Welcome
Digital library of construction informatics
and information technology in civil engineering and construction
 

Works 

Search Results

Facilitated by the SciX project

Hits 31 to 40 of 44

Manu Venugopal, Charles Eastman, Rafael Sacks, Ivan Panushev, Vahideh Aram

Engineering Semantics of Model Views for Building Information Model Exchanges Using IFC

Abstract: The data schema of the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) schema is generic, designed to support the full range of model exchanges needed in the construction industry. While it has a rich ontology of building part entities and relationships, it does not impose any fixed structure on the ways in which entities should be aggregated or represented, with the exception of the project-building-space containment hierarchy. Thus the IFC model, in and of it-self, is inadequate for ensuring interoperability between software applications. For any given set of use cases for a sub-domain of building construction, a set of model view definitions (MVD) is required to specify exactly what information should be exchanged, and in what form and structure the IFC entities are to be used. Compiling a model view definition, presently based on human intuition of industry knowledge, is challenging. What should be the level of detail to be included in case of geometry, classification and aggregations, and parts and relationships etc.? IFC, which is based on STEP and is represented in EXPRESS language, is known to be good in expressivity but lacks in a formal definition of its concepts. Thus in preparing a set of MVDs, information modellers must determine the appropriate level of meaning to require and they must define the typing structure to be used. If the structure is too simple, the exchanges will only have value for importing software able to apply some level of expert knowledge to interpret the information. If it is too rigid, then it will only be appropriate for a narrow range of use case exchanges and a large number of model view definitions will be required, which also implies that software companies will need to prepare multiple export and import routines. This paper discusses the spectrum of possibilities, using examples from concrete construction in general and precast concrete construction in particular.

Keywords: Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), Model View Definitions (MVD), National BIM Standard (NBIMS), Product Modeling, Process Modeling

DOI:

Full text: content.pdf (256,421 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2010 (browse)
Cluster:
Class:
Similar papers:
Sound: N/A.


R Kenley, T Harfield, C Ouyang

LOCATION-BASED MICRO-MILESTONES FAIR SUB-CONTRACTOR PAYMENT

Abstract: This paper introduces the new concept of location-based micro-milestones and argues for their use in achieving fair payment for subcontractors. It integrates location-based management (LBM) theory and Business Process Management (utilising YAWL: Yet Another Workflow Language) to illustrate how location-based BIMs can be utilised for the effective and fair payment systems. It outlines the rationale for linking LBM and YAWL methodologies to develop a BIM alternative solution to a traditional industry problem of late payment for sub-contractors. Location-Based Management methodologies are now available in the powerful scheduling and control software (Vico Office by Vico Software). Originally developed in Finland, it has now become part of the BIM movement through integration into 5D environments (3D + time + cost), using location-based quantity data (from 3D BIM) and location-based scheduling (4D). While LBM is being rapidly adopted in industry, expansion of theory in workflow knowledge based on data from real projects remains limited. YAWL has a well-established foundation based on concurrency theory and workflow patterns derived from research. It is informed by experiences with languages supported by contemporary BPM systems and it has a formal semantics. Linking these two methodologies could provide a BIM solution to the problem of late payment to sub-contractors. The YAWL support environment could be extended to provide a workable interface for auto-generating construction payment processes from digital models based on LBM defined micro-milestones. The visualisation of the YAWL interface and related workflows could be used to both inform the analysis and to communicate the results. This paper suggests a study to obtain proof of concept that LBM and YAWL can create an auto-generated certification and payment system for sub-contractors. Results could be configurable reference process models and workable prototype tools that trigger immediate payment of completed work according to the completion of location-based micro-milestones.

Keywords: Fair payment, location-based management, micro-milestone, BIM

DOI:

Full text: content.pdf (99,189 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
Cluster:
Class:
Similar papers:
Sound: N/A.


R van Rees, Tolman F, Beheshti R

How BcXML handles construction semantics

Abstract: The paper focuses on the development of a new Communication Technology for the Building-Construction industry, called bcXML. One problem that has to be solved before ICT really will help to increase the BC industry's competitiveness is the way construction semantics should be treated. Over the years several approaches have been researched, but none was able to provide a satisfactory solution. What is needed is a common (neutral) taxonomy with definitions of objects and properties with units and names in different languages and alphabets that can be used to create and translate meaningful XML-based messages, but that is not part of the actual standard. Such an approach would in particular serve the purpose of the fragmented European Building and Construction industry, and is prerequisite for the unification and industrialization of the European Building and Construction industry. The paper describes how eConstruct handled building and construction semantics.

Keywords:

DOI:

Full text: content.pdf (191,195 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.standards (0.125208) class.represent (0.022139) class.software-software (0.016472)
Similar papers:
Sound: read aloud.

Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Reed K A

Product modeling of buildings for data exchange standards: from IGES to PDES/STEP and beyond

Abstract: Digital data exchange problems are severe in the building community because of its organizational and operational complexity and the vast scope of its information needs. Early CAD data exchange standards, such as the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES), dealt exhaustively with the syntax or arrangement of the data to be exchanged. Most of the semantics or meaning of the data must be imposed by the user of the standard. Current work to develop the first international standard, called both the Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP---the IS0 nomenclature) and the Product Data Exchange Specification (PDES---the USA nomenclature), is based on an explicit definition of semantics at the user level. The response of the building community to these two different approaches to standardization is reviewed in terms of product modeling of buildings. A number of challenges are discussed in the context of building data.

Keywords:

DOI:

Full text: content.pdf (2,032,162 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1988 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software-software (0.035849) class.represent (0.032623) class.social (0.031965)
Similar papers:
Sound: read aloud.

Permission to reproduce these documents has been graciously provided by the Lund University and the Swedish Building Centre. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Per Christiansson and Prof. Henry Karlsson, is gratefully appreciated.


Reza Shiftehfar, Frank Boukamp

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ON-SITE RFID TAGS – OPPORTUNITIES, BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES

Abstract: With the increased interest in Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) in the construction industry and related research efforts, future construction sites can be expected to carry an abundance of RFID tags. These RFID tags at site have the potential to be used in order to improve context awareness during the construction phase. Specifically, semantic information about and between components and resources can be projected onto the RFID tags to create a semantically connected RFID network. Such semantic information might already exist when an integrated project model exists for the project. However, in cases where integrated project models for projects are uneconomical or cannot be made available due to other factors, the semantic information can still be made available for supporting context awareness on construction sites. A wide range of on-site tasks, ranging from actual construction to facility management, can benefit from the relationships represented in the RFID network and the resulting increased context awareness. This paper discusses the opportunities for creating such semantic RFID networks, and highlights challenges and benefits that the authors identified throughout their ongoing research activities.

Keywords: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), Semantics, Knowledge Management, Construction Industry, Context Awareness

DOI:

Full text: content.pdf (196,368 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2008 (browse)
Cluster:
Class:
Similar papers:
Sound: N/A.


Stump A L, Chin S, Liu L Y, Ganeshan R

Use of a relational database system to integrate product and process information during construction

Abstract: The facility product and process model created during design and planning evolves over the life-cycle of a facility project, fiom planning and design, construction, operation and maintenance, to renovatio/demolition. Integration of product and process models is required to represent process knowledge associated with product information so that richer semantics can be provided, and consistency and integrity of project information can be improved. This paper presents a conceptual data model for integrating a building product model with a process model. Product and process information during the construction phase is the main focus of this paper. The construction stage plays an important role in high quality information management for a project, because it is an intermediate stage between the design phase, and operation and maintenance. Complete as-built information and lessons learned which are captured during construction and associated with design components can contribute significantly to those involved throughout the life-cycle of a fhcility project. Current research efforts focus on information management based on multiple points of view and the management of changes and updates to integrate product and process information during construction. A grouping mechanism was adapted fiom previous research performed at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL) to associate a building product model with the process model at the lowest level. This grouping mechanism allows a user to group components according to the work zone, bid packages, and then relate the group to activities. Based on the conceptual model, a prototype system was developed by using relational database management system (RDBMS). This paper presents the conceptual model, prototype system, and outlines our fiture research plan to integrate product and process information using an object-oriented paradigm.

Keywords:

DOI:

Full text: content.pdf (1,329,069 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.processing (0.083421) class.deployment (0.070918) class.software development (0.019634)
Similar papers:
Sound: read aloud.

Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Tolman F, Stephens J, Steinmann R, van Rees R, Böhms M, Zarli A

bcXML, an XML vocabulary for building and construction

Abstract: Electronic information networking in Building and Construction (BC) has been thesubject of research for the last two decades and indeed much progress has been made. Forexample, the exchange of electronic technical drawings, geometry models and buildingproduct models is possible today. Also in the eCommerce area much progress has beenmade, with the Internet dramatically increasing ICT awareness in BC. Several softwarevendors are marketing interesting Internet based systems that support eProcurement,sometimes even including back office-integration (job costing, accounting).Despite these positive developments, progress in open, meaningful (BC semantics)communication over the Internet has been limited, and subsequently Internet basedproject information communication in large projects hardly exists. The reason is thatthere is still no common multi lingual BC vocabulary that can be used by both humansand computer applications. Such a vocabulary, that contains BC notions like 'beam','paint', 'door', 'foundation pile', cannot be implemented with the existing, HTML-based,Internet technology. HTML, the Hyper Text Mark-up Language, is what it says, a markuplanguage, not a language to define human and computer understandable content.With the new Internet language XML, eXtensible Mark-up Language [1], it is possible todefine and communicate both content and mark-up. This means that XML supports thedevelopment of XML vocabularies as required by BC. The European IST 10303'eConstruct' Project is doing just this with the development of bcXML (BuildingConstruction XML).The paper presents the latest results of the project focusing on the aspects related toinformation networking in Building and Civil Engineering.

Keywords:

DOI:

Full text: content.pdf (171,313 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: ecce:2001 (browse)
Cluster:
Class:
Similar papers:
Sound: read aloud.


