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Xiangyu Wang, Maaike Kleinsmann, Jingyu Chen

Understanding collaboration: industrial design versus constructability review

Abstract: Constructability review is frequently mentioned as solutions to industry-wide problems of improving de-sign efficiency and reducing construction errors. Despite numerous attempts to conduct constructability review, few practical implementations can be found in construction industry today. Inspired by the efforts of industrial researchers in investigating the collaborative aspects of integrated industrial design, the collaboration aspects in constructability review process (CRP) should be well addressed in order to fulfill the promises of constructability review. The study presented in this paper attempts to gain a better understanding of the collaborative process among parties from differ-ent disciplines in CRP. Insights and knowledge learned from highly integrated industrial design are transferred to con-structability review domain to gain better understanding of the collaborative interfaces, and the barriers and enablers that influence the creation of shared understanding among different parties. This paper also formulates a method for empirical study of the collaborative aspects in CRP. Future work is to conduct case studies on industrial CRP with the developed method.

Keywords: collaboration, enablers, barriers, interface, constructability review process, empirical study

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Full text: content.pdf (228,933 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Y Deshpande, H Leslie

ONTOLOGY-BASED SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND DISTRIBUTED INFORMATION MANAGEMENT IN THE AEC-FM INDUSTRY

Abstract: Decision-making in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction and Facility Management (AEC-FM) industry is highly distributed across individuals, organizations, national economies, and over a full facility lifecycle measured in decades. Information management in this environment presents problems to all concerned - the practitioners themselves, manufacturers and suppliers, regulators and even clients and users. For the AEC-FM industry, given its size, information management needs to be tackled through an orchestrated set of modest initiatives leading to a distributed set of interactive components– each able to function independently while serving the larger needs of the industry. A companion paper identifies and deals with three major levels at which the problems have to be solved. The top level is ontological and looks at how the industry might develop and maintain an agreed way of identifying and describing the entities about which data are accessed, processed and exchanged by its decision-makers. The second level is concerned with how this controlled vocabulary can be used to identify and make application specific resources (information, products, materials, and ICT tools) available to the project decision maker. The third level is concerned with making the resources from the other two levels available to support distributed decision-making. Ontology-based Software Engineering is a recent phenomenon wherein the development approach varies from creating more general tools to domain specific solution strategies. This paper reports on a prototype software package applicable at the top, industry-wide level, which demonstrates the feasibility and the desirability of ontological solutions specifically for the AEC-FM sector. The outcome could become part of infrastructure for sector-wide application development.

Keywords: Performance-based project data, Product/Process data management, Ontologies, Ontology-based Software Engineering, ICT, BIM

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Full text: content.pdf (189,151 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Y. Ji, A. Borrmann, E. Rank, J. Wimmer & W. A. Günthner

An Integrated 3D Simulation Framework for Earthwork Processes

Abstract: The paper presents a framework that helps in the planning and analysis of earthwork processes in infrastructure construction projects by applying simulation techniques. In contrast to existing solutions, the framework presented here makes it possible to retrieve all the information required to run the simulation in an automatic way from a holistic 3D model that integrates the 3D roadway model, the 3D surface model and the 3D subsoil model. The most important information needed to simulate earthwork processes are the location and the quantity of cut and fill sections. To generate this data, a computational method has been developed that applies a voxelization to the merged 3D model. The result is a large set of cubes, each of which possesses a dedicated position and material. This mass haul data is much more fine-grained than that used in traditional approaches and forms an excellent basis for performing a detailed earthwork process simulation. The employed simulation engine which is based on the discrete-events paradigm, serves to describe entities such as diggers and trucks, their behaviour (e.g. digger fills truck) and the time required for an atomic process step (to fill a truck, for instance). The result of the simulation is a set of detailed information on the utilization ratio of the employed resources and the time required for completing the entire earthwork project. This allows the user to identify bottlenecks and slack periods and adapt the resources accordingly.

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Full text: content.pdf (247,259 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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Yaqub Rafiq, Martin Beck, Neill Hughes

INTERACTIVE VISUALISATION AS A POWERFUL DECISION SUPPORT TOOL FOR CONCEPTUAL DESIGN

Abstract: Recent advances in evolutionary computation (EC) have made it possible for researchers to develop decision support tools that to some degree assist designers in decision making. Some of the difficulties with the EC are that they generate a population of alternative solutions to choose from and they are generated in a ‘black box’ mode, where there is little or no user interaction. The research presented in this paper is using an interactive visualisation tool that allows designers to conduct a human-led exploration of the solution space that has been generated by the EC. Multi-disciplinary design team members can interact independently with the system to explore and identify regions of the solution space which best meet their disciplinary objectives. The visualisation tools also allow them to find a common framework for multi-disciplinary design. This research then post-processes the data inside the region of the agreed framework, using a Pareto algorithm, to isolate non-dominated solutions for selection purposes.

