Akinci B, Staub S, Fischer M
Productivity and cost analysis based on a 4d model
Abstract: Four-dimensional (4D) CAD models are being used more and more frequently tovisualize the transformation of space over time. To date, these models are mostlypurely visual models. Any evaluation of a 4D model, e.g., whether it presents aworkable construction sequence, is left to the viewer. The evolution of 4D CADdemonstrates the ability to provide a tighter link between visualization andanalysis tools. In this paper, we discuss how an intelligent 4D model helpsidentify time-space conflicts between concurrent activities and provide assistancein calculating more realistic cost estimates. The 4D system (4D Work Planner)presented here is based on symbolic and graphic product and process models, andprovides both the visual and analytical feedback necessary to reengineerconstruction sequences.
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C Gouy-Pailler, H Najmeddine, A Mouraud, F Suard, C Spitz, A Jay, P Maréchal
DISTANCE AND SIMILARITY MEASURES FOR SENSORSSELECTION IN HEAVILY INSTRUMENTED BUILDINGS:APPLICATION TO THE INCAS PLATFORM
Abstract: Energy management in residential buildings is taking an increasing role in the construction workflows.It entails understanding thermal processes at stake in the buildings and quantifying energyconsumption, which meets inhabitants comfort requirements. Experimental platforms such as INCASaim at providing experts with a practical way to study such problems in real conditions. These heavilyequipped buildings yield huge amounts of real-time data (sampling rates, number and types of sensors)for which new automatic approaches could be useful to thermal experts. Generic similarity measuresfrom data-mining could therefore provide comprehensive analysis tools to thermal experts. This paper focuses on the ability of some distance and similarity measures to organize millions ofdata from homogeneous and heterogeneous sensors into coherent clusters. Simplifying datainterpretations to thermal experts in highly equipped buildings, this approach could also stand as abasis for studying smart grids of less equipped domestic houses studies. Two types of similarity measures are explored. The first one consists of a set of three distances,and accounts for differences in terms of amplitude scaling and shifting between pairs ofmeasurements. It relies on the comparison of homogeneous sensors by quantifying the relativeproximity of their amplitude in terms of mean value, variance and time shift. The second type ofsimilarity measure employs a pre-processing step transforming continuous signals into binary events.The resulting spike trains are then compared by quantifying the amount of unitary transformations(events moves or events deletions/additions) needed to align pairs of events sequences. These proximity measures are computed on real data from experimental buildings of the INCASplatform. It comprises three experimental buildings (with different construction types) dedicated totesting various approaches regarding systems, control and energy-saving policies. These geometricallyidentical buildings are equipped with hundreds of sensors measuring temperature, humidity,differential pressure, and others data at various positions of the structures with sampling rates of onemeasurement per minute. Simulation-based temperatures are integrated in the sensors set providing acomparison between real and simulated data. Results illustrate the contribution of the applied methods when dealing with large amounts ofmeasurements related to instrumented buildings behaviors. Actually results show that coherent clustersregarding distinct signal properties are automatically generated. These clusters can be used fordimensionality reduction (clusters of sensors could be summarized by a single virtual measurement),or relative comparisons between sensors or between real and simulated datasets.
Keywords: INCAS, low-energy consumption, sensor selection, multivariate data mining
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Properties of future building hyper documents
Abstract: The paper describes and exemplifies how modem information technology may
impact the properties of future computerized building documents and models. It is
now possible to practically handle large quantities of data in the form of color
pictures, film, sound recordings, animation sequences, drawings etc. The systems we
formulate today are better suited to capture information putting higher pressure on
the users concerning formulation of demands on user interface, model descriptions
and model building tools.
A group of projects under the label KE3S-MEDIA, knowledgebased systems - media, are
aiming at integrating advanced software (knowledgebased systems, Hyper Card from
Apple computer. etc) with new distribution and storage media. The hyper documents
which are created possess powerful man-machine interface and dynamic model
The system forms a demonstrator environment used in different applications to
capture, test and communicate ideas and admitting fast prototyping. New tools are
defined, developed and tested. Tools which support conceptual modeling activities,
use and building of hyper documents in a multimedia environment. The following
building applications are at the moment included in the research: The City Advisor,
Window Renovation Advisor, Advanced Information Technology in Building
Maintenance Support (the Delphi project) and Advanced Material and Vendor
Information, (the AMVI project)
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Class: class.man-software (0.072996)
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Permission to reproduce these documents has been graciously provided by the Lund University and the Swedish Building Centre. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Per Christiansson and Prof. Henry Karlsson, is gratefully appreciated.
