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A Mediavilla, A Romero, J Pérez,F J Mata

Energy efficiency assessment in urban environments using GIS

Abstract: Energy simulation tools are commonly used in building design processes. Their calculation methods are comprehensive and widely accepted. However, the increasing requirements imposed to comply with low emission urban scenarios demand a wider scope analysis, taking into account not only the building, but also the interactions between urban elements (buildings, green areas, urban lighting…). GIS technology seems suitable for this purpose, but current solutions do not include deep energy demand calculations. On the other hand, building simulation tools do not consider the city environment and terrain influence. To evaluate a district by manually adding single building simulations results is an overwhelming process, prone to errors and very time-consuming.In this scenario, urban planners demand Decision Support Systems that go beyond traditional building-scope simulation engines and consider both building and urban-level variables in order to assess the energy efficiency of the urban design.Aware of this issue, the platform presented in this paper fills this gap between building and city approaches. It consists of an ArcGIS customisation, implementing energy simulation models for radiation, energy demands, consumption, energy costs and CO2 emissions. The results are simulated and visualized at different levels (façades, buildings and city). Thus, it is possible to benchmark the district against a reference scenario and certify the sustainability of a district. It has been validated with a new urban development scenario in northern Spain.The platform seamlessly integrates CAD cartography, GIS geoprocessing and the calculation strength of excel sheets, enhanced with 3D energy mapping outputs which can be seen in Google Earth. It does not require deep technical knowledge, being suited for multicriteria analysis. Its modularity allows extending it with future extensions.

Keywords: GIS, energy efficiency, low carbon cities, urban planning, simulation

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Full text: content.pdf (228,375 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Brien M J O', Al-Biqami N

XML, flexibility and systems integration

Abstract: "O'Brien (1997) outlined the two primary ways in which data can be integrated. One invloves the establishment of a centralised data store that meets all the needs of a construction project; the other recognises the geographical and functional fragmentation of the industry and views data integration as a conceptual process. From a purely technical point of view the first is perhaps the easiest, but it fails to meet the organisational and economic demands of the construction industry. Thus the second approach is more likely to be adopted by the participants of that industry. The problem then becomes one of mapping the meta-data structures of one participant onto those of another. Various efforts at the development of standards have attempted to address this issue. However, standards can be both complex and inadequate. The complexity is a demand of the industry while the inadequacy stems from the impossibility of coping with every eventuality - a severe problem given the essential uniqueness of each building product. This is not to say that standards are not required, merely that their limitations are fully realised from the outset and that expectations are not raised to the point where disappointment sets in and they fall into disrepute. EDI is a perfectly good standard but has failed to make a great impact on the construction industry. The volume of application-to-application communications remains small. This paper argues that while standards such as EDI can form the backbone of data communications - and therefore provide a vehicle for data integration in the construction industry - they are insufficient to cope with the desired flexibility demanded by the industry. The paper then develops this idea by suggesting that something more is required, something flexible. Extensible markup language (XML) is a tool which can help provide the necessary flexibility. XML is a language which provides a common syntax for expressing the structure of data. While it can be seen as an extension of the commonly used Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) this fails to recognise that XML has uses beyond the creation of Web pages. In its broadest sense XML allows systems developers to define the structure of a document. Currently its main uses are for data interchange between humans and machines, but the ability to facility machine-machine interactions is the most exciting concept for construction industry systems. Now EDI is a perfectly good tool for such interactions but in the event of any new requirements the standards need to be extended. This is such a long process that by the time it is completed it is of no use to the original users. XML however provides a dynamic mechanism which can be adapted as required to meet the needs of the users. This is its great strength for the construction industry - an industry that is ""document-rich"". In effect by using XML to specify meta-data structures one overcomes the differences between the data structures of different trading partners. No longer will we require all parties to conform to the tramlines of a strictly enforced standard, but rather those parties will be able to exchange data merely by changing the XML description of their documents. Thus in conclusion this paper shows that the use of XML within the construction industry will facilitate data, and hence systems, integration. O'Brien, M.J. 1997. Integration at the limit:construction systems, International Journal of Construction Information Technology, Vol 5, No 1,pp 89-98."

