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A.V. Hore, R.P. West

CITAX: A COLLABORATIVE ICT STANDARDS MODEL FOR THE IRISH CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

Abstract: The Irish construction industry is facing a series of fundamental challenges that is affecting every player in the AEC lifecycle, from architects to engineers to quantity surveyors to owners to tenants. Despite technological advances in recent years, the Irish construction industry lags behind other industries in respect to ICT investments. Although there is a pressing need for innovation, existing procurement and tendering procedures in Ireland largely discourage new ideas and put further pressure on thin margins that characterise the competitiveness of the construction sector. The low level of inter-company ICT connectivity reflects the general fragmented and adversarial nature of the Irish construction industry, where the absence of dominant players has precluded the imposition of de facto inter-company ICT standards, as has been the case in the retail supermarket sector. This paper will present the results of a two-year research project which sought to demonstrate that, by the adoption of readily available ICT tools, particular business processes in construction could be dramatically improved. The paper goes on to describe the opportunities and challenges that have arisen as the project draws to a close. It will, in particular, focus on the introduction of ICT standards within the Irish construction industry. The ultimate goal is not only to have ICT standards in place, but also to provide the impetus to ensure that as many stakeholders as possible use them. How this might be achieved is also part of the project and its success will be judged by the extent of the adoption of the standard by the industry.

Keywords: Construction, ICT standards, re-engineering

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Full text: content.pdf (170,868 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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AD Dawson & N Pham

Process Complexity and Cultural Baggage - Barriers to Change

Abstract: Recent research at Deakin University in Australia has focused on developing a highly detailed understanding of current organisational interactions and information flows in the construction industry. This is leading to the development of a detailed process model which is being tested against a field study construction project. The field study reveals highly complex information flows and interdependencies between stakeholders such as designers, project managers, clients, contractors, subcontractors and suppliers. This, combined with the results from a recent project identifying inhibitors to the take up of IT in the construction industry undertaken by the IAI-Australasian Chapter allow conclusions to be drawn as to whether the current construction industry structure lends itself to increased levels of ICT or whether fundamental cultural changes are required before further beneficial ICT implementation is able to be achieved.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,382,166 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Alain Zarli, Eric Pascual, Daniel Cheung

Information and Communication Technology for Intelligent and Integrated Controls in Buildings: Current Developments and Future Research