Keywords: Evolutionary computation, Visualisation, Conceptual design, Decision making.

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Full text: content.pdf (488,561 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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Yaqub Rafiq, Martin Beck, Pieter De Wilde

Interactive visualisation as a tool for interpreting building thermal simulation results

Abstract: During building design there is a growing need to reduce energy usage whilst maintaining the comfort of the occupants. The latter is referred to as ‘thermal comfort’ and can be measured by the extent that the internal tem-perature of the building does not exceed a specified comfort level. Traditionally these two measures of building per-formance are seen as a trade off. Moreover, energy efficient building design is a complex process involving a large number of design variables each of which differentially affect both energy usage and thermal comfort. There is a vast search space to be traversed to find an optimal set of potentially good designs. This coupled with computationally ex-pensive building performance simulation software leads to a problem which is potentially intractable. In the past the authors have used the Interactive Visualisation Clustered Genetic Algorithms (IVCGA) to address some of the com-plexities of multi-disciplinary building design problems. The aim of this paper is to apply the IVCGA to allow the build-ing designer (physicist) to: Firstly discover a set of potential design solutions which meet the design objectives of mini-mal energy usage and maximal thermal comfort individually; Secondly discover a set of potential design solutions which are common to all objectives (mutually inclusive region); Thirdly present a means to understand the impact that particular design variables have upon each objective.

Keywords: genetic algorithms, visualisation, design, thermal simulation

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Full text: content.pdf (1,085,720 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Yum K-K, Drogemuller R

Managing dynamic life-cycle-dependent buildingobjects in a distributed computing environment

Abstract: Building and construction business processes involve various stakeholders located indifferent locations over the life cycle stages of buildings. In order to develop anyautomated solutions for improving these processes, there is a need to develop a flexibleframework that can deal with two important issues:(a) common data for sharing and access across networked computers over time;(b) management of data for the protection of rightful access and for the reduction ofinformation overloading.While there had been many attempts in the past to provide "logical" industry informationframeworks for integration, they proved to be difficult for a "fragmented" industry like theconstruction industry to adopt. For any integration framework to be useful for collectiveimplementation, this paper argues that the AEC (Architecture, Engineering andConstruction) business/enterprise views should be captured in an open interoperablearchitecture. The gist of the business/enterprise view point is that users can play variousroles (owner/operator, architects, etc.) at various life cycle stages (briefing, conceptualdesign, detail design, construction, operation, etc.); and through these roles, users canconnect to various building model servers and various software tools. Embedded in thisbusiness model is a simple and yet powerful threaded relationship "users - business rolesand life cycle stages - tools and data". It is powerful because it supports a generic datamanagement regime: users can select various permissible roles in various life cycle stagesto access legitimate tools and data within various building model servers. It is simplebecause it is compatible with today's network operating system login procedures and thepassword protection mechanism of files and folders. As people, end users and developersalike are familiar with the basic paradigm of "data manipulation through software tools".The above two features of the business view reinforce each other for gradual acceptance bythe AEC industry. What is needed is a critical mass from an industry alliance to initiate afeasibility study of the interoperable architecture, its business views and other supportingview points (information views, engineering views and technical views) for a quickdemonstration.This paper also presents some usage scenarios demonstrating how a user logs on as adesigner and connects to a design tool accessing data objects in a building model server.

Keywords: Modeling methodologies and technologies; discipline/phase specific models; interoperablearchitectures, business models, information models.

