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A Ekholm, L Häggström

BUILDING CLASSIFICATION FOR BIM – RECONSIDERING THE FRAMEWORK

Abstract: The purpose of building classification systems is to provide the sector with agreed and standardised ter¬minology and semantics, e.g. in systems for technical specification, cost calculation, and exchange of information. There is a growing need to use classification systems in a BIM context. In inter¬¬national construction projects and international construction product trade there is a need both to translate between national classification systems and to develop common systems. The idea behind the inter¬¬national framework standard for building classification ISO 12006-2 is that national systems would be easier to compare if they adhere to the class definitions suggested in the standard. A study of two classification systems, the BSAB system in Sweden and the DBK system in Denmark, both within the framework and yet not compatible, has risen the idea of a deeper analysis of the theoretical basis for the ISO 12006-2 classification system to find a solution to this problem. The project has developed such a theoretical framework in order to clarify the relationship between classes representing parts of buildings in the ISO 12006-2 standard, specifically the Construction entity part, Element and Work result classes. This is specifically needed when the standard is used in the context of BIM, since building models include both specialization and compositional relations among information objects representing parts of buildings. The proposed theoretical framework is based on a systems view on the built environment that distinguishes constructions in four main compositional levels: construction entities, technical systems, building elements and components. Based on the theoretical framework developed in this project, possible new interpretations of the classification standard ISO 12006-2 are discussed.

Keywords: building classification, ISO 12006-2, BSAB, DBK

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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A Yurchyshyna, M Léonard

Making a smudge on collective (un)conscious: designing collaborative platforms for construction

Abstract: Collaboration and collaborative environments have been playing an increasingly important role in theconstruction domain. Designing and process modeling, knowledge management and dissemination,communities of practice – this is just an initial list of the building-related activities that benefit fromcollaboration- and services approaches characterizing the construction industry. In this paper, we discuss the phenomenon of collaboration in construction, study the existingcollaborative platforms that are used (or might be applicable) for different building-related activitiesand identify the main challenges that are currently not addressed in the current researches. Wefurthermore underline the role of services-oriented technologies for modeling industry- and businessrelatedprocesses,andshowhowtheyhavebeendefactoimplementedfortheconstructionindustry.Despitea largenumberofdifferentfit-for-purposecollaborativeplatformsforconstruction,weneverthelessunderlinethenecessityofa semanticallyrichcollaborativeenvironmentforheterogeneousconstructionexpertsthatwouldallowthemtokeeptheirownterminologyandworkingpractices,buttoacquireasharedunderstandingofacommontaskwithoutlosingitsintegrity.Inordertodoso,weintroduceourservices-basedapproachforactionalizingthe expert knowledgeand developing an information kernel of a discussed task. This approach forms a theoreticalfoundation for developing a collaborative platform, the Cross-Pollination Space, the semantics ofwhich is dynamically modeled by ontologies and the related interactions are enabled by services. Weshow how this framework allows enriching the collaborative environment during its functioning andsupports expert collaboration without imposing an artificial platform-specific terminology and/orcollaboration patterns.Finally, we canvas the ongoing and future works related to this research and discuss the particularitiesof their contextualization for the construction industry.

Keywords: collaboration in construction, shared semantics, expert knowledge, collaborative platforms, service approach in construction

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Aaron Costin and Charles Eastman

Requirements for Ontology Development in the AECO Industry

Abstract: This paper presents and discusses the requirements needed for the development of ontologies in the Architecture, Engineering, Construction, and Operation (AECO) Industry. With the increase of information modeling for all aspects of a construction project with a variety of software tools and technologies, there has been a major need of communication and exchange of information. An approach to improve seamless information exchanges is the use of ontologies. One major benefit of using ontologies is that the information and knowledge defined in the ontologies can be shared across domains. However, to do so requires standardized rules and requirements in order to share and promote reuse at the domain level. Significantly, with the increased demand of ontologies in the AECO industry, there needs to be standardization and consensus in the development and use of the ontologies to ensure the seamless transfer of information as well as realizing the full benefits of ontologies.