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Full text: content.pdf (154,537 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.051918) class.standards (0.032166) class.software-software (0.030798)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Ercoskun K, Kanoglu A

Customer relationships management in AEC sector

Abstract: Quality is the major guide for enterprises in terms of competitive strength of organizations in the information age. While globalization increases its impact throughout the world, the term “Quality” expands its meaning and the cultural and social aspects of quality becomes the most important contributors of the product quality. The customer orientation of the finished product and after sales service is becoming vital in terms of marketing. Industrialized sectors had been providing solutions in that sense under the Total Quality Management (TQM) principles since the early 80’s. For the Architecture/Engineering/Construction (AEC) sector, several managerial tools and techniques has been adapted but these partial solutions do not perform well enough as they did success in other industrialized sectors. This is probably because the need for an enterprise-wide customer orientation infrastructure is not yet proposed. This paper discusses the early concepts about a “Customer Relationships Management” (CRM) model for the AEC sector which, CRM to be the foundation for TQM; issuing that CRM is the key enabler for any tool or technique towards quality and industrialization. .

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Full text: content.pdf (1,080,976 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2003 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


Heinisuo M, Karstila K, Pehrsson R

Product modelling and data exchange for constructional steelwork

Abstract: "The paper includes summaries of three national development projects, which all deal with product modelling and data exchange of structural steelwork. Two of the projects belong to Finnsteel technology program, one belongs to Vera technology program and both these programs are organized by TEKES of Finland. In all the three projects product data models applying ISO 10303-11 (EXPRESS) and product data exchange based on ISO 10303-21 have been used to define the models and to carry out the data exchange between organizations and between disciplines. The views to structural steelwork have been different in all the projects. The first project is called SteelBase, the second FST-EXPERT and the third FinnST-1. The largest project, SteelBase (three years, 28 companies) was focused to the data exchange between the steel designer and the steel product fabricator and to the education of the creator and the end user of the product data. The second project, FST-EXPERT was mainly focused to the product modelling and to the data exchange between geometrical modelling, structural analysis and cost estimation i.e data exchange within the organization but between disciplines. The third project, FinnST-1 is scoped to the structural steelwork data exchange between organizations generally. FinnST-1 project includes mapping between the CIMsteel Integration Standards from the CIMsteel Eureka project and the Industry Foundation Classes from the International Alliance for Interoperability. All the projects include much basic studies within the field of product modelling, some new findings and a lot of experience for the people involved with the projects. It is believed, that this experience is a good starting point to the new century with its challenges. The most essential results of the three projects are presented and summarized in the paper. Some results are e.g. (SteelBase) evaluation of possible STEP based product models for steel structures, basic data definitions needed for the data exchange between the designer and the fabricator, and the effect of that definition to the CIMsteel standard (from R1.1 to R2.0), mapping of product data following the needs of different organizations, and the importance of the education for these new things. In FST-EXPERT project it is shown, that the mapping with some ""intelligence"" between the geometrical model and the structural analysis (FEM) model can be a powerful tool if neutral data files are used for the data exchange. The power means here total independency of the CAD-program and the FEM-program and moreover in this case the cost estimation and strength check can be integrated to the design process applying neutral STEP-files. Finally, FinnST-1 project brings all the work done in the other projects to the use of all the organizations involved into the building project. Also, the possibilities to perform the mapping between STEP-models are new information."

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Full text: content.pdf (502,162 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.040417) class.software-software (0.035655) class.represent (0.025541)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Ido, Shun; Wakita, Wataru

A Proposal of Free Form Modeling System with Force Feed-back Based on the Strength of Materials

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Series: convr:2006 (browse)
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Kazuhisa Niwa, Ichizou Mikami

Prediction of ultimate strength of steel orthogonally stiffened plates subjected to compression using neural network system -

Abstract: A neural network system has been developed for predicting ultimate strength of orthogonally stiffened plates subjected to uniaxial compression. The system learned many experimental results with respect to load carrying capacity of steel stiffened plates, which were collected by the authors throughout the world. The system can accurately infer ultimate strength for all the learning cases. The system will be able to simulate experiments for the various cases.

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Full text: content.pdf ( bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: ecce:1997 (browse)
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Kiiski M

