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Anastasiya Yurchyshyna, Catherine Faron Zucker, Nhan Le Thanh, Celson Lima, Alain Zarli

Towards an ontology-based approach for conformance checking modeling in construction

Abstract: This paper gives an overview of a formal ontological approach of conformance models for regulations in Construction aiming at answering the research question: “is an IFC-represented building project compliant to a set of construction rules?” The study analyses three key subtasks: (i) transformation of the IFC of the construction project; (ii) regulations formalisation; (iii) conformance checking reasoning. While analysing the IFC model redundancy and/or insufficiency for conformance checking reasoning, we suggest an intermediate RDF-based model, semantically en-riched and regulation-oriented. The regulation formalisation is studied under two viewpoints: the formalisation of pa-per-based regulation texts to be automatically used in reasoning and the development of the representation of ontology-based regulations. The construction rules are represented as a set of rules which premise and conclusion are RDF graphs. The conformance checking starts from the alignment of the construction project ontologies to the prem-ise/conclusion ontologies of the construction rule. Then, the checking in construction is seen as reasoning in terms of the corresponding RDF graphs. The paper concludes with a preliminary conceptual framework based on Semantic Web technologies modeling the conformance checking problem, as well as the technical solutions for its implementation. The respective architecture and future challenges of the work are also discussed.

Keywords: conformance checking, ontologies in construction, e-regulations, construction project conformance to regulations, semantic web in construction

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Andrej Tibaut, Danijel Rebolj

TOWARDS METHODOLOGY FOR HARMONIZATION OF SEMANTICALLY DIFFERENT BIM's

Abstract: Research focus of the paper are heterogeneous information systems. Heterogeneity within a set of software applications can be attributed to the fact that their collaboration is hindered due to the conflicts in software architecture, communication protocols and/or data representation. General interconnectivity and emerging interoperability have caused the fall of mainframe-based systems, which in turn led to variety of information systems with local data representations, communication protocols and software architectures. Today these information systems need to collaborate in different engineering projects. Existing approaches, such as common framework, integration with standard scheme and data mediation, try to diminish the undesired effects within heterogeneous systems. The approaches are indeed successful because they eliminate all conflicts at design time. This way collaborating applications have to abandon their local data views. In this paper heterogeneity is regarded as a property of an information system while disharmony of an information system is defined as a state of the system. Further, structural, semantical and functional disharmony is defined as part of overall information systems’s disharmony. As a consequence a new methodology called DRAGOn (Disharmony Resolving with Agents and Ontology) is proposed. The methodology aims to dynamically resolve structural and semantical disharmony by preserving applications’ local data views. Another novelty is the definition of conceptualization for structural and semantical disharmony (Disharmony ontology) and the use of software agents. Disharmony ontology is specified in OWL. The agents use the ontology for resolving of structural and semantical conflicts between applications at runtime. Agents communicate via shared communication space based on Java technology. The mediation is incremental, which means that agents are able to build their local ontologies. The ontologies are used as persistent meta-data repositories of concepts (structure and semantics) that are captured from applications during runtime.Extensive applicability of the DRAGOn methodology is expected in information system clusters with rich and complex data content, namely management of construction projects.

Keywords: Interoperability, building information model, quality of semantic and structure, semantic and structural difference, mediation, ontology

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Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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Brandon Bortoluzzi, Daniel Sobieraj and J.J. McArthur

Automating the Creation of Facility and Energy Management Building Information Models

Abstract: Building Information Models (BIMs) are widely recognized as being valuable asset management tools, however the resources required to develop BIMs of existing buildings for Facilities Management (FM) purposes are a recognized barrier to entry. Significant developments have been made for generating geometrically complex models using scanning technologies, however the resultant models are often extremely large, requiring significant computational resources. This paper presents an automated process that uses 2D floorplans and elevation drawings to generate semantically-rich, BIMs with adequate geometry for energy simulation and integration of semantic data of specific value in day-to-day building operations management. The proposed approach is limited to the information available regarding the building and develops a model requiring minimal resources to both develop and maintain, while providing the flexibility for incorporating complex geometry when such information becomes available. A case study of a university campus is presented where 20 buildings were modelled using available 2D architectural CAD files (floorplans and elevations) to demonstrate and evaluate this approach. Process speed, accuracy, and resultant model quality are discussed, along with automation process limitations.