Tuncer B, Stouffs R

Modeling building project information

Abstract: "Building projects are represented through a variety of documents such as drawings, diagrams, models, pictures, and textual information. These documents serve as a medium for communication between the different partners and disciplines within the AEC community. From a collaborative perspective, each document reflects on the author’s discipline as well as on the intended meaning. From a representation perspective, these documents present different aspects of the project such as the geometry, structure, context, and functional organization. As such, we can denote each of these documents an abstraction of the project. Without imposing an integrated product model, a ‘document-based’ approach is preferable for the organization and management of these documents. Here the documents are treated as individual entities, organized and related according to different categories and attributes. A drawback of this approach is that it is not possible to distinguish and relate components within these documents. To overcome this drawback, we propose the adoption of a modeling language, e.g., XML, as a common syntax to re-represent these abstractions. In this way, the documents can be interpreted and broken up into their components. These components within and between abstractions can then be related, and these relationships added to the representation. The result is an integrated model of components and relationships, represented in a uniform way. This paper focuses on some of the representational issues involved in the process of interpreting, breaking up and relating abstractions. We illustrate the potentials of this framework with the representation of a number of abstractions belonging to a body of built architecture, specifically, Ottoman mosques. The paper includes a discussion of the following issues or questions: - How are the components represented and the relationships between them created? The components are defined as structures of tags and attribute-value pairs, and constructed in a hierarchical manner. This enables a simple matching of components between various abstractions. For the creation of relationships, we therefore suggest a semi-automated approach where some of the relationships between components are automatically deduced from the structures and their composition in the representation. - What is the advantage of this representation? This representation does not impose any semantics, but only a common syntax for the definition and creation of an integrated model. This syntax allows one to link abstractions by defining the relationships as individual elements within the representation. Navigating the resulting model, not just the original abstractions but across abstractions through the respective links, yields new views of the project information."

Keywords:

DOI:

Full text: content.pdf (438,827 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.038235) class.store (0.036933) class.represent (0.025444)
Similar papers:
Sound: read aloud.

Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Turk Z

Integration of existing programs using frames

Abstract: A prototype for computer integrated design/analysis environment is being developed. Due to the nature and size of our institution, we have decided for compatibility with existing and third party products as well for future developments. Frames are used in Minsky's sense to insulate knowledge and semantics of the tools being integrated. Frames are used again in a more traditional sense insulating components physically. Standards like STEP or AIS were not applied explicitly, but principles behind those standards are reflected in our solution. In the paper an architecture of shallow integration of the tools for integrated structural design will be explained in greater detail. Some of the solutions will be suggested from the blending of the 00 and AI techniques.

Keywords:

DOI:

Full text: content.pdf (1,074,599 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1991 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.033620) class.analysis (0.024090) class.software development (0.017360)
Similar papers:
Sound: read aloud.

Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Eindhoven University of Technology.


Vassileva S

An approach of constructing integrated client/server framework for operative checking of building code

Abstract: "The paper presents results from number of investigation over problem of the using of an integrated client/server framework for an automated code-checking system. The changing nature and the complexity of building codes leads to delays in the design and the construction processes. The designer must assess which codes are applicable to a given project. Through a similar process must go an inspector and there can be inconsistencies in interpretation of a given section of the code between different inspectors. After that, he must sort the codes through potential ambiguity in the code provisions. The process of design checking and approval can prolongs the construction and delays the operation of a facility. Automating this process can alleviate the inconsistencies and delays with manual checking. Most previous studies on the process of checking of building code have focused on the processing of design codes for conformance checking. In the present article is proposed to add additional criteria of a building model. On the base of that are summarized representation of code provisions. The structure and attributes of a product model and building code model needed to provide design information are examined by a code-checking program. This program can read the design data and reorganize the information in a form that can be analyzed and compared to the model of the building code. The building code model is described as a mapping of building code provisions in an object-oriented framework. For automation of the process of checking of a building design for compliance to a building code document is developed a program for analysis of a building design. As a design environment is used AutoCAD. Building model is based on IFC Release 1.5 and on additional layer of building component objects. This layer is created with semantics corresponding to the IFC specifications. The designer during the process of design can send the building model to the code-checking program. A program in Auto Lisp extracts the IFC information from the AutoCAD database and converts the information into IFC EXPRESS file. The building code model is based on the same structure as the IPC project model hierarchy. The code-checking program reads in a stream of IPC data to populate its database of building components. The program reads in a stream from a building code file, which is mapping from the text of provisions of a building code document to an EXPRESS file. The code-checking program is on the server of client/server framework. This program reads in a building code EXPRESS file and populates a data structure containing instances of the building code provisions. Finally, the system determinates if a set of provision is relevant to the specific building component associated with a specific space."

Keywords:

DOI:

Full text: content.pdf (2,085,356 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.060049) class.represent (0.025494) class.software development (0.024263)
Similar papers:
Sound: read aloud.

Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


For more results click below:

 

hosted by University of Ljubljana



includes

W78




© itc.scix.net 2003
show page 1 show page 2 show page 3 this is page 4 show page 5 Home page of this database login Powered by SciX Open Publishing Services 1.002 February 16, 2003