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Arthur W T Leung, C M Tam

Assessment of Impacts of Project Technical Complexity on Building Production Using Clustering and Knowledge-Based System

Abstract: Site production layout planning is highly correlated with the technical complexity of a building project. Building structures, building layouts, scales of project and external site conditions are the major components affecting allocation and positioning of site facilities and construction plant. The relationships between these attributes are well known by experienced project managers. In the planning and tendering process, project managers and planners would assess and decide the site production layout by applying their cognitive knowledge using intuitive rather than quantitative approaches. They recognize the benefit of using quantitative models in decision making, which however present much difficulty when modeling the intwined and complex relationships between large numbers of variables. This study proposes an assessment model to examine impacts of technical designs, building layout designs and site conditions on building production with respect to the site layout plan using a data-based platform, which can assist decision making in site planning.The system consists of two components, the Building Production Impact Assessment Model (BPIA) and the Building Production Impact Database (BPIDB). The BPIA adopts the natural clustering technique, the self-organizing Map (SOM), to classify building project samples in terms of technical complexity to compute the technical complexity index for the sample projects. The sample projects and their index are uploaded to the BPIDB forming the data records. In the assessment platform, planners can input the project information of a new project, and the system will return with a complexity index and three sample projects with the highest similarity. The objective of the proposed system is to generate both a quantitative complexity index derived by the clustering model and the cognitive knowledge through the selected projects to improve the quality of decisions. The conceptual framework of the system will be discussed and illustrated with examples.

Keywords: technical complexity, building production, clustering, database

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Christiansson P

IT in distributed open learning environments

Abstract: "The paper describes, accounts experiences, and analyses ongoing open IT supported education's at Aalborg University. The requirements and properties of distributed learning systems are explained as well as available IT-tools support and requirements on underlying application and user models. Pedagogical models are developed to support project organized problem based learning environments. Students are situated at different places in Denmark and meet in person once a month during a weekend seminar. New learning IT tools are introduced to support self study, project work, self tests, project delivery, and course administration. The open Master of IT education and IT courses in the Civil Engineering and Architecture and Design curricula are used as examples for discussions on course information content and structure, and personalized IT tools and their properties. Our conclusions are that we are only in the beginning of development of cross-disciplinary university courses in a global setting with highly communicative IT tools in contrast to traditionally open environments. It is also concluded that IT supported distributed learning provides us with excellent possibilities to advance the learning methodologies suitable for life long learning and to render existing courses more effective. There is a great need to raise the IT competence of the teachers to meet the needs for and carrying through of the changes in education on all levels. We will in the future see a closer natural collaboration between universities in course development and experience exchange."

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Full text: content.pdf (290,092 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.deployment (0.064533) class.education (0.052856) class.communication (0.041303)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Dan H,Yasumuro Y,Ishigaki T,Nishigata T

3d scan planning of outdoor constructions based on photogrammetric model and mathematical optimization

Abstract: A 3D scanner is capable of capturing surface shapes of the objects as a set of point cloud and is extending its applicability toward examining, re-designing and preserving the existing constructions as well as on-site information for BIM. One of the most difficult problems to collect complete surface data of outdoor constructions is to avoid self and mutual occlusions. If we want to collect complete data for covering whole surfaces of the constructions, then we have to measure them from multiple points usually. Moreover, multiple measurements require plenty of time and labor, and each measurement gives a data set consisting of hundreds of millions of 3D points to be processed for further computations. So it is very important to make an effective measurement plan a priori for avoiding redundancy for both labor and computational costs. In this research, therefore, we propose a method for 3D-scan planning of outdoor constructions based on photogrammetric models and mathematical optimization methods. In our proposed method, we first use photogrammetric techniques and make a rough 3D model of measurement scenery: we take photographs of the targets by a calibrated digital camera, and find corresponding characteristic points over the photographs, for example corners and intersection points of edge lines. Next, we triangulate the corresponding points by using 3D photo-modeling software. Finally, we obtain the rough 3D mesh model. After that, we make the optimal scan plan based on the rough 3D mesh model by using some mathematical methods: we examine the visibility and self/mutual occlusion property of each polygon of the 3D mesh, and calculate the minimum number of measurement points and their layout to scan all the surfaces of the targets. Moreover, our proposed method can calculate the optimal layout of the designated number of measurement points to maximize the obtainable data.

