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M Laasonen, M Heinisuo, J Outinen, E Lehtimäki, D Pada

Planning environments of structures in fire

Abstract: The design of structures in fire has usually been based on ISO standard fires. For higher quality design the real situation should be analysed more carefully. This would improve the safety level of the structures and in many cases help avoid redundant fire protections. The method discussed in this paper is the natural fire design documented by [DIFISEK, 2005] where the gas temperatures are based on simulations of realistic natural fires. Fire simulations in this study are done using the FDS program by NIST. The method follows the European standard [EN, 2005] but the design process is still complex. The same building parts should perform smoothly in four different tasks: product modeling, fire simulation, heat transfer from gas to structures, and structural analysis. The utilization of building information models as initial data of fire simulation has been described e.g. in [Dimyadi et al., 2007] and in [Heinisuo et al., 2009]. This paper discusses how different kinds of structural analysis programs can be integrated to the design process and what requirements those programs set for data transfer. The final goal of the research is practical structural design for entire buildings in fire. In this phase, especially fire simulations need computation time but, for example, accurate and continuum finite element models will not be used for the entire building because of the laborious generation and analysis of the model. The most suitable solutions found so far include structural analysis programs where the members can be modeled as one-dimensional elements, beam elements. The heat transfer from gas to members is solved in the analysis program by applying Eurocode rules. At present, no standard data transfer form used in building projects includes all the entity data needed in these tasks. Very different data are needed in the analysis than, for example, in using continuum models for members.

Keywords: BIM, natural fire design, steel structures

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Full text: content.pdf (375,154 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Maliopaard C B, Swets H L

Conceptual modlling of building

Abstract: In spite of the important role of the construction industry in the Dutch economy this industry has been relatively slow in applying the powor o f modern computing and communication to improve its efficiency. An initiative has been made (?) government and the construction industries to improve this situation. Although there are some bottle - necks , there is now a strong movement in Holland focussed on the decisionmaking process, the information process and the automation process in the construction industry: "IOP-bouw."

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Full text: content.pdf (1,373,198 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1988 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.048015) class.communication (0.016078) class.social (0.011043)
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Permission to reproduce these documents has been graciously provided by the Lund University and the Swedish Building Centre. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Per Christiansson and Prof. Henry Karlsson, is gratefully appreciated.


Masih R

Lift slab structures instability during construction

Abstract: Lift slab structures are built in a method, which makes them inherently vulnerable to static and dynamic instability during the construction stages. The columns cannot be laterally braced in the areas, where temporarily anchored slabs are to be lifted to higher levels, because the bracing will make the lifting process of the slabs to higher level impossible. Thus the columns will stay long and slender above the anchored slabs until the shear walls are built at the lower levels, This situation requires the checking of the whole structure above the shear walls for its stability against its own load. A formula was derived to help in checking the stability of such structures, based on the number of slabs, anchored temporarily at different levels, the distances between those anchored groups and the rigidity of the columns. A computer program was written to enable the construction process envision the critical situation which may cause instability.

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Full text: content.pdf (248,810 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software-machine (0.005220) class.software-software (0.005116)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Miklós Molnár, Ronny Andersson, Anders Ekholm

Benefits of ICT in the construction industry – characterization of the present situation in house-building processes

Abstract: Departing from the hypothesis that R&D within ICT plays an essential role in the transformation of the construction sector from a traditional to an industrialised process, a joint Swedish and French project has been carried out (to be completed in April 2007) to assess the short and medium term possibilities to improve efficiency and quality in multi-storey house-building. This paper describes today’s use of ICT (situation as-is) in Swedish multi-storey house-building projects and identifies a number of key development areas. The research was carried out through steps includ-ing statistical analyses of market data, a case study, a survey with active developers working with R&D in the field of ICT and workshops with construction industry representatives and researchers. Typically, Swedish multi-storey house-building projects are carried out as isolated projects, involving 15 designers, 20 subcontractors and 40 material suppliers. Relations between most of the project participants are ad-hoc. ICT-use is regulated by the architect’s CAD manual regarding layer structures, routines for information exchange during design, use of a project network, hardware, software and filing. 2D CAD is the predominant design tool. ICT is widely used for administrative purposes, especially by the large contractors. Information transfer between participants in and between different stages of the project is inefficient and redundant information is created. Transfer of information is often car-ried out manually. Computer aided design, interoperability, virtual reality, cooperation and ICT-policies, the product definition process, use of systems products, quantity take-off and reuse of experience are identified as development areas where ICT can play an important role to improve productivity and quality. Highest potential to achieve improvement by immediate uptake is attributed by the survey persons to computer aided design, interoperability and reuse of experience. A time span of 2 - 5 years is needed to obtain benefits by more efficient cooperation and ICT-policies and rational quantity take-off.