Keywords: Ontology, Information Exchange, Semantics, Logic, Taxonomy, AECO Industry

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0149

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Aish R

Extensible enterprise computing for construction as a necessary pre-cursor for collaborative engineering

Abstract: "Our focus is to consider the construction industry as essentially an information processing system. In its ideal form, practitioners (each with an individual internal representation of design intent) interact with other practitioners by first interacting with an information processing system that manages various shared external representation of design intent. The underlying assumption (from an information technologist's perspective) is that design data is held in a sufficiently complete representation, and that changes to this representation are transactions that move the representation from one consistent state to another. We might call this 'enterprise computing' for construction. This ideal of 'enterprise computing' for construction can be compared to the realities of current practice. - Due to its fragmentation, the construction industry generally perceives its use of information technology in terms of multiple discrete 'individual' systems (with the resulting proliferation of discrete documents) rather than as an enterprise systems. - The drawing tradition, which represents building in 2D, with different representations of the same design split across multiple independently editable documents inhibits consistent management of design and the use of analytical tools. While these may be familiar arguments, there are new object oriented and data management tools emerging from key software developer, such as Bentley Systems, that are designed to address the specific needs of a 'construction enterprise', namely geometric generality, multiple application semantics, multi-user access, and transaction management. These systems also address the scalability and reliability issues required for deployment in practice. Again, arguments for (and advantages of) systems of this type have been discussed in the research literature for more than two decades. The difference is that these systems are ready for deployment. But with this prospect for a broader application of 'Enterprise Computing' for Construction, there are associated other significant issues which may concern both the 'strategic' and the 'creative' practitioners, namely: - Semantic completeness: building a sufficiently complete multi-disciplinary representation of design intent - Data integrity: where any intelligent components are used, these should not become 'orphaned', for example, by object ""instance"" data being detached from the definitions of the corresponding class - Data longevity: the integrity of design and other data should be maintained for the life-time of the building, across new hardware platforms and operating systems. Upgrades to the application and any intelligent components should not disrupt or invalidate existing data - Parallelisation of design: individual designers or engineers should be able to work in parallel, and then be able to synchronize their changes to design data with co-workers - Expressibility: architectural design and construction engineering are open-ended domains. Additional intelligent components should be capable of being added on a ""per project"" basis. Within this context, this paper will explore the essential 'tension' that exists within the Architecture and Construction sectors. On the one hand, there is a perceived need by construction managers for computing tools based on clearly defined and agreed schema to control the construction process (thereby giving economic advantage, comparability, etc.). On the other hand, creative designers who are under other competitive pressures, are expecting a different set of computing tools to allow the exploration of new building configurations and construction geometry. While in the former case a standardisation of schema (as the foundation of a traditional ""Enterprise Computing"" system) would appear to be in order, in the later case the essential 'open-ended-ness' of the creative process demands ""extensibility"" as a pre-requisite of any computing system. These differing requirements (and indeed, attitudes) within the user community, presents software developers with interesting challenges. What technologies (for example, object and/or relational) and what 'domain abstractions' are appropriate foundations for solutions for these differing requirements. Or indeed, what technologies and 'domain abstractions' can be used as the basis for broader set of applications whose design is intended to unify across this apparent ""management-creative"" divide…hence the theme of this paper: ""'Extensible Enterprise Computing' for Construction"". Fundamentally, this is not exclusively an issue of technology. We need to address both the technical and cultural issues if we are to realise our collective ambition of providing effective tools with which to support collaboration between the diverse range of interests that occur within the Architecture and Construction sectors."

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Full text: content.pdf (827,728 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.034023) class.software development (0.019513) class.represent (0.017320)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Anders Ekholm

ISO 12006-2 and IFC – could they be harmonized?

