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Drogemuller R, Woodbury R, Crawford J

Extracting representation from structured text: initial steps

Abstract: A great deal of work has been done in the past on natural language recognition within the field of artificial intelligence. The aim of this work was to allow natural language text to be read in by a computer and structured in a format that would allow automatic interpretation of the text. This was intended to reduce the "knowledge engineering bottleneck" that has been a significant constraint on the use of artificial intelligence techniques within many fields. Some similar work has also been done within the AEC industry concentrating mainly on building codes. The research project described in this paper aims to simplify the analysis of structured text and its conversion into computer interpretable forms by providing support with computer software. The work is built around two documents - a glossary of building terms used in Australia and the Building Code of Australia. The various issues concerned with "noise" in the source data, the structure and content of documents to be analysed and the desired computer interpretable result will be presented. This work is motivated by: ˇ the need to maintain BCAider, a knowledge based system that assists in checking building designs for compliance with the Building Code of Australia; ˇ continuing work in encoding of regulations in computer interpretable form; and ˇ the need for international glossaries to support information harmonisation efforts such as the IAI and STEP. The software suite under development assists people with some understanding of language structure and knowledge engineering in converting structured text into computer interpretable form using a visual user interface. The current state of the design and development of this software suite will be described and the results of its use presented.

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Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.retrieve (0.070694) class.analysis (0.045357) class.man-software (0.038615)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Dupagne A, Mathus P

CABMaS (Computer Aided Building Management System) :Development of an integrated computerised platform for the management of information flows adapted to small and medium size building companies

Abstract: The basic objectives of the CABMaS research project (EC-DG XII, BRITE-EURAM II, CRAFT) had been the definition and the organisation of a computer platform aimed at managing the information flows needed by the various actors involved in the numerous stages of the building process, from the first contact with the client to the final compliance checking. Efforts have been made to produce a set of computerised tools easily manageable by non-IT specialised users, supporting these different processes and managing their associated information. The SME involved in the project has specialised in single-family house production. It was highly concerned with its quality management and already had the ISO 9000 certification. Wishing to further improve the quality of its production process, this SME asked an evaluation of its internal information flows management so that to develop an integrated, coherent computerised solution to improve it. Information flows management was considered by the research team as a significant source of knowledge that could be used by the company to improve its production process. The information had thus to be stored as a dynamic knowledge base, of successful (and unsuccessful) past experiences. This knowledge base consists in an actual management support system, integrating the information coming from the many sub-groups of the SME. Thanks to the structure of the information system, concrete experiences coming from the working-place can be exploited by company's commercials at the early stage of the process to guarantee coherence between the client needs and the enterprise capabilities. The computer platform in its state of development is presently used in the company every day practice.

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Full text: content.pdf (85,812 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.020841) class.deployment (0.008502) class.standards (0.007280)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


E Ergen, A Dikbas,I Tekce, D Ilter, H Giritli, M Jablonski, A Kowalska

Investigation of price banks and life cycle inventoriesfor pan-European life cycle costanalysis system

Abstract: When comparing alternative strategies for a project, owners and users should not only consider the initial capital cost, but also the running costs which are incurred over its operating life. Total life cycle cost (LCC) is a recognized approach to identify the future total cost implications of individual building elements or the entire building in the future. However, as sustainability gained significance in the construction industry, it became clear that LCC is not the only the only factor to be considered. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of a building is also of great importance. LCA need to be performed to determine the effect of the construction and constructed structure on the environment (i.e., CO2 emission). To provide comparable LCC and LCA results and outputs, significant amount of work is needed to normalize data in existing sources. This paper describes the characteristics of the current databases that can be integrated with the Pan-European life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) system, which is an ongoing EU 7th framework CILECCTA (Construction Industry LifE Cycle Cost Analysis software) project. The goal of the CILECCTA project is to develop an online decision support system for assessment and identification sustainable and economic options for pan-European construction and renovation projects. This tool will provide comparable LCC and LCA results for different project options and assist users in selecting the most appropriate option. It will be compatible with various price banks which supply necessary data for LCC, and life cycle inventories (LCIs) that provide data for LCA across Europe and beyond. The tool will also allow for consideration of uncertainty (e.g., in design and functionality), which is inherent in construction, renovation and through life cycle of a structure. The objective of this paper is to describe the main characteristics (e.g., classification systems, data availability) of existing price banks and LCA databases in Europe.

Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment, Life Cycle Cost, Life Cycle Inventory, Price Bank

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Eastman C M

Conceptual modeling in architectural design

Abstract: This paper discusses conceptual design from the perspective of U.S. architectural practice. During the previous twenty years of computer-aided architectural design, the underlying paradigm has mimicked a paper-based technology. As a result, the computer has not significant- ly impacted conceptual design approaches. The future of design, however, is proposed to be in building modeling. A short review of building modeling is provided. Some prospects for conceptual design, based on building modeling and new technologies, are proposed

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Full text: content.pdf (3,703,624 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1988 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.impact (0.066621) class.environment (0.060648) class.synthesis (0.025265)
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Permission to reproduce these documents has been graciously provided by the Lund University and the Swedish Building Centre. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Per Christiansson and Prof. Henry Karlsson, is gratefully appreciated.


Eastman C, Augenbroe F

Product modeling strategies for today and the future

Abstract: Today, there is a growing set of technologies being developed for information exchange in the construction industry. These range from Aspect Models in specific product areas to large scale integrated product models, to new languages such as EXPRESS-X and EXPRESS-2. The purpose of this paper is to sort out and review these various efforts, from several different perspectives: * in terms of what can be used now or in the near future in a production form; * in terms of the significant technical issues and limitations that may require generation changes in exchange technologies; * in terms of external business practices (reflecting case studies), practical benchmarks and adoption criteria, political and other externalities that are affecting these efforts. The survey will review the following issues: * current capabilities of ISO-STEP Part definitions to support information exchange in the building industry; * current efforts by IAI, BCCM in STEP, and other parallel activities and their potential contribution and pitfalls (problems to be overcome); * different current research efforts and the problems and solutions they identify, including COMBINE, EDM-2, VEGA, work at CIFE at Stanford University. Hitherto underdeveloped model aspects, such as capturing the semantics of the client's brief, or capturing design evolution (program, decisions and rationale), modeling performance assessments, and others such as relevant standards, construction site handling, etceteras will be reviewed and priorities assessed. Over the last ten years, the set of requirements that a building product model must meet in order to be accepted in practice as a significant 'productivity enhancement has incrementally expanded. That is, as various research goals have been set, then met, the true extent of the challenge for realizing production-based building product modeling has grown. We will review this expanding set of requirements and attempt to scope their final range. These requirements include, among other aspects: * 'semantic coverage', * level of interoperability across applications, * level of embedded project management control, and * maintained linkages to parallel 'unstructured' information flows, e.g. managed by Engineering Data Management and Document Management software. It will be argued that a viable growth scenario regarding the semantic coverage of building models is likely to be a determining factor in the way that CAD vendors will embrace these as the basis for developing the next generation of architectural CAD software. Priorities of development will be identified and compared with perceived market pulls. The perspective taken will emphasize the US point of view. However, we will endeavor to also weight significantly the European situation and efforts. The result of these perspectives will be to identify 2-3 scenarios of future evolution in the area of building product modeling, with an assessment of their likelihood of coming to be, and the critical issues needed to accomplish them.

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Full text: content.pdf (86,802 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.store (0.031024) class.roadmaps (0.018975) class.strategies (0.018828)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Eduardo Toledo SANTOS, Rita Cristina FERREIRA

BUILDING DESIGN COORDINATION: COMPARING 2D AND 3D METHODS

Abstract: Coordination of Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing (MEP) systems among themselves and with the architectural, structural and other building systems is an important, challenging and time consuming task on the design phase of multistory buildings. Many researchers have already expressed a critical view on the most widely adopted coordination process, which makes use of transparent trade drawings overlapped on a light table for detecting conflicts. The use of a 2D CAD system is nothing but a direct replacement for paper drawings and light table, not considerably changing the method. The authors of this paper, like others, advocate the use of 3D CAD for the coordination process as a more apt tool for this spatial task. Two studies were conducted to compare the performance of a 2D CAD-based coordination method to that of a 3D CAD supported process, both in terms of efficiency and efficacy. Both methods used 2D CAD drawings as input but the three dimensional process required subsequent solid modeling of all relevant building systems. Even with this additional burden, the 3D-based method outperformed the traditional one. Results show its higher efficiency as there was a significant decrease in the time spent for detecting interferences during the development of a masonry production design in an experimental study. The higher number of conflicts revealed in the plumbing design for a multistory building demonstrated also its increased efficacy in a case study.