Keywords: construction processes, house-building, industrialization, information and communication technology (ICT)

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Murray M, Lai A

The integrated use of information technology in the construction industry

Abstract: Over the last 12 months the use of IT in global business has started to move from the theoretically possible to reality. Large sums of venture capital have been invested, and lost, in e-business with the establishment of business-to-business portals, company web sites for information dissemination and sharing and other initiatives. In the construction industry large construction companies are starting to cooperate in setting up procurement web-sites but the general situation is one of fragmentation: IT is used on a task-specific basis as apposed to in an integrated manner by the various professions within the industry. In this paper the authors will report on IT tools available, and in use, along the design – construction production chain: by surveyors, consulting engineers, quantity surveyors, owners, property developers, contractors and subcontractors. It is argued that, with the development of powerful web sites, it will shortly be possible to integrate available software on a project by project basis, leading to increased time and cost efficiency in the construction cycle. Finally, it is pointed out that since IT is a knowledge-based global activity requiring relatively little capital investment there is no reason why African countries shouldn’t quickly join the construction IT revolution.

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Full text: content.pdf (379,619 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.collaboration (0.057490) class.commerce (0.028674) class.strategies (0.017391)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


N Riediger, K Laube, W Huhnt & B Kochendörfer

WEB-Services as a Technology to Support Construction Processes

Abstract: Construction projects are characterised by specific peculiarities so that the processes for the execution of construction projects need to be prepared and setup individually for each project. However, a lot of tasks are executed in similar ways in different projects. The knowledge of executing these tasks can be transferred from project to project whereas the context and the interaction between tasks may differ. The approach presented in this paper reflects the situation in dealing with construction processes and discusses WEB-services as a suitable technology to support the processes. The idea is to support specific tasks by WEB-services. These services are implemented once. The tasks that are supported by these WEB-services may occur in different projects. This is expressed in an individual process model for each project. Based on the relationships between tasks and WEB-services, an individual information system for each project can be customised on the basis of the process model.

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Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Newton S,Lowe R,Kember R,Wang R,Davey S

The Situation Engine: a hyper-immersive platform for construction workplace simulation and learning

Abstract: The prospect of being able to place an individual within an entirely interactive, simulated environment has long been held, but only recently is it being realized. Flight simulators were the first to provide a hyper-immersive experience using a combination of very detailed and accurate models of aircraft systems, high-resolution visualization and motion platforms. More recently, advanced video game technologies have been coupled with augmented reality systems and sophisticated tracking technologies to provide hyper-immersive experiences of battlefield conditions, crime scenes, operating theatres, industrial processes, etc. A key problem for developers of any hyper-immersive environment is the significant overhead costs of modeling, programming, display technologies and motion simulation. The Situation Engine is an application platform that provides for specific and managed building and construction experience to be made available using low-cost, advanced digital technologies. The same engine can drive a multitude of learning situations. Multiple users collectively occupy the same simulated workplace but experience that situation individually by individual movement through the space. Head tracking, gesture recognition, voice communication, 3D head-mounted displays, location-based sound and embedded learning resources have all been incorporated into the Situation Engine at minimal cost. The total enabling technology cost per participant is currently around $600 Australian. This paper will focus on the hyper-immersive nature of the Situation Engine. In particular, the distinction between immersion (as a quantitative measure of sensory fidelity) and presence (as a qualitative perception of ‘being there’) will be articulated and clarified. The paper also highlights one of the various ways in which hyper-immersion is manifested in the Situation Engine: gestural control. Gestural control has been implemented using a Microsoft Kinect™ and proprietary gesture detection algorithms to monitor a range of gestures in parallel, including gestures that are context dependent.

