are often cited as the reasons impeding applications of the information technology in the building industry. With the new developments taking place in the information technology, the gradual and paced changes in the building industry organizations will be rephced by changes with a bigger scope and a higher momentum. These changes will not result in simply a new breed of professionals who become another discrete part of the web comprising the building industry; they will affect the very web defining the building industry. Additionally, the technological developments that will bring about such changes are presently being carried out by forces external to the building irtdustty thus further obscuring their potential impacts. Five key information technology advances are submitted here as the agents of significant change in future: networks, groupware, robotics, flexible manufacturing, and microprocessor embedded building components. It is argued that the building industry needs to expand the debate about the role of the information technology by taking account of developments which presently lie outside its immediate and traditional concern. The paper initiates this discussion and describes a number of likely impacts of the new technology on the educational, professional and organizational spheres in the building industry.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,994,845 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.impact (0.050231) class.environment (0.047416) class.man-man (0.024687)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Bingunath Ingirige, Ghassan Aouad

Awareness and usage of information standards in the uk construction industry: a survey by the SIENE network

Abstract: Developments in information standards and interoperability in the construction industry are becoming increasingly popular. Much of this development is centred on the Internet for sharing of information and generic data exchange. However many industry participants are unaware of the benefits of information standards and reluctant to make long-term investment on them unless there is clear evidence of business benefits. The Network on Information Standardisation, Exchanges and Management in Construction (SIENE) was launched in March 2000 to streamline information standardisation and interoperability in the construction industry. It is an international network consisting of academics and industry practitioners in the UK and elsewhere whose work on the subject is of international reputation. The project is funded by The Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) under The Innovative manufacturing Initiative (IMI). The main source of knowledge gathering is through workshops conducted in the UK. The website of SIENE also provides opportunity for the members and other participants to enhance the knowledge base of the network. SIENE’s main objective is to explore current research being undertaken in the area of information standardisation and to benchmark UK performance with the rest of the world. It has also conducted workshops to investigate sources and types of barriers that prevent the adoption of information standards and to identify business benefits for construction firms. The findings of the project will be disseminated amongst industry and academia. The paper deals with the results of a questionnaire survey conducted by SIENE in the UK on awareness and usage of information standards among contractors, consultants, suppliers and clients in the construction industry. Forty members of the Construct IT, Centre of excellence in UK were selected as the initial target audience for the questionnaire survey. It is expected to broaden the scope of the survey to a wider audience in its second stage. The paper will discuss the information standards, which are widely being used in the UK construction industry and will highlight any organisational problems, which hinder the adoption of standards. It will also propose areas, which need to be improved for the firms in the industry to gain business benefits.

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Full text: content.pdf (385,336 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.strategies (0.031105) class.roadmaps (0.019768) class.commerce (0.017889)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Bjork B C

The impact of electronic document management on construction information management

Abstract: This paper deals with the introduction of electronic document management (EDM) technology in the construction industry, and our current research knowledge about this topic. EDM has the potential to enhance the information management in construction projects considerably, without radical changes to current practice. Over the past fifteen years this topic has been overshadowed by building product modelling in the construction IT research world, but at present EDM is quickly being introduced in practice, in particular in bigger projects. Often this is done in the form of third party ASP services available over the World Wide Web. In the paper a typology of research questions and methods is presented, which can be used to position the individual research efforts which are surveyed in the paper. Questions dealt with include: What features should EMD systems have? How much are they used? Are there benefits from use and how should these be measured? What are the barriers to wide-spread adoption? Which technical questions need to be solved? Is there scope for standardisation? How will the market for such systems evolve?

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Full text: content.pdf (84,211 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.store (0.036219) class.environment (0.033025) class.impact (0.032159)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Bjork, Bo-Christer

Information Technology in construction: domain definition and research issues

Abstract: This article discusses the scope of research on the application of information technology in construction (ITC). A model of the information and material activities which together constitute the construction process is presented, using the IDEF0 activity modelling methodology. Information technology is defined to include all kinds of technology used for the storage, transfer and manipulation of information, thus also including devices such as copying machines, faxes and mobile phones. Using the model the domain of ITC research is defined as the use of information technology to facilitate and re-engineer the information process component of construction. Developments during the last decades in IT use in construction is discussed against a background of a simplified model of generic information processing tasks. The scope of ITC is compared with the scopes of research in related areas such as design methodology, construction management and facilities management. Health care is proposed as an interesting alternative (to the often used car manufacturing industry), as an IT application domain to compare with. Some of the key areas of ITC research in recent years; expert systems, company IT strategies, and product modelling are shortly discussed. The article finishes with a short discussion of the problems of applying standard scientific methodology in ITC research, in particular in product model research.

Keywords: Information technology, construction, research, integration, methodology

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