Product model based software for structural design

Abstract: Tekla Oy is developing a software package called Xbuild for the design and detailing of steel and concrete structures. The development focuses on two main areas: steel structure design and design of reinforced concrete structures. Accordingly, Xbuild consists of two main parts: Xsteel and Xconcrete software modules. The basic idea behind the Xbuild is to build a logical product model of the steel concrete structure. This product model is stored in a relational database and it is created by using sophisticated interactive 3D-modelling tools. All documentation needed for the manufacture and construction of the structure - drawings, material lists, NC-preprocessor files - can then be produced from the product model. Xsteel includes modelling tools for beams, columns, connections, plates, weldings, bolts and other components of a steel structure. Most of the standard components used in Finland and other European countries are stored in component libraries such as profile, connection and bolt libraries. The modelling is object-oriented, which makes the model "intelligent". Every component in the structure is an object in the product model database and objects can be connected to each other by certain rules. In practise this means that for instance when a beam is being moved, the adjoining joints will follow. Every object is stored in the database only once, which ensures the coherency of the database in all situations. The 3D-model, drawings and lists are just "views" to the database - all design modifications can only be made in the model. This way the user can be sure that all documentation of the model is always up to date. Xconcrete is based on the same principles as Xsteel. The main difference is that Xconcrete can also handle the reinforcement bars in an intelligent way by utilizing object-oriented techniques. The database structure of Xsteel and Xconcrete is relational. The contents of the database can be written out in any format specified by the user. This enables data transfer between Xbuild and any other product model based software. It is also possible to link other applications, such as strength analysis and dimensioning, production planning and cost calculation, to Xsteel by using an open linking inter- face. In addition to this, the Xbuild software modules include tools for creating user specified macros - a feature that enables users to develop own Xbuild "applications". Today Xsteel is used by several engineering and steelwork companies in Finland as well as abroad. Xconcrete is still partially under development and will be completed in the near future. As the construction process, codes of praxis etc. differ a lot in different countries, the requirements set on the software vary quite much from one country to another. Therefore the software has to be easy to adapt into different design environments. The results gained by the users show that the product model based approach is radically improving the productivity and quality of the design work. On the other hand it is clear that using a sophisticated product model based design software sets new requirements for the designers and manufacturers of structures.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,306,080 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.bestPractise (0.036567) class.represent (0.028935) class.analysis (0.028125)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


Kilar V, Krstuloviè-Opara N

Seismic behavior of high-performance fiber reinforced composite frames

Abstract: The paper explores the possibilities to use a High-Performance Fiber Reinforced Concretes (HPFRCs) for design of seismic resistant cost-effective and durable buildings. Composite frame buildings are made through selective use of different HPFRCs: Slurry Infiltrated Mat Concrete (SIMCON), Slurry Infiltrated Fiber Concrete (SIFCON) and High Strength - Lightweight Aggregate Fiber Reinforced Concrete (HS-LWA FRC) which further minimizes dead and seismic loads. The first part of the paper briefly describes used HPFRCs and proposed composite building system consisted of composite columns, beams and specially designed fuses that connect the two. In the second part of the paper the results of the nonlinear static analysis of an isolated composite beam as well as of the nonlinear dynamic analysis of a whole four-story example composite building are presented. The response in terms of forcedisplacement relationships and rotational ductility factors as well as in terms of base shear, top displacements and global damage index histories is compared to the response of an identical classical four-story building made of reinforced concrete.

Keywords: fiber reinforced concrete, high performance fiber reinforced concrete, composite building structures, seismic behavior, frame structures, nonlinear analysis

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Series: itaec:2003 (browse)
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Koch C

The emergence of second generation knowledge management in engineering consulting

Abstract: Knowledge Management (KM) has matured in the sense that there is a widespread consensus that KM is much more than information systems. This contribution discusses how engineering consulting can transcend the first generation of relatively technical oriented support for knowledge management into integrating information systems and soft management tools such as organisation, training and office design. Utilising their respective strength in enabling knowledge production. Results from a study of an engineering consulting company, which has adopted a KM-strategy, are analysed. The first activities had a strong focus on IT. Later efforts however integrate the IT-component with a set of other tools. The experiences are discussed and two main conclusions drawn: First KM is enabled by a bundle of information systems as well as soft management tools. Second there is, in the bundled KM-strategies, still a relative overemphasis on "circumstantial" frames for knowledge production and too little focus on dynamics in knowledge producing processes, which in the engineering consulting company predominantly runs, in customer oriented projects, relatively decoupled from corporate management. The information system architecture might possibly need to continue to be bundled in a kind of forced best of breed strategy, since the construction industry operates with a strong element of temporary cooperation. Moreover it is characteristic that basic tools, such as spreadsheets, prove to be relatively powerful in supporting specific knowledge production. It is recom-mended to shape the second generation of knowledge management by focusing on communities of practices and their intersection in project pro-cesses. IT continues to play a balanced and synchronised role with other tools.

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Full text: content.pdf (72,102 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.017720) class.strategies (0.014695) class.software development (0.012093)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Mahmoud Reda Taha, Kyoung Kyu Choi, and Alaa Sherif

Predicting The Punching Shear Strength Of Interior Slab-Column Connections Using Fuzzy Systems

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Full text: content.pdf (713,730 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2006 (browse)
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