Abstract: A common and acknowledged vision today is the one that, in the future, buildings, along with their components, equipments, and their environment will communicate and be able to provide information on their status ubiquitously. This real-time available information will be interoperable via common protocols for holistic automation & control. The whole building will be supervised by intelligent systems, able to combine information from all connected devices, from the Internet or from energy service providers in order to efficiently control HVAC (heating & cooling), lighting, and hot water systems along with energy production, storage and consumption devices inside the building, taking into account the users' needs and wishes. In such a context, ICT is recognised as key for empowering people in the (built) universe in which they live, with smart e-metering and new smart e-devices – as well as becoming fully pervasive in the future optimization of energy in the built environment - where “Energy-efficient smart buildings” are to be buildings which contain systems that manage information for an optimal operation of building energy flows over the whole building lifecycle.In such a context, CSTB has developed an open framework for data collection and processing, to be installed in any built environment. It supports networked heterogeneous sensors and actuators (with appropriate communication protocols technology), allows assembling various “business” functions (with easy evolution and extension capability thanks to a concept of service composition and event-driven management between modules), can accommodate any hardware platform constraint (memory, computing power), and can be executed in any environments supporting a Java SE implementation. The framework is itself based on an OSGi platform. The notion of “sensor” is to be considered in a comprehensive way: physical sensor (analogic or logic), complex sub-system or meta-sensor (e.g. Agilent data acquisition system or alike), or even external services (e.g. getting weather data via the Internet). Fields of applications are energy-efficiency in the built environment, but also Ambient-Assisted Living (AAL), internal air quality assessment, collection of data related to inhabitants behaviours, etc..The REEB coordination action (European strategic research roadmap to ICT enabled Energy-Efficiency in Buildings and construction), as a European R&D technology roadmap initiative (achieved in the context of an EC-funded Coordinated Action - http://www.ict-reeb.eu) has identified ICT contributions to the energy efficiency of buildings mainly via improvement (and corresponding RTD) in integrated design (and indeed ICT tools for Energy-Efficient design and production management), integrated and intelligent control, user awareness and decision support to various stakeholders throughout the whole life of buildings, energy management and trading, and integration technologies. As far as the integrated / intelligent control field is concerned, REEB has fundamentally identified the following areas for future investigation:• automation & control: system concepts, intelligent HVAC, smart lighting, ICT for micro-generation & storage systems, predictive control;• monitoring: instrumentation: smart metering;• quality of service: improved diagnostics, secure communications;• wireless sensor networks: hardware, operating systems, network design.The paper will first introduce to expectations, requirements and potential future scenarios for ICT to support integrated and optimised control in future so-called smart buildings. It will then introduce to the current trend of developments at CSTB in this area, and will present the CSTBox as a tool federating and/or complementing functions (potentially relying on already installed systems) in the built environment. After a short presentation of the REEB project, the paper will follow up with exhibiting the outcome of the REEB project in terms of roadmapping RTD activities in this technological field, also providing with a first insight of their potential impact in the future.Acknowledgement: the authors wish to thank the European Commission (DG INFSO) for its financial support to the REEB co-ordinated action. Moreover, the authors are also grateful to the REEB Consortium partners, namely ARUP, ACCIONA, CEA, LABEIN, TUD, UCC & VTT.

Keywords: Energy-efficient buildings, Intelligent and Integrated Control, REEB project, CSTBox framework, Data collection and storage

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Alexander J, Coble R, Crawford J, Drogemuller R, Leslie H, Newton P, Wilson B, Yum Kwok-Keung

Information and communication in construction : closing the loop

Abstract: Both nationally and internationally, the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) sector is highly fragmented : it is dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), the nature of information and knowledge can be dispersed among firms and organisations, and consortia are frequently formed from geographically dispersed firms. In recognition of the potential improvements to be gained through an integrated approach to project information used throughout the design, documentation, construction and operation processes, substantial research is underway in Australia to "close the loop" of information flows between designers and constructors. The paper will explore and discuss both the technology platform in terms of information and communications technology (mobile, high-speed and wide area networking linking the design and engineering offices with the construction site) and the information platform in terms of the content of communications between project stakeholders and the requisite information (traditional spatial as well as non-spatial data) of key concern to the stakeholders at various stages of the project lifecycle. The paradigm shift that has occurred over recent years from stand-alone personal computing (which reinforced fragmentation) to mobile and Wide Area networked computing now provides a platform capable of promoting integration, accessibility and co-operation within the sector with attendant gains in efficiency. A minimum requirement to achieve these gains is access to the right information (not just simple data) at the desired level of scale and detail for a particular stakeholder’s view - information which once collected can be stored and refined and then held for use elsewhere on the project without loss and without the need for subsequent re-entry. The information needs to be available quickly and easily, that is at the right time and in the right location for maximum benefit and project efficiency. Demonstration collaborative systems to support interactive Computer Aided Design and information exchange between project stakeholders such as architects, various engineers (electrical, hydaulic, mechanical, structural) and project managers, in an innovative collaborative manner have become available to bring dispersed project members together electronically. Such systems allow project members attached to a network to undertake a range of information access and exchange from simple e-mail; through on-site access to central project data sources via handheld computers; right through to the use of optional live (or pre-recorded) video to enhance collaboration. Using communications infrastructure, this functionality can be shared in various ways - in a corporate-wide environment between regional and/or interstate offices within a company, or in a consortium situation (between offices of a consortium working together on a specific construction project). The questions then arise as to how such systems fit into industry practice, and how the industry might adapt to embrace new opportunities provided by such technological advances. Ease of access to up-to-date, accurate project information for a range of project stakeholders is being extended through research in the US and Australia to close the loop between some of the stakeholders, and this will be discussed in detail in the paper. As well, the progress of industry-based support for a level of interoperability for building and construction information by organisations such as the International Alliance for Interoperability (IAI Australasian chapter) will also be discussed, plus the likely impact of the adoption of Industry Foundation Classes in the Australian building and construction industry in areas such as the design life for buildings based on durability of materials.

