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Charles Woodward, Jani Lahti, Jukka Rönkkö, Petri Honkamaa, Mika Hakkarainen, Jani Jäppinen, Kari Rainio, Sanni Siltanen, Jouko Hyväkkä

Case digitalo – a range of virtual and augmented reality solutions in construction application

Abstract: We describe a range of Virtual and Augmented Reality (VR/AR) solutions applied during the planning and construction of VTT’s new head offices, the Digitalo (“Digital House”) in Espoo, Finland. During the building phase as well as in later evaluations 2003-2006, the various approaches used for Digitalo’s visualisation included: radiosity rendering by still images; immersive virtual reality visualisation; mobile outdoors augmenting; augmented scale model; augmented web camera; 3D landscapes; and interior design by means of virtual and augmented reality. We employed various display devices ranging from HMD video glasses to CAVE screens, and from PDA’s to varying kinds of PC solutions. Some of our solutions, for example the augmented web camera and scale model systems, have not been previously presented and they appear here for the first time. Also, we describe the current status of the applied methods, as well as directions for future research. Altogether, we believe this case study to be among the most comprehensive ones in the world to include such a wide variety VR/AR techniques applied in a single building project.

Keywords: virtual reality, augmented reality, CAVE, HMD, web cameras, mobile computing, feature detection, markers, tracking, tangible user interfaces

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Christiansson P, Dawood N, Svidt K

Virtual buildings (VB) and tools to manage construction process operations

Abstract: Previous and current research and commercial activities within the virtual building area indicate that models are being developed to test and simulate different aspects of the building, but never being used to manage construction projects. This paper formulates visions and outlines solutions for how building process data can be used to represent and co-ordinate meta level digital virtual building models, generate construction site process models, capture as-built data from construction process, and handle external supplier information. A crucial part of the VB is the Project Management System (PMS), which is designed to manage the information input/output of the proposed virtual building and external processes. The PMS is outlined and specified in the paper according to functionality, part of user environment, and structure and underlying digital representations. The outlined framework will include IT-tools as temporal databases, semantic web technology and emerging web services. The PMS will support practical integration of partly redundant building product and process descriptions, improve capturing of as-built data to raise quality of the construction process and subsequent building use and maintenance, contribute to development of unified high (meta) level building process descriptions, and support project experience capturing and re-use.

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Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.collaboration (0.020621) class.roadmaps (0.019436) class.processing (0.017539)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Christiansson P

Properties of the virtual building

Abstract: The paper discusses properties of future digital Virtual Buildings from the client, design, construction and operation and maintenance perspectives. In this context the author defines a Virtual Building as "a formalized digital description of an existing or planned building which can be used to fully simulate and communicate the behavior of the real building in its expected contexts".The paper focuses on: (1) requirements formulations of future Virtual Building models, (2) the necessity and possibilities to build redundant, overlapping descriptions of buildings and (3) why and how formal temporal building process properties may be included in the descriptions. The author believes that it is not possible or desirable to create a single non-redundant model to represent a building from concept to demolition. In this discussion an account is also taken of the influences of meta level information models, dependencies between multimedia presentation and application model views, the introduction of platformindependent Internet-based solutions, and the IT-support tools in future intelligent and responsive buildings.

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Full text: content.pdf (312,166 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.social (0.025760) class.communication (0.024143) class.roadmaps (0.018838)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Claudio Mirarchi, Daniela Pasini, Alberto Pavan and Bruno Daniotti

Automated IFC-Based Processes in the Construction Sector: A Method for Improving the Information Flow

Abstract: One of the main challenges in the implementation of BIM-based processes concerns interoperability issues. In fact, even if IFC format is recognised as an ISO standard, different barriers and problems are often encountered in IFC adoption. Generally, obstacles are due to the difficulty of users in personalising import and export options of IFC formats in BIM authoring tools with the consequent possibility of information loss.The paper presents a method for improving the information flow, based on the connection of information stored in IFC files and in external databases through automated processes. Therefore, information concerning one single project can be stored in BIModels and linked to external sources or, conversely, referred from external databases to objects in BIModels.Benefits deriving from the adoption of the proposed solutions concern the limited size of BIModels, the possibility to store information not considered in the IFC schema, and the reduction of IT skills required to building operators for exchanging information in an interoperable way.

