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Felix Hofmann, Volker Berkhahn

Adjusting a tool for collaborative planning to requirements in practice - realisation of a client-server architecture

Abstract: The planning of projects in building engineering is a complex process which is characterized by a dy-namic composition and many modifications. For a computer-aided and network-based cooperation a formal description of the planning process is necessary. In the research project “Relational Process Modelling in Cooperative Building Planning” a hierarchical process model was defined and divided into three parts: an organisation structure, a building structure and a process structure. Furthermore, we implemented a prototype graph modelling tool in Java to build up the process model dynamically. Our tool includes functions to instantaneously check the structural correctness of the graphs. The usage of critical path and Petri net methods is possible. In our transfer project “Verification of a Tool for Co-operative Planning in Practice”, we currently use a practice building project to test our process model and the prototype implementation. With many engineers working on the process model in collaboration, our implementation needs a client-server architecture to allow distributed work. This architecture comes along with different types of problems: simultaneous work demands a real-time status and thus Cli-ent-Callback, for instance through firewalls. The separation of model and view is difficult, and finally concurrent modi-fications have to be prevented. In this context, problems and solutions are discussed.

Keywords: project management, process modelling, network based collaboration, client-server architecture

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Full text: content.pdf (198,106 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Fopefoluwa Bademosi, Nathan Blinn and Raja R. A. Issa

Use of Augmented Reality Technology to Enhance Comprehension of Steel Structure Construction

Abstract: The future of the construction industry is highly dependent on the competence of new employees. Therefore, it is very important for new employees to enter the industry with the abilities required to resolve the intricate complications inherent in the construction process. However, inadequate exposure of Construction Management students to in-situ construction processes and procedures can be detrimental to their early success and ability to effectively solve problems. In this regard, students often lack comprehension of the complex spatial and temporal constraints which exist during the construction process, thus limiting their productivity. The goal of this study is to determine the value of advanced construction technologies for improving spatial-temporal comprehension of construction processes in construction management students. This study uses Augmented Reality (AR) and a layer of computer visualizations to simulate and enhance the environmental context and spatio-temporal constraints of steel structure erection to determine if learners are able to better comprehend the elements and hidden processes which exist during construction. The positive effects of AR are demonstrated in this study, warranting future research and consideration for construction management education.

Keywords: Augmented Reality, Construction Management, Education, Structural Steel, Construction Assemblies, Spatio-Temporal Constraints

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0178

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Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Fraile A, Del Rey I, Retana M P, Gomez M S, Alarcon E

Reliabilily of tunnel liners

Abstract: The possibility of application of structural reliability theory to the computation of the safety margins of excavated tunnels is presented. After a brief description of the existing procedures the limitations of the safety coefficients such as they are usually defined, the proposed limit states are precised as well as the random variables and the applied methodology. Also presented are simple examples, some of them based in actual cases, and to end, some conclusions are established the most important one being the probability of using the method to solve the inverse problem of identification

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Series: ecce:1997 (browse)
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Galjaard H C, Vos C J, Kunst S

EUROCADCRETE - an improved design exercise in reinforced concrete

Abstract: "The paper will present the results of 10 years of experience with a CAD/CAL reinforced concrete design exercise at Delft University of Technology. The exercise was developed in 1988 and 1989, implemented in 1989 for a test and in 1990 for regular use. Over 1200 students have used it since then. Students were asked to size and detail components of a simple reinforced concrete building, consisting out of columns, slabs and continuous beams at a workstation of the university CAD-Training Centre. The computer checked the results, gave feedback on these results, and let the students correct them until found satisfactory. Although the exercise was quite successful in the beginning, the success decreased in time because equipment and software got out-fashioned compared to other hard- and software students could use. Another drawback of the program was the very strict checking criteria used, which often tempted the students to solve the problem by ‘trial and error’. This didactic unwanted situation was also reason to improve the program. In 1999 the workstations have been removed and the exercise could not be continued any more. From several options available for the development of a new exercise, like upgrading the program or developing a complete new program, it was decided to adapt a commercially available program. In joint venture with a Software consultant, Matrix Software bv, a complete new exercise is being developed, tested and implemented. The exercise is based on the existing commercial software from this company for the design of concrete structures. Another reason to select this program for the development of the exercise is that it is already being used for structural analysis at the university. The program has several new features compared with the first one. It tries to implement some engineering judgement, by asking the student for answers based on rules of thumb, before computer-calculations are started. Furthermore the computer will not tell whether something is right or wrong according the code but it will show the result, leaving the judgement to the student. Another improvement will be that the exercise will contain some exercise in estimating and parameter-studies, asking for the effects of increase and decrease of sizes on the costs of a structure. The student can get help from the computer on different levels. Counting the amount and level of help being required and the time consumed may be used for a judgement. The program will use Eurocode 2 and will be made available for users who are interested all through Europe. The paper will not only describe the program, but will deal with the technical and educational results of the first implementation in spring 2000."

