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A. Dikbas, P. Ercoskun & K. Ercoskun

Enabling Sustainability through SOA within the AEC/FM Domain

Abstract: Sustainability is one of the most important research topics for the Architecture/Engineering/Construction & Facility Management (AEC/FM) domain. Two basic factors which enable sustainability are the technology background and the acquisition capability of this technology to the end users – society. Sustainability requires state of the art technologies which reduce the negative impact of population and affiliation. Key aspects of such technology are; it should depend on renewable resources, without waste, cyclical, based on resource productivity rather than labor productivity, and should even be restorative in its effects on the biosphere. Theproblem is, today establishing such technology is not affordable for the average end user. Development, implication, and acquisition of such technologies takes reasonable time though signs from our earth warns usthat we have no more time. The problem itself contains a lot of interoperability challenges in Information Technology (IT), Process and Organizational levels. Although many governments deploy incentives to promote investments on sustainable technologies, money is not the only measure for the market penetration of a technology. A user oriented approach is developed and a proposal is made to elaborate on the problem as a whole within a reference process model. The model determines the key functions, mechanisms and controls, to enable the design and development of sustainable technologies and facilitate the acquisition of those technologies to the society. The process model basically focuses on the Facility Management processes and addresses many aspects of the problem including financial, legal, and ethical issues. The model benefits from Customer Relationship Management (CRM) solutions for construction sector from a previous research and promotes a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) for tracking the lifetime of sustainable technologies. The model includes decision support functions for the design phase, marketing and competency functions for the implication and acquisition phase, and measurement and evaluation functions for the use phase. The preliminary solution includes business processes rather then IT solutions but interoperability solutions on the IT layer also have been discussed for sustainable development. The model is under development within the joint efforts of a EU funded FP6 project I3CON (Industrialised, Integrated, Intelligent Construction) and a PhD research. It is believed that the model would facilitate the widespread recognition of the requirement of a radical switch to the sustainable technologies.

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Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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Blanca Quintana, Samuel A. Prieto, Antonio Adan and Frédéric Bosché

Scan-To-BIM for Small Building Components

Abstract: Scan-to-BIM works have so far mainly focused on 'structural' components such as floors, ceiling, walls (with doors and windows). But, the control of new facilities and the production of their corresponding as-is BIM models requires the identification and inspection of numerous other building components and objects, e.g. MEP components such as plugs, switches, ducts, and signs. In this paper, we present a novel 6D-based (XYZ + RGB) approach that processes dense coloured 3D points provided by terrestrial laser scanners to recognize such smaller objects that are commonly located on walls. This paper focuses on the recognition of objects such as sockets, switches, signs, and extinguishers. After segmenting the point clouds corresponding to the walls of a building, a set of candidate objects are detected independently in the colour and geometric spaces, and a consensus procedure integrates both results to infer recognition. The method has been tested on real indoors yielding promising results.

Keywords: Object Recognition, Scan-To-BIM, Automatic BIM, 3D Data Processing

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0139

Full text: content.pdf (1,613,364 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Ivan Mutis, Raja R.A. Issa, Ian Flood

Missing fundamental stratum of the current forms of the representation of concepts in construction

Abstract: The generation of concepts in the construction industry involves the interpretation of syntactically defined symbolic notations, such as logic, frames, semantic networks, natural language, and of other forms such as visual rep-resentations. These notations are deliberately organized to define concepts. Models as forms of representations are based on symbols that are aimed at referring to some entities of the world with properties and relations apprehended within them. Models involve grouping a set of relations, which characterize concepts, with the purpose of sharing and understanding these concepts by members of the community. However, models suffer the limitations that logic and the symbolic notations bear, because they cannot capture the richness of the phenomena of the world in their syntactic no-tation nor other intentionality features. Other forms of representations such as visual representations suffer the same limitations. An analysis of the nature of the representations employed in the construction industry suggests the inclusion of the ac-tor’s role in a new stratum for generating representations of construction concepts. This actor, who manipulates or generates the representation for communicating concepts, is committed to the intentionality aspects of the represented concept that are not captured in current forms of the representation. The inclusion of these and other phenomenological aspects concerning the nature of the representation are intended to generate representations for accurate interpreta-tions. The modus operandi with these representations indicates a subsequent interpretation by other actors or project participants. The inclusion of this stratum promises a significant progress in creating efficiency in interoperability on construction projects. The assumption is that the representations are cognitive manifestations of common, shared con-cepts employed by the construction industry community. This analysis is supported and developed through the semiotic theory which addresses the nature of the representations through signs and the role of agents with the representations and with the external physical domain. This study attempts to approximate semiotics as an experience that illustrates the reasoning process from external rep-resentations and the role of intentionality in employing external representations. This experience inquires about the form of the correspondence of the perceived, entity, event, and relations, or, in other words, a correspondence of a phe-nomenon in the world with the concept in the construction participant’s mind. In addition, the purpose of this experi-ence is to provide direction to the method of how semantics aspects should be understood to give interpretations for concepts employed in the construction industry.