Keywords: design coordination, 2D CAD, 3D CAD, efficiency, efficacy

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Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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Edwards D J, Yang J, Love P E D

A Computer Based Software Tool for Assessing Plant Operatives' Productivity

Abstract: Developments in computer hardware and software have significantly influenced the accuracy of estimating and predicting construction productivity. To date, a plethora of unique computer software packages is readily available and these packages have helped to increase production and profitability whilst simultaneously reducing financial risk. This paper presents and describes the development of a new prototype Computer Based Software (CBS) human resource management tool, that can be used to assess a plant operative's potential productivity output. The CBS utilizes information extracted from a range of factors and variables that exhibit a significant correlation between machine production and operator attributes (for example, management practices and site conditions).

Keywords: computer software, productivity, plant operative, off-highway plant and equipment

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Series: itaec:2004 (browse)
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Ekaterina Petrova, Mai Brink Rasmussen, Rasmus Lund Jensen and Kjeld Svidt

Integrating Virtual Reality and BIM for End-User Involvement in Design: A Case Study

Abstract: The outcome of projects within Architecture, Engineering, and Construction is highly dependent on the quality of the collaboration between the involved actors. The end-users occupy the buildings on a daily basis, and therefore their involvement in the design process is essential to the output. However, traditional practices place the responsibility of decision-making mostly in the architectsÕ hands. Virtual Reality technologies coupled with Building Information Modelling have the potential to improve the collaboration and data visualization in the building design.This paper presents the findings from a case study on the integration of Building Information Modelling and Virtual Reality for user-centred participatory interior furnishing of a new university building. Besides a significant reduction in the time for generation of alternative proposals, the end results show an increased attachment of the employees to their future workplace and a high level of acceptance towards the technology. Finally, the authors present suggestions for further work, which could improve future design processes utilizing the Virtual Reality technology.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, Building Information Modelling, End-User Involvement, Interior Design, Participatory Design

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0266

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Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Elham Delzendeh and Song Wu

The Influence of Space Layout Design on OccupantÕs Energy Behaviour

Abstract: In the past 15 years, the calculation of energy consumption in buildings has become more and more critical due to growing scientific and political concerns to respond to the challenges of global warming and climate change. The estimation of energy demand in buildings is now often a required process during the design stages. Yet, there is a considerable discrepancy between the predicted and actual energy consumption in buildings due to occupantsÕ energy consumption activities. OccupantsÕ presence and their interactions with building systems play a significant role in buildingÕs energy consumption; however, it has been overlooked in building energy predictions. Different studies have been performed with the aim to better understand the parameters affecting occupantÕs energy behaviour with special focus on climatic, economics, regulations and social/personal aspects. Interior design of the space, too, has various impacts on behaviours of occupants and their interactions with building systems which affects the energy consumption of buildings. Space layout is a feature within interior design of space which influences occupantsÕ movement and choices of intentional behaviours. This paper highlights a gap in the knowledge by introducing Ōspace layoutĶ features as an influential factor on occupantÕs energy behaviours and propose an analytical method to study the impact of the space layout on occupantsÕ energy behaviours. Understanding the impact will help designers influence the sustainable behaviour through the design of interior spaces.

Keywords: Space Layout Design, Energy Consumption, OccupantÕs Behaviour

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0235

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Estacio Pereira, Sanguk Han and Simaan Abourizk

Integrated Data Analytics-Simulation Framework for Proactive Assessment of Safety Performance

Abstract: Although considerable advances in the proactive control of construction project risks have been reported, identification and assessment of safety-related measures on safety performance remains challenging. This has been attributed to (1) difficulties in data collection; in particular, establishing the number of safety-related measures required to assess their influence on safety performance and (2) difficulties addressing the dynamic nature of projects; in particular, how measures affect safety performance over time. This papers aims to address these issues by implementing a framework that integrates existing departmental data with simulation models to proactively assess and predict safety performance. The framework is composed of three main components. First, safety-related measures available in various departmental databases are identified; second, the relationship between safety performance and measures is analysed and indicators with significant influence are incorporated into the assessment model; and third, a simulation model that reproduces the behaviour of these measures is used to test various scenarios. As evidenced by the results of a case study, the framework proposed here can assist companies with the proactive development of risk-avoidance strategies, thereby improving safety performance.

Keywords: Conceptual Safety Performance, Prediction; Policy Making; Simulation; Historical Data

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0029

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