Abstract: Today, there are two major candidates for core ontologies common to the construction and facilities management sector, the ISO 12006-2 Framework for classification of information, and the Industry Foundation Classes, IFC. ISO 12006-2 has been developed as a step in harmonizing different national and regional classification systems for construction and facilities management. The main purpose of the IFC standard is to enable effective information sharing, within the AEC/FM industry throughout the project lifecycle. These standards have similar objectives but show fundamental differences in semantics and structure. The presented study compares the standards and points at differences and similarities, firstly in order to understand their structure, and secondly to initiate a discussion about the need and the possibility to co-ordinate them. The analysis indicates a fundamental difference in view between the standards. The starting point of IFC was to reject classification, and therefore a harmonization with ISO 12006-2 would require a major shift of approach.

Keywords: Product models, Process models, Ontologies, Interoperability

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Series: w78:2004 (browse)
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Andrej Tibaut, Danijel Rebolj

TOWARDS METHODOLOGY FOR HARMONIZATION OF SEMANTICALLY DIFFERENT BIM's

Abstract: Research focus of the paper are heterogeneous information systems. Heterogeneity within a set of software applications can be attributed to the fact that their collaboration is hindered due to the conflicts in software architecture, communication protocols and/or data representation. General interconnectivity and emerging interoperability have caused the fall of mainframe-based systems, which in turn led to variety of information systems with local data representations, communication protocols and software architectures. Today these information systems need to collaborate in different engineering projects. Existing approaches, such as common framework, integration with standard scheme and data mediation, try to diminish the undesired effects within heterogeneous systems. The approaches are indeed successful because they eliminate all conflicts at design time. This way collaborating applications have to abandon their local data views. In this paper heterogeneity is regarded as a property of an information system while disharmony of an information system is defined as a state of the system. Further, structural, semantical and functional disharmony is defined as part of overall information systems’s disharmony. As a consequence a new methodology called DRAGOn (Disharmony Resolving with Agents and Ontology) is proposed. The methodology aims to dynamically resolve structural and semantical disharmony by preserving applications’ local data views. Another novelty is the definition of conceptualization for structural and semantical disharmony (Disharmony ontology) and the use of software agents. Disharmony ontology is specified in OWL. The agents use the ontology for resolving of structural and semantical conflicts between applications at runtime. Agents communicate via shared communication space based on Java technology. The mediation is incremental, which means that agents are able to build their local ontologies. The ontologies are used as persistent meta-data repositories of concepts (structure and semantics) that are captured from applications during runtime.Extensive applicability of the DRAGOn methodology is expected in information system clusters with rich and complex data content, namely management of construction projects.

Keywords: Interoperability, building information model, quality of semantic and structure, semantic and structural difference, mediation, ontology

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Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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André Borrmann, Stefanie Schraufstetter, Christoph van Treeck, Ernst Rank

An octree-based implementation of directional operators in a 3D spatial query language for building information models

Abstract: In a current research project, our group is developing a 3D Spatial Query Language that enables the spa-tial analysis of Building Information Models and the extraction of partial models that fulfil certain spatial constraints. Among other features, the spatial language includes directional operators, i.e. operators that reflect the directional relationships between 3D spatial objects, such as northOf, southOf, eastOf, westOf, above and below. The paper pre-sents in-depth definitions of the semantics of these operators by means of point set theory. It further gives an overview on the possible implementation of directional operators using a new space-partitioning data structure called slot-tree, which is derived from the objects’ octree representation. The slot-tree allows for the application of recursive algorithms that successively increase the discrete resolution of the spatial objects employed and thereby offer the possibility for a trade-off between computational effort and required accuracy.