E Tauscher, K Smarsly, M König, K Beucke
Automated Generation of Construction Sequences using Building Information Models
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Gehre A, Katranuschkov P
Human-centred knowledge-based model access service for engineers
Abstract: This paper presents the Model Access Service (MAS) developed in the EU ISTforCE
project (IST-1999-11508). It uses the capabilities of product data technology to
provide value added services in a human-centred, web-based collaboration
environment. Along with standard services for product model access on model and
object level, it encompasses also two advanced knowledge-based features:
a Reasoning Agent and an Explanation Component.
MAS is developed as a self-contained system that can be used in a variety of ways.
In the ISTforCE framework, it is integrated with an external Product Data Server
(PDS) and a Core Information Server (CIS) which provide the necessary infrastructure
enabling the full functionality of MAS.
Standard functionality for model level access is provided by using MAS as a central
tool that enables generalised data exchange capabilities to all relevant product
models in one or more construction projects, even if they are stored on different
product data servers. This is done on the basis of user and account information
retrieved from the CIS. To enable the use of the product models directly, MAS
provides an API for generalised RPC-based model access on object level.
One of the two advanced features of MAS is the integrated Reasoning Agent which
is responsible for replying to sophisticated queries concerning a specific structural
design model, extending the IFC2x core model. It allows clients to use AI planning
methods remotely, to generate solution sequences that combine the computed single
Solver items. The second advanced feature incorporated in the MAS is the Engineering
Ontology layer. It enables the translation of IFC data to the vocabulary
and semantics familiar to end users. This unique feature of the MAS, distinguishing
it from most proposed product data services to date, is augmented by an Explanation
Component which opens many of its functions to standard Web Browsers.
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Class: class.represent (0.045124)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.
H-J Bargstädt & A Blickling
Implementation of logic for earthmoving processes with a game development engine
Abstract: In modern industry for example the assembly of a car can be done in different ways or sequences. All may lead to success. Nevertheless manufacturers decide on one specific order of processes for the assembly. This order is designed and managed properly and is the result of deeper studies of the logic of the assembly. In the construction industry experiences on site have shown that logic of processes is difficult to be identified. Although there are areas where a logical order of processes can be presumed. This paper tries to setup logic for earthmoving processes and implement it within a computer game development engine. The result is an interactive computer game that allows the user to play the simulation of excavation in real-time.
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.
I.C. Wu, A. Borrmann, E. Rank, U. Beißert & M. König
A Pattern-Based Approach for Facilitating Schedule Generation and Cost Analysis in Bridge Construction Projects
Abstract: The paper presents a computational method to help in automating the generation of time schedules for bridge construction projects. The method is based on the simulation of the construction works, taking into account the available resources and the interdependencies between the individual tasks. The simulation is realized by means of the discrete-event based simulation software originally created for plant layout in the manufacturing industry. Since the fixed process chains provided there are too rigid to model the more spontaneous task sequences of construction projects, a constraint module that selects the next task dynamically has been incorporated. The input data of the constraint module is formed by work packages of atomic activities. The description of a work package comprises the building element affected, the required material, machine and manpower resources, as well as the technological pre-requisites of the task to be performed. These input data are created with the help of a 3D model-based application that enables to assign process patterns to individual building elements. A process pattern consists of a sequence of work packages for realizing standard bridge parts, thus describing a construction method which in turn represents a higher level of abstraction in the scheduling process. In the last step, the user specifies the available resources. The system uses all the given information to automatically create a proposal for the construction schedule, which may then be refined using standard scheduling software.