Keywords: semiotics, construction concepts, representations, interpretation

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Koch C,König M,Neges M,Abramovici M

Performance study on natural marker detection for augmented reality supported facility maintenance

Abstract: The operation and maintenance phase is the longest and most expensive life-cycle period of building facilities. Operators need to perform activities to provide a comfortable living and working environment and to upkeep equipment to prevent functionality failures. For that purpose they manually browse, sort and select dispersed and unformatted facility information before actually going on the site. Although some software tools have been introduced they still spent 50% of the on-site work on inspection target localization and navigation. To improve these manual, time consuming and tedious procedures, the authors previously presented a framework that uses BIM-based Augmented Reality (AR) to support facility maintenance tasks. The proposed workflow contains AR supported activities, namely AR-based indoor navigation and AR-based maintenance instructions. An inherent problem of AR is marker definition and detection. As introduced, indoor natural markers such as exit signs, fire extinguisher location signs, and appliances’ labels were identified to be suitable for both navigation and maintenance instructions. However, small markers, changing lighting conditions, low detection frame rates and accuracies might prevent the proposed approach from being practical. In this paper the performance of natural marker detection will be evaluated under different configurations, varying marker types, marker sizes, camera resolutions, and lighting conditions. The detection performance will be measured using a pre-defined metric incorporating detection accuracy, tracking quality, frame rates, and robustness. The result will be a set of recommendations on what configurations are most suitable and practical within the given framework.

Keywords: Augmented Reality,Facility Maintenance,Natural Markers,Building Information Modeling,Detection Performance

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Mary Bazire, Charles Tijus, Patrick Brézillon, Brigitte Cambon de Lavalette

Modeling Drivers Decision-Making Processess From Road Signs

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Full text: content.pdf (1,127,928 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2006 (browse)
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Q Sun, S Wu

A crowd movement and behaviour observe tool with configurable individual agents to support building layout design and event plan

Abstract: This paper presents a configurable simulation tool that can simulate crowd movement and behaviour in real time. The tool has three main features: (1) demonstrate the impact of altering building layout (e.g. size of gates, positions of corridors); (2) highlight the effects on crowd behaviour and movement by varying the crowd composition; (3) demonstrate the influence of different external factors (e.g. signs, guide people) on crowd behaviour. The simulation results can be used to help improve building layout design or optimise navigation plans. This tool takes the multi-agent system approach to build a crowd model. Each agent represents an intelligent individual in the crowd and has a unique set of parameters to distinguish it from others. Agent conducts its behaviour by combining basic steering behaviours. Steering behaviours contain steering forces that are calculated by considering surroundings (including crowd and environment objects) as well as individual parameters. All of parameters and steering behaviours are configurable in order to fine-tune the crowd and environment to fit various scenarios. Crowd are formed through interaction and collaboration between agents and environment. Crowd movement and behaviour can be observed from the real time simulator. By altering building structure layout, composition of crowd and navigation plans, crowd movement and behaviour will change accordingly. Such observations and results will provide useful feedbacks to designers and planners.

Keywords: Crowd simulation, Multi-agent system, Crowd behaviour, Decision support

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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U. M. Mbanaso, G. S. Cooper, Y. Rezgui, M. Wetherill, S. C. Boddy

Secure dynamic web services composition in the context of construction e-purchasing

Abstract: Service-Oriented Architectures based on Web Services are promising to revolutionize the implementation of open and dynamic transactions in many industries, including construction. However, the application of the technol-ogy is raising new security and privacy challenges. One aspect to be addressed in dealing with the security issues is user authorization. Traditionally, authorization systems tend to be unilateral in the sense that the service provider as-signs the access rights and makes the authorization decision, and there is no negotiation between the client and the ser-vice provider. Trust negotiation builds on this through the gradual release of remotely issued credentials to service providers. However, this is not sufficient where strict privacy governance is a requirement, particularly where the communicating parties have no pre-existing direct trust relationship. This paper addresses some of the security issues in Web Services composition in the context of construction e-purchasing. The framework presented in this paper allows Service Providers and Service clients to dynamically exchange security requirements and capabilities to determine how they can share their e-resources. We describe some applications of these concepts and show how they can be integrated into a Web Services environment for construction epurchasing.

Keywords: SOA, open and dynamic transactions, authorization decision, access rights, trust relationship

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Full text: content.pdf (309,390 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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V Balali, M Golparvar-Fard

Video-Based Detection and Classification of US Traffic Signs and Mile Markers using Color Candidate Extraction and Feature-Based Recognition

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Full text: content.pdf (310,545 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2014 (browse)
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White J, Bouchlaghem D, Thorpe A

The industrial implementation of VR: lessons from Japan

Abstract: "Virtual reality (VR) allows the interactive real-time viewing of 3D building models and can greatly facilitate the process of visualising, evaluating and communicating new building designs. Though its use has been widely researched by the academic community, the transfer of VR techniques into industry has been slow. To accelerate the rate of industrial adoption the experience of leading industrial users can be analysed through cross-industry and cross-cultural comparisons. This paper considers the computer-aided design (CAD) and VR use of three large Japanese housebuilders using a multiple case study approach. Interviews were conducted with the housebuilders on a study visit to Japan in June 1999 and the findings of the study are contextualised to provide a greater understanding of the constraints and opportunities for VR implementation, through comparison with the use of CAD and VR in British housebuilding. It was found that advanced 3D CAD and VR techniques are being used extensively in the Japanese housebuilding sector of the construction industry. Unlike in Britain, VR models are used to aid in the house design or customisation process in consultation with the customer, and are created before the customer signs the contract. Uptake of VR and the integration of VR use into the existing company structures and practices have been faster in Japan than in other countries and the reasons for this are considered. The wider implications of the findings for the future industrial use of VR in the construction industry are discussed, and the paper concludes by setting out the lessons that can be learnt from Japan for the promotion of industrial use of VR within the international construction industry."

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Full text: content.pdf (261,524 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.deployment (0.037577) class.synthesis (0.029055) class.communication (0.019752)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


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