Keywords: Building Information Modelling, Automation, Case Study, Existing Buildings, Facility Management

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0144

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Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Brien M J O', Baig A

A semantically rich reference model for building design

Abstract: Much effort has been expended by software developers attempting to build databases suitable for use by those working within the construction industry. Various models from the original RATAS relational database model through to sophisticated process models have been proposed, developed and evaluated. It is probably fair to say that these research efforts have only recently begun to effect the practices of professional construction engineers. This, in part, is due to the need for more sophisticated systems. This paper describes a database that is usable throughout the design and construction processes in the construction industry. The method uses the well-established idea of generic components that can be combined to create a large scale artefact. The novelty of the approach described herein allows the components to embody facts and rules that allow design knowledge to be modelled, captured and retrieved. The facts and rules encapsulate not only the interactions of the various products but also the processes involved in their use. In effect, the atomic primitive elements (both components and rules) can be combined to create complex elements which are semantically rich. The basic ideas and fundamental philosophy of this approach have been described elsewhere. This paper is devoted to describing the detailed implementation of this approach. The content is technical and thorough; it describes how a passive relational database management system, Oracle, has been used to create a new metadata structure for the creation, control and management of the components - both simple and complex. In effect, the relational database becomes active. Thus, the database reacts to design decisions by firing rules which then govern the interaction of the components. The paper presents a detailed description of the underlying architecture and the data model which has been developed. The paper is interesting not only to construction engineers but also to software designers in that it shows how existing database models can be extended by using their predefined data types to create new, and more complex, ones. While this is an old, well-established trick, this application to a real-world problem is a good test of its viability. Finally, a brief review puts this particular approach into the context of the other myriad attempts to create product and process reference models with an evaluation of its strengths and weaknesses.

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Full text: content.pdf (90,426 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.047518) class.man-software (0.016724) class.store (0.013661)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Daum S,Borrmann A

Checking spatio-semantic consistency of building information models by means of a query language

Abstract: One of the characteristic features of object-based Building Information Models is the close integration of geometric and semantic information into one model. This concept is thoroughly implemented by the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), a comprehensive data model designed to provide a sound foundation for complex data exchange scenarios. Besides the provision of a large variety of data types for capturing the semantics of building elements and spaces, the IFC also makes it possible to define relationships between building elements and/or spaces, respectively. In particular, a spatial aggregation hierarchy can be modeled by successively applying the relationship IfcRelAggregates to space objects. However, no validation options currently exist to check whether the semantically defined aggregation hierarchy complies with the geometric setup of the individual spaces and building elements. This lack of consistency between the semantic and the geometric part of the BIM model may lead to serious data interpretation errors at the receiving end. To prevent this, we propose a new method for validating spatio-semantic consistency based on the usage of the Query Language for Building Information Models (QL4BIM) which on the one hand provides a means of accessing the IFC object model and on the other hand provides high-level spatial operators, such as Disjoint, Touching and Containing. The formulation of corresponding queries makes it possible to verify the spatio-semantic consistency of the IFC model. The paper discusses application scenarios and provides a number of relevant examples.

Keywords: BIM,IFC,Topology,Validation,Consistency,Spatial Relationships

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Homan Ma, Kwan Mei Elsa Ha, Chun Kit Jackie Chung, and Robert Amor

Testing Semantic Interoperability

Abstract: With standardised semantic representations of construction objects able to be transferred between major CAD systems, and other design tools, there is an expectation, supported by compliance testing, that semantically consistent data will flow across the project team. This assumption is questioned due to the known difficulties in mapping consistently and completely between two distinct representations of an artifact. To test the ability of CAD, and design tools, a number of buildings, described in a standard format, are loaded and then saved directly back out of these tools and then checked for differences. A range of potential differences has been postulated, and experiments show the existence of most categories of differences when data files are examined.