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Jan Tulke, Jochen Hanff
4D construction sequence planning – new process and data model
Abstract: Model based working is only just getting introduced in the construction sector to support design and pro-ject management. In particular, construction sequence planning as one of the key processes in a construction project can benefit from model based working. Since the time schedule defines sequences of activities and allocates resources such as material and labour, it plays an important role in optimizing and managing a construction project. In this respect, model based working can offer more to construction sequence planning than just a visualisation of the construction sequences, in which the term ‘4D simulation’ is today commonly understood. Still, available 4D simulation software packages do not engage in the scheduling work but require major additional effort after the time schedule has been finished. The links between the objects of the 3D CAD model and the activities of the time schedule have to be established manually, i.e. the user has to select certain objects and assign them to a related activity in the time schedule. Furthermore, a 4D simulation merely adds limited value due to a restriction to visualisa-tion of construction sequences only. This additional effort for creating the 4D simulation and limited benefit of having a visualisation of construction se-quences only, seem to be the main drawbacks as a result of which 4D simulation still has not crossed the threshold to daily practice. To significantly improve the efficiency of creating a 4D simulation this article presents a solution for creating time schedules and 4D simulations based on data stored in a building model.
Keywords: 4D simulation, scheduling, construction planning, model based planning, building information model
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Kamat V, Martinez J
3D visualization of construction processes and products
Abstract: "Construction processes range from the relatively simple to the most complex.
In the construction industry, complex decisions yielding maximum benefit are
an essential component of process design and planning. Simulation modeling
and Virtual reality are thus being increasingly used to help decision-makers
make economically optimal decisions.
Although many advances have been recently made in the area of construction
process modeling (e.g. STROBOSCOPE), the Visualization/Animation aspect has
mainly focused on the finished product (3D CAD) or on the product as it
evolves through construction (4D CAD). Very little attention has been given
to visualizing the construction process that leads to the end product,
which includes temporary structures and materials, equipment and labor as
they create the product. The process visualization/animation tools currently
available commercially are restricted to two dimensions (e.g., Proof
Animation), inherently lacking in the real world 3D capabilities that are
indispensable for the realistic visualization of many construction
This paper describes on-going research at Virginia Tech that focuses on the
development of a general-purpose, 3D and trace-driven
visualization/animation system. This system enables visualization of both
the construction process and the resulting product in 3D. The tool enables
the easy creation of realistic 3D animations using CAD models from supported
data file formats. The core of the work is a simple yet extremely robust set
of animation commands, the capability to process sequences of these
commands, and the ability to navigate effortlessly in 3-D space. The input
to the program is an ASCII text file consisting of sequential command
statements. This file can be generated automatically by a variety of
simulation software tools such as STROBOSCOPE, which is currently being used
to test the system.
Due to the flexibility of the command set and the independence of the tool
from any particular simulation modeling software, the system has numerous
potential applications in fields other than construction, such as in the
manufacturing and service industries. Construction simulation model
developers will find this tool useful for debugging their model and
verifying that analytical models indeed behave correctly."
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Class: class.processing (0.013438)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated
L Manzione, M Wyse, R Sacks, L Van Berlo, S B Melhado
KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS TO ANALYZE AND IMPROVE MANAGEMENT OF INFORMATION FLOW IN THE BIM DESIGN PROCESSand improve management of information flow in the BIM design process
Abstract: Thanks to the interoperability provided by the IFC standard, BIM technologies and IFC model servers are beginning to enable a design environment where the exchange of information among the actors can be synchronous and continuous using a single and central data model. Although this new set of technologies enables concurrent design, the problems associated with managing the flow of information itself in a concurrent design environment requires explicit management of editing rights and version control at the level of individual objects, rather than at the file level. However, while these are technical issues that have standard solutions, managing designers’ involvement in the process also becomes more challenging, requiring the development of new management methods suitable for the BIM collaborative environment.Common problems such as information ‘overflow’, incomplete modelling solutions or incorrectly matched technical solutions, and inventories of work in progress due to inattentive designers, if not treated methodically in the BIM platform, can quickly cause bottlenecks for the advancement of the process. The bottlenecks result in process waste (such as time spent waiting, large inventories of design information, processing sequences that cause unnecessary iterations, long cycle times and schedule overruns, etc.). Application of concepts that allow structuring and measuring of the information flow can improve the process and reduce the waste of resources, but there is no specific methodology for measuring information flow in a BIM environment. Taking a previous study, in which seven key performance indicators were developed and validated for application with conventional technology, as a starting point, this work has developed the methodology for using these indicators in a BIM project.
Keywords: information flow measure, collaborative design, model server, design management
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