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Full text: content.pdf (719,511 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.057235) class.environment (0.023003) class.synthesis (0.022896)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Aleš Mrkela & Danijel Rebolj

Automated construction schedule creation using project information model

Abstract: In this paper we will propose a method of using a project information model (PIM) for creating construction schedules. In the paper we will briefly review current available scheduling possibilities, which use combination of BIM and scheduling software. We realized that BIM lacks user specific data that is vital for proper schedule creation and has, on the other hand, too complex structure and software tools for planning personnel to understand. Through the use of simple 3D model viewer, user specific data and BIM, we are proposing a novel approach of schedule estimation in construction, which we call project information model (PIM). PIM is the process that is based on internal logics, that creates the estimated schedule and resource usage. After the PIM process, the automatically created schedule is included in BIM and made available to project managers and other construction stakeholders, to coordinate and carry out activities.

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Full text: content.pdf (279,466 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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Alina Delgado, Frank DeTroyer

Process Model for Understanding Stakeholders Expectations in New Projects Development

Abstract: There is in construction a fundamental change in the making and delivering of successful new projects: the focus shifts towards value adding for projects based on a better understanding of stakeholders expectations. The process of modelling this new paradigm in construction will put “the creation of value in the eyes of the client”, central in the development of new projects. This paper describes a model that is designed to help stakeholders to achieve their expectations regarding urban and housing projects. The process of integrating different sub-models (costs and qualities) is examined and includes quality evaluations based on people’s preferences and willingness to pay. The model is developed through a methodological pluralism, identifying people-oriented variables. The different parts of the model are described, besides data requirements for each part. The development of the model was based on a case study carried out on the city of Guayaquil-Ecuador. Information obtained from a field work research was used for testing of the model. The study examines implications and limitations of the use of the model for inclusion of stakeholders. The paper concludes with findings regarding the identification of most preferred attributes by housing users and the use of alternatives methods to incorporated additional value to the projects, translated in more appealing profits for developers and the provision of better and affordable houses for the users.

Keywords: urban process model, stakeholders, value, profitability, affordability

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Full text: content.pdf (295,936 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Anumba Chimay

Industry uptake of construction IT innovations - key elements of a proactive strategy

Abstract: There is general agreement that the construction industry's uptake of innovations in Construction IT is disappointing, particularly when considered in relation to the huge research effort and expenditure being invested in this field. This is of growing concern to research funding agencies, Construction IT researchers, and some industry practitioners, albeit for very different reasons. This paper examines some of the reasons for this low uptake of Construction IT innovations, drawing on examples of specific technologies and research projects, where appropriate. It highlights the need for partnerships and closer working arrangements between the key actors and stakeholders - researchers, funding agencies, software developers, end-users and industry managers. The paper outlines the key elements of a framework within which technology transfer from research to practice will thrive, and concludes with a review of several initiatives that seek to address the low uptake of Construction IT innovations.