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Series: w78:2006 (browse)
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I. A. Mutis

Semantic tags for collaboration in construction formalized within a social network framework

Abstract: As construction projects require tracking an ever-increasing number of parameters to operate with suppliers, vendors, and the entire organization of a construction firm, particularly in exchanging, sharing, and integrating information, a semantically rich form to represent information is required. Semantic tags for interoperable construction workflows represent a novel approach to support the exchanging, sharing, and integrating of information. This approach proposes a semantic main form of representation of construction concepts to assist in the communication between actors. The proposed approach is based on the notion of the social network framework. The assumption is that construction actors’ relationships in communicating information can be expressed by patterns of relationships defined in a social network structure. Semantic tags leverage the communication of information within the dynamic social network grid by employing a concept-description that contains metadata. The purpose is to semantically enrich the product or project data. It is expected that the inclusion of additional semantics will overcome inefficiencies within interoperability.

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Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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Iosifidis P, Tah J H M, Howes R

Utilising product models for information sharing in an integrated cad environment

Abstract: Despite the extensive use of computing technology within the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry during the past few years, the crucial issue of information sharing amongst AEC participants still remains to be addressed. This results in poor building project co-ordination and affects productivity and final outcome. Our objective at South Bank University is to develop integrated CAD systems that utilise conceptual building product models for efficient building-related data representation and exchange. This paper presents our approach in defining a building product model of CAD- related design (i. e. architectural, structural, etc.) that also identifies overlapping sections with non-design data (i. e. project planning, cost estimating, etc.) which are incorporated for producing enriched data specifications extracted from CAD drawings and used by various AEC disciplines. Different strategies for separating multiple-views of the resulting data are also discussed Finally, a prototype system (MicroLink) that runs under Intergraph's MicroStation PC CAD package is presented. The system operates on a partial set of entities of the overall product model and produces semantically-enhanced design data in a declarative form ready for use by knowledge-based systems for automatic construction activity generation.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,686,055 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.store (0.031229) class.synthesis (0.029459) class.environment (0.021922)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


Iosifidis P, Tah J H M, Howes R

An advanced object-oriented architecture for Information exchange through shared objects

Abstract: Despite the extensive use of computing technology within the Architecture, Engineering and Conshction (AEC) industry during the past few years, the crucial issue of information sharing amongst AEC participants still remains to be addressed This results in poor building project co-ordinution and affects productivity and finul outcome. This paper presents the use of collaborative object databases for efficient data exchange between direrent AEC applications. Fundamental to this work is the development of an integrated product model that represents the information requirements for total project design and construction The deployment of the Integrated Building Product Model (IBPM) as the basis for schema generation is also explained The system architecture demonstrates the ability to dynamically interchange objects between applications, which is being utilised as the means of automatic project plan generation from semantically enhanced CAD data. The system is aimed toward compliance to ISO-STEP for facilitating the exchange of information between dissimilar systems.

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Full text: content.pdf (952,198 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.033232) class.software development (0.027177) class.represent (0.023656)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Jakob Beetz, Bauke de Vries, Jos van Leeuwen

RDF-based distributed functional part specifications for the facilitation of service-based architectures

Abstract: In this paper we highlight research and development that is done in the larger context of a service ori-ented architecture framework for the support of design decisions. We are going to illustrate how methods that adhere to the “open world assumption” (OWA) can be used to construct semantically meaningful information fragments from larger models. We are demonstrating the composition and use of Functional Parts specifications as RDFS graph pat-terns. We outline a prototype that applies RDF(S) sub graph extraction and merging with queries and rules in distrib-uted scenarios using models based on the IFCs that have been notated as partitioned OWL models. We are showing how these sub graphs can be used as machine-readable information exchange requirements not only for existing models but also for the semi-automated integration of newly added conceptual models as project-specific augmentations.

Keywords: building information models, semantic web, service oriented architectures, IFC

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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