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Full text: content.pdf (311,657 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.024726) class.impact (0.022326) class.software development (0.019486)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Gehre A, Katranuschkov P

Human-centred knowledge-based model access service for engineers

Abstract: This paper presents the Model Access Service (MAS) developed in the EU ISTforCE project (IST-1999-11508). It uses the capabilities of product data technology to provide value added services in a human-centred, web-based collaboration environment. Along with standard services for product model access on model and object level, it encompasses also two advanced knowledge-based features: a Reasoning Agent and an Explanation Component. MAS is developed as a self-contained system that can be used in a variety of ways. In the ISTforCE framework, it is integrated with an external Product Data Server (PDS) and a Core Information Server (CIS) which provide the necessary infrastructure enabling the full functionality of MAS. Standard functionality for model level access is provided by using MAS as a central tool that enables generalised data exchange capabilities to all relevant product models in one or more construction projects, even if they are stored on different product data servers. This is done on the basis of user and account information retrieved from the CIS. To enable the use of the product models directly, MAS provides an API for generalised RPC-based model access on object level. One of the two advanced features of MAS is the integrated Reasoning Agent which is responsible for replying to sophisticated queries concerning a specific structural design model, extending the IFC2x core model. It allows clients to use AI planning methods remotely, to generate solution sequences that combine the computed single Solver items. The second advanced feature incorporated in the MAS is the Engineering Ontology layer. It enables the translation of IFC data to the vocabulary and semantics familiar to end users. This unique feature of the MAS, distinguishing it from most proposed product data services to date, is augmented by an Explanation Component which opens many of its functions to standard Web Browsers.

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Full text: content.pdf (518,767 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.045124) class.retrieve (0.038403) class.communication (0.021612)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Georg Suter

Topological Consistency Checking and Refinement of Network-Based Space Layouts

Abstract: Network-based space layouts are fine-grained models of architectural spaces. Potential application domains include but are not limited to building services. In previous work, a schema for network-based space layouts was introduced. The schema consists of two complementary subschemas: a layout element network and a geometry schema. A layout element network represents layout elements and topological relationships between them. It facilitates queries such as shortest path or nearest neighbor queries, which are useful, for example, in indoor navigation, lighting control, or climate control applications.This paper examines two related issues concerning the consistency of network-based space layouts. Addressing these issues completes the schema design and provides a robust foundation for the development of applications which use network-based space layouts.First, how can the consistency of a network-based space layout be checked, both with respect to itself and the represented architectural spaces? For example, the layout element network and geometry data associated with layout elements may be inconsistent, or certain layout elements may overlap although their real-world counterparts do not. Unfortunately, these inconsistencies may not be detected by evaluating structural constraints implied by the schema alone. Additional constraints are thus required. Constraints are defined which are based on topological relationships derived from geometry data.Second, if a network-based layout has been found to be inconsistent, how can it be converted to a consistent one? This conversion is referred to as refinement. It involves the evaluation of the aforementioned topological constraints to recreate the layout element network and certain layout element geometries. As a result, layout elements and relationships may be added, removed, or left unchanged.The paper concludes with a discussion of the applicability of the described topological constraints in other building models.

Keywords: Building information/product models, architectural space models, topological consistency

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Gerald Faschingbauer, Raimar J. Scherer

Model and sensor data management for geotechnical engineering application

Abstract: Monitoring is an actual problem in almost all disciplines of civil engineering. Especially in geotechnical engineering monitoring is very frequently applied, mainly during the construction phase. The recorded sensor data must be evaluated against the designed values. Also the models used for the forecasting of the behaviour of the investi-gated engineering structure have to be updated in consideration of the actual situation, i.e. the recorded sensor data. As in geotechnical engineering the actual situation itself and also the information about the soil properties will change several times during the construction phase, a high number of data, models and model versions will be investigated. All these data, models and model versions have to be managed. Therefore we propose an object-oriented framework to holistically model the building system, the engineering system, the sensor system, the workflow and the monitoring data in order to have a proper documentation of data, information and knowledge and to retrieve, combine and alternate any aspect of the overall system in a fast and controlled way. The different monitoring processes to be supported are identified and requirements for the development of an information system for monitoring are specified. A short applica-tion scenario should show the high complexity of the problem and emphasise the need of automation of the information management for monitoring.

Keywords: structural monitoring, model management, data and process modelling

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Full text: content.pdf (197,426 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Golabchi M

Development of an expert system to select the appropriate structural systems for large span structures

Abstract: The purpose of structural design is to create structures that respond to the requirements of function, aesthetics, serviceability, and constructability. In order to create, the designer must deal conceptually not only with a vast array of structural alternatives but also with the behaviour of these systems under varying load conditions. This paper introduces an interactive knowledge-based expert system for selection of appropriate structural systems for a particular project. The principles, methodology and implementation of the system are described. The system will be of particular use in the choice of the most effective structural solution for large span structures. The architectural demand and structural requirements of large span structures are explained. Knowledge-based expert systems, object-xiented developments and applications of expert systems in structural design are investigated. Related approaches and the most recent developed expert systems in this area are described and discussed. Finally. the approach adopted in the developed system and potential applications of the research are presented.

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Series: ecce:1997 (browse)
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Goran Sibenik and Iva Kovacic

Current State of Data Exchange Between Architectural and Structural Analysis Models - A Critical Review

Abstract: Open format data exchange is currently the most applicable and promising way of exchanging building data between architectural and structural analysis BIM models. Industry foundation classes (IFC) building data model is the only open and neutral data format supported by all leading software products for these two disciplines in the construction industry. However, numerous interoperability issues will have to be overcome before seamless data exchange is achieved. buildingSMART International as the organisation responsible for the development of this data model is at the forefront of developing standards related to the data exchange and to the schema itself. Additionally, the organisation certifies software solutions that support the export and/or import of data with IFC schema. All these parameters are closely analysed as actors and processes that influence the data exchange. The case study on which this research is based, demonstrates how interoperability problems occur regularly across all the certified software tools. In order to pinpoint the origin of these data exchange problems, they are located within the described interoperability parameters. In that way all difficulties arising in the process of implementing open exchange format before reaching the end user are documented.

Keywords: Data Exchange, Industry Foundation Classes, Architectural BIM, Structural BIM

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0299

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Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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H Hofmeyer, N ten Heggeler

Structural topologies by iterative multi-load dependent structural grammars and separate volume fraction topology optimisation

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Series: w78:2016 (browse)
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