Keywords: Building Information Modelling, Sharing Data, Interoperability, IFC

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0274

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Conheeney K, Stephenson P, Griffiths A

Issues in knowledge transfer within a construction training and learning organisation

Abstract: "Knowledge transfer with domains such as the construction industry will become increasingly important. Essentially 'transfer' involves the sharing of 'best-practice' between the minority of experienced experts and the majority of those people as recipients. Some means of capturing this information and then applying this to a problem context defines the 'knowledge' component. Three pragmatic issues to the delivery of a variable knowledge transfer system are required and should include the collection, structuring and transferring of information. This paper identifies the issues concerned and the need to establish solutions for a construction training and learning organisation. Particular issues addressed include indexing and the use of XML language for the interchange and sharing of data, and the capture of XML structures within a relational schema for comparisons and queries. Additionally, mechanisms for establishing navigational trails are considered with neural networking for the building of knowledge domain structures for continued extension and navigation in knowledge transfer. The need to take into account organisational and market culture is significant to provide value information and the trade of information. The issues highlighted and discussed indicate a need for manual (human) and automated (neural) processing for the collection, structuring and transfer of information to promote the learning organisation concept, and to provide the opportunity for knowledge utilisation within an organisational environment."

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Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.bestPractise (0.171597) class.education (0.135365) class.analysis (0.042236)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Crina Oltean-Dumbrava and Richard Ashley

Assessing The Relative Sustainability Of Management Solutions Using Multi-Criteria Techniques

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Series: w78:2006 (browse)
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D. Ye & T. Froese

A Unified Construction Project Management Arena

Abstract: To address the severe problem of information fragmentation in the construction industry, significant effort has gone into developing information interoperability techniques based on shared project data models. As a result, a wide range of software applications are able to exchange project information, resulting in significant efficiency and coordination improvements. Here, we extend this trend further, exploring the role of an information integrator system that allows users to work directly with the combined set of project information. An information integrator would work in conjunction with traditional applications, allowing users to create user-defined, multi-dimensional data views from the combined project data model, tailored to suit the needs of specific work tasks. In this way, users can maximize the benefit of the combined data model and enhance their ability to deal with the data interdependencies. This paper presents a technical framework for an information integrator for construction project management. It describes the requirements and technical solutions to achieve the necessary integration and flexibility at three layers of system architecture: the data layer, the application logic layer, and the presentation layer. Finally, it describes a prototype information integrator system called the Unified Construction Project Management Arena.

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Dado E, Tolman F P

Next generation integrated on-site applications for the construction industry

Abstract: "This paper presents the implementation and some early results of an integrated system for different site applications like space planning, site layout and work simulation. This integrated system is based on a proposed information model for on-site construction [1]. In [2] we presented an overview of the state of the art of computer usage and application integration for on-site activity support in the Construction Industry. The main conclusion was that only occasionally company and vendor specific solutions are being used and that these solutions only provide integration for one or maybe two specific application area(s). In most cases on-site application integration is not available. In [1] we also looked into the current state of the art of ICT usage in Product Data Technology. We then observed that most approaches were limited to a static modelling approach based on file transfer. From our perception of the industry's needs it seems clear that a dynamic modelling approach is needed. The dynamic model described in [1] has been implemented using state of the art ICT and is now applied in the development of a small number of integrated applications. The paper will explain the advantages of the approach and show some early results. [1] Dado, E. and Tolman, F.P.: 'Proposal for an Integrated Information Model for Concurrent Engineering of On-Site Construction', Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Concurrent Engineering in Construction, 1999, Finland. [2] Dado, E. and Tolman, F.P.: 'State of the Art of Construction Site Application Integration"", Proceedings of the Second European Conference on Product and Process Modelling in the Construction Industry, 1998, England."

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Full text: content.pdf (358,174 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-man (0.027353) class.represent (0.020009) class.bestPractise (0.019145)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