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Full text: content.pdf (45,709 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.bestPractise (0.022337) class.education (0.014975) class.strategies (0.009723)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


B.H. Goh

Progression in IT adoption and stage of IT maturity in the construction sector of Singapore

Abstract: The IT maturity model, based on Nolan’s Stages of Growth Model, is applied to analyse the characteristics of IT users, IT facilitators and IT providers in relation to their respective degrees of awareness, degrees of application and degrees of integration. The objective is to assess and draw useful conclusions about the progression in IT adoption by the construction sector in Singapore. At the same time, it can help to determine the stage of IT development for this sector. The data used for the analysis includes information obtained from an industry-wide questionnaire survey followed by informal discussions with industry players, as well as a review of the relevant publications. Evidence shows that there is an increasing trend of companies improving their efficiency and productivity through using IT. There is also an increasing trend of education institutions promoting IT usage through providing training. And, catering to this, there is an emergence of software development by IT vendors. Going beyond, it is clear that stakeholders need to focus their attention on achieving integration of technology, process and people as the next stage of development. It is recommended that appropriate strategies be put in place.

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Full text: content.pdf (28,476 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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C Bogen, M Rashid, E W East

A Framework for Building Information Fusion

Abstract: Data reported by supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems is critical for evaluating the as-operated performance of a facility. Typically these systems are designed to support specific control domains, but facility performance analysis requires the fusion of data across these domains. Since a facility may have several disparate, closed-loop SCADA systems, resolution of data interoperability issues (heterogeneities) is a prerequisite to cross-domain data fusion. There are no general methods for resolving these heterogeneities in the context of a nonproprietary core building information model (BIM) format. This article describes how these standard data models are applied to a general framework for the integration of building information models and building sensor telemetry. Given the number of very large corporations, each with its own research agendas and proprietary products, and the large number of installed buildings, each with its own control systems, yet another control scheme or technology will not make an impact on improving this market. The authors propose solutions to these underlying data heterogeneities by adopting existing data standards and introducing new data schemas (only when necessary) based on consensus between industry, government, and academic stakeholders. The Industry Foundation Class (IFC) 2X4 controls domain is the foundation of the authors’ decomposition of SCADA systems as components, assemblies, and connections that relate to other objects in the facility. The Open Building Information eXchange (oBIX) provides the basis for the authors’ representation of raw telemetry streams that map to the underlying IFC model. The system concept described in this article is part of an effort that is expected to produce an Industry Foundation Class Model View Definition (MVD) for building SCADA systems, product type templates for building SCADA products, the architectural design of an integration platform, and the specification of common predictive and analytical functions for deriving usable intelligence from the integration framework.

Keywords: Smart Buildings, Data Fusion, Building Controls and Automation, Building Information Modeling (BIM), Industry Foundation Classes IFC

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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C Kasprzak, C Dubler, E Gannon, E Nulton

ALIGNING BIM WITH FM: STREAMLINING THE PROCESS FOR FUTURE PROJECTS ON THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY CAMPUSES

Abstract: A study performed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 2004 found that owners account for approximately $10.6 billion of the $15.8 billion total inadequate interoperability costs of U.S. capital facility projects in 2002. Because of these inefficiency costs, it becomes vital that information produced during the design and construction phases of a project be transferred into operations with maximum leverage to the end users. However, very few owners have defined these informational needs or developed an integration strategy into existing maintenance management systems. To increase operational efficiency, an organization must first develop an understanding of their operating systems, as well as identify how Building Information Modeling (BIM) will add value to their daily tasks.The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) has a unique opportunity to diversely implement BIM processes because not only does the University act as an owner, but also as designer and construction manager on the majority of projects. The struggle that PSU faces is one that is unique only to owners with a large, existing, multifaceted building inventory. This paper outlines the current initiative by the Office of Physical Plant (OPP), the asset manager at PSU, to develop an information exchange framework between BIM and FM applications to be used internally. Specific topics to be ascertained are: the research steps taken to develop a strategic implementation plan for information exchange process between project stakeholders and the OPP; an overview and gap analysis of the existing operations processes currently implemented; and a summary of the collaboration effort between vendors, project stakeholders and the OPP to develop this information integration. As a result of this research, PSU has been able to define owner operational requirements for future projects and develop a flexible integration framework to support additional BIM tasks and information exchanges.

Keywords: BIM, Facility Management, Owner, Operations

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Full text: content.pdf (236,201 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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