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Full text: content.pdf (84,310 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1997 (browse)
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Zarli A, Richaud O, Buckley E

Requirements, barriers and trends in advanced technologies for the large scale engineering uptake

Abstract: Corporations are today becoming largely distributed, and deeply founded on networking technology allowing to share and access information in different locations. In the same time, information systems have become the spinal chord of the modern enterprise, appropriate information tools satisfying fast reactive business requirements and offering a strategic corporate advantage. One of the main issues now is to ensure that the vital information, for which the virtual enterprise has a special dependency, is easily accessed and manipulated by multiple actor-oriented applications, thereby satisfying the need for improved customer service, on-time delivery, quality management and project co-ordination. With the popularity of the Web and its use in productive industry environments, the coupling of suppliers, manufacturers, and customers seems an attractive and reachable goal. Applications are requested to authorise employees, business partners and customers to access critical data from their desktop anywhere in the world over the Internet, supporting the browsing of data and documents contained in large electronic vaults by connecting to the server from any supported WEB browser client, provided they have appropriate access privilege. This paper aims at identifying, with a focus on the Building Construction sector, the current major requirements and barriers along with the possible use of new standard based technology in order to foster a better industrial exploitation of the large information sources located both on the WEB and in enterprises databases accessible through the WEB. Needs can be: * End-user and process oriented needs, like information modelling, persistent and coherent data storing, data exchange and distribution, availability and interoperability issues, concurrent access, security (i.e. data protection and confidentiality levels configuration), uniform access to any type of databases, uniform presentation on client side (i.e. not from any tool-oriented point of view), coupling of WEB data with internal corporate information, etc. * Needs in terms of computer-based systems, as open architecture, scalability, reusable components, integration of legacy systems, flexibility, and so on. Despite advances in computer technology providing more reliable and relevant mechanisms and tools for information management in the large, companies still deal with intricate and non flexible corporate information systems, with an increasing complexity in software development and use. To mask this complexity, we promote the concept of business objects (BO), which are software components encapsulating business rules and aiming at providing secure sophisticated access to diverse electronic content and applications. BO (*) are defined as components of the information system representing the enterprise business model, and are to be promising enablers to build information systems meeting end users and customers requirements, thus revealing critical to the success of the enterprise. BO will be managed in the WONDA (**) project, which aims at extending the infrastructure and services of current wide area networks towards a broader industrial and commercial usage, for the deployment of the information and communication infrastructure in the industry. WONDA will be a framework of open and interchangeable BO enabling configurability according to business solutions. It will offer an industry-wide and enterprise-wide framework for the development of WEB solutions to construction industry business needs, thus turning the WEB into a viable infrastructure for industrial manufacturing and commerce.

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Full text: content.pdf (86,086 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.commerce (0.041943) class.collaboration (0.031481) class.strategies (0.021536)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Zhuohua Huang and Aizhu Ren

A BIM Based Collaboration Platform for Data Transmitting in Building Design

Abstract: BIM (Building Information Modelling) has gradually been accepted and applied by the Chinese engineers. In the meantime, the BIM software which suits the Chinese design process and satisfies the Chinese design codes have not been developed sufficiently. To meet the requirements of BIM based collaboration platform for fluent data transmitting in building design process which suits the Chinese building design practice, this paper presents the solutions on the development of a BIM based collaboration platform. 4-layer architecture is employed to make the function of each part of the collaboration platform clearer; a 3D space for BIM models with version information is created to record the model history and allow engineers to check the version difference; the authorization and certification managing algorithms are designed to ensure an ordered work status on the collaboration platform; the lock-switches and dividing of work sets are developed to solve the object conflict problems; message sending and receiving mechanism are formulated to get fluent communications among the users who are working on the same building project. A protocol of the collaboration platform has been developed on these solutions and shows the study results.

Keywords: BIM, Collaboration Platform, Building Design, System Architecture

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0222

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Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Zouein P P, M ASCE A, Shedid D

ISSP: integrated schedule and space planner

Abstract: This paper presents the ISSP system for activity scheduling and site layout planning under spatial constraints. The importance of tying schedule and layout data has been established and dealt with extensively in the literature. Many decision-support tools were developed to assist planners in space scheduling but these were limited to providing the user with a platform that ties spatial and temporal data in the project and left it up to the user to decide on positions of resources and schedule adjustments to solve spatial conflicts that may arise in the process of constructing site layouts over time. The ISSP system, presented here, provides a graphical user-interactive interface with underlying layout and scheduling algorithms that construct feasible layout and schedule solutions under 2-dimensional spatial constraints between resources. The underlying algorithms optimize positions of resources by minimizing handling and rehandling costs of these on site. ISSP can also be integrated with existing scheduling and layout planning decisionsupport tools to enable users to override the system's decisions to reach "usersatisfycing" solutions.

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Full text: content.pdf (118,997 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.035166) class.economic (0.006049) class.strategies (0.005587)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


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