De Grassi M, Giretti A, Caneparo L, Mecca S

Teaching construction in the virtual university: the WINDS project

Abstract: "This paper introduces some of the Information Technology solutions adopted in Web based INtelligent Design Support (WINDS) to support education in A/E/C design. The WINDS project WINDS is an EC-funded project in the 5th Framework, Information Society Technologies programme, Flexible University key action. WINDS is divided into two actions: ·The research technology action is going to implement a learning environment integrating an intelligent tutoring system, a computer instruction management system and a set of co-operative supporting tools. ·The development action is going to build a large knowledge base supporting Architecture and Civil Engineering Design Courses and to experiment a comprehensive Virtual School of Architecture and Engineering Design. During the third year of the project, more than 400 students all over Europe will attend the Virtual School. During the next three years the WINDS project will span a total effort of about 150 man-years from 28 partners of 10 European countries. The missions of the WINDS project are: Advanced Methodologies in Design Education. WINDS drives a breakdown with conventional models in design education, i.e. classroom or distance education. WINDS implements a problem oriented knowledge transfer methodology following Roger Schank’s Goal Based Scenario (GBS) pedagogical methodology. GBS encourages the learning of both skills and cases, and fosters creative problem solving. Multidisciplinary Design Education. Design requires creative synthesis and open-end problem definition at the intersection of several disciplines. WINDS experiments a valuable integration of multidisciplinary design knowledge and expertise to produce a high level standard of education. Innovative Representation, Delivery and Access to Construction Education. WINDS delivers individual education customisation by allowing the learner access through the Internet to a wide range of on-line courses and structured learning objects by means of personally tailored learning strategies. WINDS promotes the 3W paradigm: learn What you need, Where you want, When you require. Construction Practice. Construction industry is a repository of ""best practices"" and knowledge that the WINDS will profit. WINDS system benefits the ISO10303 and IFC standards to acquire knowledge of the construction process directly in digital format. On the other hand, WINDS reengineers the knowledge in up-to-date courses, educational services, which the industries can use to provide just-in-time rather than in-advance learning. WINDS IT Solutions The missions of the WINDS project state many challenging requirements both in knowledge and system architecture. Many of the solutions adopted in these fields are innovative; others are evolution of existing technologies. This paper focuses on the integration of this set of state-of-the-art technologies in an advanced and functionally sound Computer Aided Instruction system for A/E/C Design. In particular the paper deals with the following aspects: Standard Learning Technology Architecture The WINDS system relies on the in progress IEEE 1484.1 Learning Technology Standard Architecture. According to this standard the system consists of two data stores, the Knowledge Library and the Record Database, and four process: System Coach, Delivery, Evaluation and the Learner. WINDS implements the Knowledge Library into a three-tier architecture: 1.Learning Objects: ·Learning Units are collections of text and multimedia data. ·Models are represented in either IFC or STEP formats. ·Cases are sets of Learning Units and Models. Cases are noteworthy stories, which describes solutions, integrate technical detail, contain relevant design failures etc. 2.Indexes refer to the process in which the identification of relevant topics in design cases and learning units takes place. Indexing process creates structures of Learning Objects for course management, profile planning procedures and reasoning processes. 3.Courses are taxonomies of either Learning Units or a design task and Course Units. Knowledge Representation WINDS demonstrates that it is possible and valuable to integrate a widespread design expertise so that it can be effectively used to produce a high level standard of education. To this aim WINDS gathers area knowledge, design skills and expertise under the umbrellas of common knowledge representation structures and unambiguous semantics. Cases are one of the most valuable means for the representation of design expertise. A Case is a set of Learning Units and Product Models. Cases are noteworthy stories, which describe solutions, integrate technical details, contain relevant design failures, etc. Knowledge Integration Indexes are a medium among different kind of knowledge: they implement networks for navigation and access to disparate documents: HTML, video, images, CAD and product models (STEP or IFC). Concept indexes link learning topics to learning objects and group them into competencies. Index relationships are the base of the WINDS reasoning processes, and provide the foundation for system coaching functions, which proactively suggest strategies, solutions, examples and avoids students’ design deadlock. Knowledge Distribution To support the data stores and the process among the partners in 10 countries efficiently, WINDS implements an object oriented client/server as COM objects. Behind the DCOM components there is the Dynamic Kernel, which dynamically embodies and maintains data stores and process. Components of the Knowledge Library can reside on several servers across the Internet. This provides for distributed transactions, e.g. a change in one Learning Object affects the Knowledge Library spread across several servers in different countries. Learning objects implemented as COM objects can wrap ownership data. Clear and univocal definition of ownerships rights enables Universities, in collaboration with telecommunication and publisher companies, to act as “education brokers”. Brokerage in education and training is an innovative paradigm to provide just-in-time and personally customised value added learning knowledge."

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Full text: content.pdf (417,738 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.education (0.088602) class.deployment (0.042591) class.bestPractise (0.035370)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Debras P, Rezgui Y

Software systems for the integration of documentary engineering within a construction project

Abstract: Numerous documents of diverse nature are involved in the construction process. Some of them such as building codes, examples of technical solutions, computation rules, define the legal context of a project. Others like technical specification documents or bills of quantities are generated by the engineering activities and often have a contractual importance. Quality of the laters may be measured by their coherency with the regulation, with the documents previously approved, but also by their coherency with the construction project itself through the absence of errors, omissions or redundancies. Once elaborated, these documents should also prove ability to be used by various actors with specific needs or requests. We describe here our approach to manage the production of these documents in tight connection with the engineering entities describing a construction project. Such a connection is based on a conceptual model of the project through its various systems and entities as proposed within the STEP framework. Such a connection relies also on a formal representation of the documents, practically SGML Document Type Definitions, and on a set of document templates linked to the construction project model and from which the project documents will be derived :from a global set of documentary items, we will only retain the relevant sections towards a given project. Then we present a software platform we develop to operate such an approach. This platform encompasses various modules taking in charge the elaboration of project data models according to the Express-G methodology, supporting the production of SGML DTDs and associated documents templates, providing some frames and facilities to link the project model and the document templates.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,572,450 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.legal (0.045495) class.store (0.018764) class.synthesis (0.017579)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


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