Keywords: 3D-Scan Planning,Photogrammetric Model,Mathematical Optimization

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Danijel Rebolj, Riko Šafarič, Andrej Šorgo and Nenad Čuš Babič

SMARTCON, Self-Maintaining and Rejuvenating Constructions

Abstract: Infrastructure systems are established and maintained to satisfy our societal needs for living and transport. The European Roadmap for Cross-Modal Transport Infrastructure Innovation states that by 2030 an improvement of 50% in infrastructure performance, risk and cost versus a 2010 baseline should be achieved. However, current maintenance methods require intense engagement of highly trained experts and exposure to hazards, they are time consuming and hinder the normal use of constructions. Since infrastructure systems are not able to "care for themselves" they create a heavy burden for society in terms of regular maintenance and total cost of ownership. Therefore, SMARTCON proposes to transform passive constructions into smart structures able to take care of themselves. The envisaged system shall consist of a biomimetic swarm of robots able to perform continuous inspection, analysis of inspected indicators, decision support systems to advise on necessary maintenance or rejuvenation actions and to evaluate implemented actions. The paper is presenting the SMARTCON concept, the preliminary research, and the intended results of a three-year project beginning in early 2017. The project is focusing on bridges as they are considered to be among the most critical infrastructure objects.

Keywords: Automation, Infrastructure, Bridges, Inspection, Maintenance, Rejuvenation, Robot Swarm, Biomimetics

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0164

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Eilif Hjelseth, Nick Nisbet

Overview of Concepts for Model Checking

Abstract: This paper gives an overview and a description of different concepts for model checking. Model checking is defined as execution of predefined rules on a building information model, e.g. an IFC-file. Rules can be based on laws, regulations, codes, standards, advisory material or self defined requirements for generally or project specific use. The different concepts will be presented with a description and examples of use related to stages in the life cycle of the design process (ISO 22263:2008). The paper will discus mixed use of these concepts in basis of IDDS, integrated design and delivery (IDDS, 2010). Generally should model checking be use to support areas where the designer is not an expert – or other (repetitive) tasks human performance is error prone. An model who have passed all checks can at it’s best said to be “not bad”, and never to be the best designed building. Reasoned feedback is an important part of model checking.The following concepts will (so far) be presented: A) Validating model checking. The checking is performed against a set or rules, that all must be passed, or not activated, to pass the validation. Examples are checking against codes or standards. Following sub-types: Geometry based, information based and mixed systems will be explained. B) Asking model checking. This is rules applied on defined situations who ask for a choice between different alternatives. Examples are choose of venetian blinds and ventilation related to area of window. C) Self checking and adaptive model checkingExample of this is the adaptation of the diameter of the column in response to number of floors. D) Reversed model checkingExamples are checking a model and give feedback on which codes / standards, or parts of this that is relevant. Support for manual checkingReference:IDDS, 2010. Introduction to Integrated Design and Delivery Solutions, http://www.cibworld.nl/site/programme/priority_themes/integrated_design_solutions.html , (visited: 201-03-30).ISO 22263:2008. Organization of information about construction works -- Framework for management of project information. http://www.iso.org/iso/search.htm?qt=22263&sort=rel&type=simple&published=on (visited: 2010-03-30).

Keywords: checking, ontology, BIM

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Gehre A, Katranuschkov P

Human-centred knowledge-based model access service for engineers

Abstract: This paper presents the Model Access Service (MAS) developed in the EU ISTforCE project (IST-1999-11508). It uses the capabilities of product data technology to provide value added services in a human-centred, web-based collaboration environment. Along with standard services for product model access on model and object level, it encompasses also two advanced knowledge-based features: a Reasoning Agent and an Explanation Component. MAS is developed as a self-contained system that can be used in a variety of ways. In the ISTforCE framework, it is integrated with an external Product Data Server (PDS) and a Core Information Server (CIS) which provide the necessary infrastructure enabling the full functionality of MAS. Standard functionality for model level access is provided by using MAS as a central tool that enables generalised data exchange capabilities to all relevant product models in one or more construction projects, even if they are stored on different product data servers. This is done on the basis of user and account information retrieved from the CIS. To enable the use of the product models directly, MAS provides an API for generalised RPC-based model access on object level. One of the two advanced features of MAS is the integrated Reasoning Agent which is responsible for replying to sophisticated queries concerning a specific structural design model, extending the IFC2x core model. It allows clients to use AI planning methods remotely, to generate solution sequences that combine the computed single Solver items. The second advanced feature incorporated in the MAS is the Engineering Ontology layer. It enables the translation of IFC data to the vocabulary and semantics familiar to end users. This unique feature of the MAS, distinguishing it from most proposed product data services to date, is augmented by an Explanation Component which opens many of its functions to standard Web Browsers.