Keywords: spatial query language, building information modelling, direction, octree

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Berkhahn V, Esch C

Re-engineering of objects in constructional drawings

Abstract: A lot of drawings of existing or new buildings in civil engineering are only available in an analogous version. In order to realize a computer aided process during the planning, construction, building and utilization phases drawings in digital version are indispensable. Algorithms and software tools are available to convert a digitised paper based drawing into a vector plot. But these systems did not prove in practice to be suitable for the recognition of constructional objects within the drawings. In this paper an approach to convert digitised drawing data into lines and curves with topological information is presented. Based on this topological information the semantics of the drawing objects is recognised and is translated into building objects. The theoretical background as well as the practical use of the developed various algorithms are explained in detail. This approach is applied to a realistic example of ground-floor plan for a detached house. The results of this example show the suitability of the developed software tool for a medium sized drawing.

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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


Björk B-C, Löwnertz K, Kiviniemi A

ISO DIS 13567 - The Proposed International Standard for Structuring Layers in Computer Aided Building Design

Abstract: Layering is a widely used method for structuring data in CAD-models. During the last few years national standardisation organisations, professional associations, user groups for particular CAD-systems, individual companies etc. have issued numerous standards and guidelines for the naming and structuring of layers in building design. In order to increase the integration of CAD data in the industry as a whole ISO recently decided to define an international standard for layer usage. The resulting standard proposal, ISO 13567, is a rather complex framework standard which strives to be more of a union than the least common denominator of the capabilities of existing guidelines. A number of principles have been followed in the design of the proposal. The first one is the separation of the conceptual organisation of information (semantics) from the way this information is coded (syntax). The second one is orthogonality - the fact that many ways of classifying information are independent of each other and can be applied in combinations. The third overriding principle is the reuse of existing national or international standards whenever appropriate. The fourth principle allows users to apply well-defined subsets of the overall superset of possible layernames. This article describes the semantic organisation of the standard proposal as well as its default syntax. Important information categories deal with the party responsible for the information, the type of building element shown, whether a layer contains the direct graphical description of a building part or additional information needed in an output drawing etc. Non-mandatory information categories facilitate the structuring of information in rebuilding projects, use of layers for spatial grouping in large multi-storey projects, and storing multiple representations intended for different drawing scales in the same model. Pilot testing of ISO 13567 is currently being carried out in a number of countries which have been involved in the definition of the standard. In the article two implementations, which have been carried out independently in Sweden and Finland, are described. The article concludes with a discussion of the benefits and possible drawbacks of the standard. Incremental development within the industry, (where ”best practice” can become ”common practice” via a standard such as ISO 13567), is contrasted with the more idealistic scenario of building product models. The relationship between CAD-layering, document management product modelling and building element classification is also discussed.

Keywords: CAD-system, layering, standardisation

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Series: itcon:1997 (browse)
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Colajanni B, Fornarelli A, Giretti A, Naticchia B, Pellitteri G

ASA, An interactive assistant to architectural designers

Abstract: In the management of information for the design case reasoning seems the best fit for simulating the real designer s behaviour. In order to construct a plausible interactive assistant to architectural designers three main problems are to be solved: the way of encoding and indexing technical knowledge in order to easily recover the best starting case; the way of giving semantics to sketches; the way of coming to terms with inconsistencies generated during the process. An interactive architectural assistant is proposed based on case reasoning, managing architectural information encoded in a memory of real instances of the architectural type of reference and technical information encoded according the SfB system. Its architecture is made of two main parts. The first includes case memory, case recovery engine, abstraction engine and the design board. It manages the general and specific case knowledge in its abstract and semantics given form. The second includes the tools to generate single objects composing the architectural organism both directly and in parametric form, constraint management and consistency checking. The representation of the state of the object is twofold as a drawing in the drafting board, as a symbolic representation in the design board in which all the attributes of the object are recorded together with their relationships. The graphics of the assistant is implemented in AutoCAD environment while the alphanumeric knowledge is implemented in Kappa. The general architecture of ASA and the single modules are described, followed by a simulation of a session of work.

Keywords: case reasoning; architectural assistant; knowledge engineering

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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


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