Keywords: Simulation,Hyper-Immersion,Cost,Situation Engine,Gestural Control

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Nollau C, Hauser M, Scherer R J

Information retrieval - a concept of an engineering database server for prefabricated elements

Abstract: A concept for an engineering database server for retrieving information on the use of prefabricated elements will be discussed. The methods for the re-use of design solutions stored in this structural library are based on database technologies for a client-server architecture and advanced concepts of object-oriented modelling techniques. The objective is to optimise the cognitive effort in the early design stage by actively supporting the choice and adaptation of a structural solution depending on the constraints of the design situation. Because of the great number of prefabricated concrete slab floors used in construction we have chosen this very promising domain to demonstrate our model.

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Full text: content.pdf (59,694 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1996 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.037184) class.retrieve (0.033616) class.software development (0.025024)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Ljubljana. The assistance of the editor, Prof. Ziga Turk, is gratefully appreciated.


Pascal M Ojwaka

Structural framework for assessment of fac-tors influencing the serviceability of facilities

Abstract: Assessment and control require a gauge or a scale to relate processes to results in order to evaluate the strategies adopted and to enable effective variations to be made. Assessment is a requisite to effective and efficient management. A firm needs to be able to gauge the immediate and a future impact of its decisions and strategies. Assessment is needed to enable structural adjustments to a business whenever it is expedient. Both long term and short term assessment should encompass all aspects of activities in a firm. This means that the facilities needed to implement the strategies should be considered along with the traditional functions of management. The assessment framework considers many factors including selecting the right qualities to assess and also making the assessment right. A good classification and structuring of the source information is needed to give a total picture of facilities and hence enable an effective management brought about by total control of the situation. This study examines and models factors that define suitability and viability of facilities and proposes an assessment framework. It is envisaged that the results of this study will enable a better understanding of facilities management and its related use as a tool towards the bigger goal of portfolio management.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,303,223 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.impact (0.045071) class.environment (0.039226) class.strategies (0.023921)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


Pe?a-Mora F, Craig M

AVSAR: a collaboration system for disaster search and rescue operations using autonomous vehicles

Abstract: The disaster relief community is increasingly focused on issues of critical physical infrastructure in search and rescue operations. As the disaster relief and civil engineering community attempts to expand its abilities in this arena, it is being confronted with constraints related to manpower, risks to human personnel, and system stability. The community can address these barriers by integrating autonomous vehicles and intelligent software agents into its traditionally human elements. The military has been actively pursuing this goal in order to minimize human casualties and expand its functionality, and a technology transfer to the disaster arena would be greatly beneficial. The transition from the military to the disaster relief community is a logical step because of the great number of similarities between the two areas. Both are concerned with operations carried out in hostile, chaotic environments, where many participants from different areas of expertise collaborate to reach an objective, and both are constrained by the quality of intercommunication and the effectiveness of their equipment. Experience gained by the military in the field of autonomous vehicles has shown that while the ratio of autonomous vehicles to humans remains low, there is little trouble in directly controlling these vehicles as personnel can be dedicated to this task alone. However, as the number of autonomous vehicles increases to include personal human assistants and entire teams of vehicles, the task of control and collaboration becomes increasingly difficult. To date, most autonomous vehicle control work has been done with a one-to-one structure where one human controls one vehicle. While this works well when the vehicles are relatively simple and the number of vehicles is small, it does not translate well into the ideal situation of large populations of complex autonomous vehicles. Under these circumstances, intelligent software agents, residing both on the autonomous vehicles and on the communication devices, are needed to handle the task of distributed decision-making. This autonomous decision making ability is particularly critical for the cases where the autonomous vehicles fall out of contact with their human commanders or remote experts such as geotechnical, structural, and earthquake engineers. This paper examines past work done for and by the military in the area of autonomous vehicle systems and examines its application to the field of disaster relief involving critical physical infrastructures. It then presents a system that meets the needs of a combined human - intelligent software agent - autonomous vehicle SR (Search and Rescue) team, operating on critical physical infrastructure in an unstable and hostile environment. The collaboration infrastructure includes an information policy layer and a client application layer that address the need for inter-user communication and flexible command structures, which can be dynamically arranged to meet the situational need.

Keywords: collaborative environments, disaster relief, search and rescue, autonomous vehicles, intelligent software agents, self-organization, control structures, information policy

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Series: itaec:2004 (browse)
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