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Full text: content.pdf (518,767 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.045124) class.retrieve (0.038403) class.communication (0.021612)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Gorlick A L, Froese T M

A prototype distributed CIC system based on IAI standards

Abstract: A prototype Computer Integrated Construction system is being developed that models building product and process information using International Alliance for Interoperability standards. The goal of this research is to provide a window into the future of how these standards can be applied in the construction industry. The prototype consists of a project database that is structured according to a common project schema or project data model. The schema is based on emerging International Alliance for Interoperability standard models but it is implemented in a way that allows the dynamic development of the schema (and even of its underlying metamodel) without destroying the information in the database in order to support on-going work in the development of information model standards. The system is modular in nature so that it can be supplemented with plug-in tools to accomplish a variety of project management tasks. It is served over the web through a combination of Microsoft's Active-X Data Object technology and a lightweight version of ISO STEP's Standard Data Access Interface. Data sets served to the client are wrapped in the Extensible Markup Language to allow for the self-description of information.

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Full text: content.pdf (77,627 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.068367) class.man-software (0.047366) class.standards (0.016356)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Ivan Mutis, Jose Solis

FLOORBOOK: A Social Network System to Enable Effective Interfacing of Project Actors

Abstract: Construction project participants constitute a complex social human network composed of a heterogeneous and fragmented set of stakeholders. The disjoint group of actors that team to work on a project constitutes collective entities, social networks at different scales in time and space. The proposed social network system is a semantic resource that leverages the communication and coordination of exchanging and sharing information. It is expected that it will enable an improvement in efficiency of the interfacing of actors and information. This semantic resource helps actors to minimize human intervention for coordination and information searching and retrieval, which are activities that demand costly resources and the use of specialized labor. Floorbook analyzes the vocabulary of the annotations on the forms of representation used in construction documentation, categorizes and models communities according to the user’s role in the shared form of representation, and makes suggestions to the users to optimize their particular world view, so that the suggested annotation is more precise and personalized. The basic rational of the approach is that the position of the users in a social network impacts their use in the system, and that the content of the annotations are part of a categorization model of a specific domain. The proposed social network system works as an effort of collective intelligence that enables the sharing of the semantics of the tags that are associated with the representations. As an effort of collective intelligence, Floorbook (1) models and extracts semantics from informal communication; (2) categorizes and models communities defined by common interests; and (3) self-learns from the history of user actions in the system to enable new value-added services, such as, for example, suggesting new candidate semantic tags as a result of the analysis of the representations to optimize the particular world view of an individual user.

Keywords: social-networking, communication, collaboration, emerging semantics

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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K A Brunner & A Mahdavi

The software design of a dynamic building model service

Abstract: We present the software architecture and a prototypical implementation of a dynamic building model service system. The primary purpose of this model service is to support (simulation-assisted) indoor-environmental control operations in buildings. However, as a comprehensive, structured, sensor-based, and self-updating information resource, the model can support other building tasks such as those concerned with building logistics and management. At the core of our model service design, an object tree continuously updated from sensor data reflects the current state of the building, concurrently accessible to multiple clients and backed by persistent storage. The service is embedded in a distributed infrastructure based on tuple spaces for transparent object-based communication between system components. The preliminary evaluation of the model service system suggests that the proposed design is feasible and appropriate for further testing in realistic (large-scale) settings.

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Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Kiliccotel H, Garrett J H Jr

Obstacles to the development of computable models of design standards

Abstract: Design standards play a significant role in civil engineering. Evaluating a design for conformance using such a large number of design standards is a tedious, laborious, and difficult task. One major research issue in CAE (Computer-Aided Engineering) is to develop software systems to assist in the usage of the design standards in the design process. Many obstacles to the development of such a tool exist; the major obstacles are: design standards are not self sufficient documents; design standards are indeterminate; processing design standards requires non-monotonic reasoning; and design standards contain higher4rder provisions. An approach to dealing with these obstacles is proposed that treats standards processors as distributed black box abstractions able to communicate using a standardized protocol.

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Full text: content.pdf (723,361 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.030674) class.communication (0.012590) class.legal (0.012574)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


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